Category Archives: Atheists Confronted

RESPONDING TO HARRY KROTO’S BRILLIANT RENOWNED ACADEMICS!!  Part 123 Pascal Robert Boyer is an American anthropologist of French origin, Washington University in St. Louis, “I was brought up in a culture where no one is religious and no one educated in particular is religious”

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FRANCIS SCHAEFFER ANALYZES ART AND CULTURE PART 156 John Hospers, this post includes portion of 6-2-94 letter from Hospers to me blasting Christian Evangelicalism, Part L (Featured artist is Michael Heizer )

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I sent a cassette tape of Adrian Rogers on Evolution to John Hospers in May of 1994 which was the 10th anniversary of Francis Schaeffer’s passing and I promptly received a typed two page response from Dr. John Hospers. Dr. Hospers had both read my letter and all the inserts plus listened to the whole sermon and had some very angry responses. If you would like to hear the sermon from Adrian Rogers and read the transcript then refer to my earlier post at this link.  Over the last few weeks I have posted  portions of Dr. Hospers’ letter and portions of the cassette tape that he listened to back in 1994, but today I want  to look at some other comments made on that cassette tape that John Hospers listened to and I will also post a few comments that Dr. Hospers made in that 2 page letter.

John Hospers on His Friendship with Ayn Rand

 

Conversations With Ayn Rand Part 1

by John Hospers

 

At the same time, she was an inspiration to me. It was inspiring to talk with someone to whom ideas so vitally mattered. By presenting intellectual challenges she set my intellectual fires crackling in a new way. And she was largely responsible for renewing my spirits. I never got bored with teaching — I always enjoyed contact with students — but I had become discouraged about its results. A class ends, I seldom hear from the students again, and a new crop comes in with all the same errors and unquestioned prejudices and assumptions as the one before. I suppose this was to be expected, but I was often discouraged by the lack of improvement. Doubtless I could have noticed some if I had been able to follow the members of the class after they had had my courses. And as for changing the world from its ignorance and lethargy, there seemed little hope of this occurring; all the combined efforts of high school and college teachers seemed to do little to prevent wars or create happiness or even ease the human situation very much.

So I was surprised when Ayn said, “Yours is the most important profession in the world.”

I responded, “Important, but not very influential.”

“That’s where you’re wrong,” she said. “You deal in ideas, and ideas rule the world.” (I seldom quote Ayn directly, and do so only when I clearly remember exactly what she said.)

I objected rather lamely that I didn’t see any ideas molding the world, in fact that the world seemed quite indifferent to ideas. But she persisted that it was indeed ideas that ruled the world — and that if good ideas did not come to the fore, bad ones would rule instead. Nature abhors a vacuum, and it is when good ideas are not taught that a Hitler or a Lenin can come in, filling the vacuum, trying to justify the use of force (for example) against entire classes of victims, when even a modest amount of teaching about human rights would have shifted the battle of ideas and perhaps carried the day. She reiterated that it was ideas — specifically the ideas underlying the American Revolution — that had created the greatness of America. Prosperity had been a consequence of the adoption of these ideas; it occurred when physical labor was animated by an economic theory by which the work could be productive.

We came back to the subject many times, and I began to notice a new energy in my teaching, a new bounce in my attitude, as if the intellectual life was not fruitless after all, and as if I might even make a bit of real difference in the world. Not much in the whole scheme of things, to be sure; but later, when ex-students would say to me, “My whole life has been changed by your course,” or “Something you said at the end of your lecture one day years ago changed me forever,” the words not only buoyed me up, but made me aware of a fearsome responsibility. I don’t know whether I ever communicated to Ayn this gradual change in my professional attitude. In a way, she had saved my life. I wondered, much later, whether she ever knew this.

She did not take kindly to any recommended change in her writing, not even a single word. I was strongly in sympathy with this. Even if a word was appropriate in what it meant, it might not fit into the rhythm of the sentence or the idiom of the passage. But there is one occasion on which she gave way to me nonetheless. She showed me the typescript of her forthcoming introduction to Victor Hugo’s novel 1793. I then proceeded to read certain passages of it aloud to her. By this means, I convinced her that some passages were unidiomatic, and that certain words hindered the ambience rather than helping it. She went along with all my recommended changes. “Boy, do you have a feeling for words,” she said glowingly as she made the changes.

She was convinced that on my forthcoming trip to California I should call on her Hollywood producer, Hal Wallis. “He’s a movie producer,” I said; “I would have nothing to say to him. And he’d be about as interested in me as in a hole in the ground.”

Not so, she said. She said I had no idea what an intellectual inferiority complex these people have. “To have a philosopher come to them would be an honor to them,” she insisted.

But I had no idea what I would say if I did go; I would probably stand there with a mouthful of teeth. (And I never did follow her suggestion.) “Well, maybe I could write the script for the movie Atlas Shrugged,” I said, more than half in jest.

But at once she put her foot down, though in good humor. “Nathaniel Branden is going to write the script for Atlas Shrugged,” she said decisively, and that was that.

She reserved her best-chosen curse words for her philosophical arch-enemy, Immanuel Kant. She considered him the ultimate altruist and collectivist. Though not a Kantian, I did not share her extreme view of him. I invited her to read his book on philosophy of law, with its defense of individual rights, and certain sections of hisMetaphysics of Morals in which he discussed duties to oneself. But it was all in vain. She insisted that these were only incidental details, but that the main thrust of Kant’s philosophy was profoundly evil. I did not consider him more altruistic than Christianity, and in some ways less so.

I did get her to acknowledge agreement, I think, with Kant’s Second Categorical Imperative, “Treat every person as an end, not as a means,” even though I tended to believe that the implications of this precept for ethical egoism might be ominous. And I told her that I thought she was also Kantian in her insistence on acting on principle(even though she and he didn’t share the same principles). I even thought that she shared some of his emphasis on universalizability: that if something is wrong for you to do it is also wrong for others (in similar circumstances), and that before acting one should consider the rule implied in one’s actions as it if were to become a universalrule of human conduct. She would praise impartiality of judgment as strongly as any Kantian. Sometimes, when we were discussing another view, such as existentialism, I would twit her, saying “You’re too Kantian to accept that, Ayn,” and she would smile and sometimes incline her head a bit, as if to admit the point before going on with the discussion.

The more I thought about it, the more I was convinced that the most fundamental distinction in practical ethics was between individualism and collectivism. Consider the American Civil War, I said. Assuming that it played a decisive role in eliminating slavery, wasn’t the result worth the loss of half a million lives? Yet it may well not have been worth it to the men who were drafted into the army to fight that war. The fact that it “helped the group” (the collective) may not have been much comfort to them.

Or consider the American Revolutionary War. It produced an enormous benefit, the founding of a free America, and was the most nearly bloodless of all major revolutions. Yet was it “worth it” to those who shed their blood fighting in the cause of independence? If you look at the group as a whole, the group was better off because those wars were fought; we’re glad that somebody did it. But if you look at theindividuals, it was a case of some individuals sacrificing their lives so that others could live in freedom and prosperity.

Ayn’s response was that no human life should be sacrificed against that person’s will. If a person believes a cause to be worth it, such as freedom from slavery or oppression, then he may willingly sacrifice his life for that cause; but no one should be forced to do so. The sacrifices must be made voluntarily.

But are you enlisting voluntarily if you do it because you’ll be drafted anyway later? I wondered. Perhaps voluntariness is a matter of degree. And what if the Germans are invading France and the Germans draft all their young men and the French don’t? Then the French would be overrun and perhaps enslaved. To escape this fate, France institutes the draft. But this example didn’t deter Ayn. Then France is overrun, she said. (The principle of voluntariness must not be violated.) And maybe the prospect that this was going to happen would be sufficient to make most Frenchmen voluntarily enlist.

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But then, I suggested, there is another problem: what is meant by “voluntary”?

You think about doing something, you deliberate, then do it. Nobody forces you or pressures you. Let’s take this as a paradigm case of voluntary action. On the other hand, someone with a loaded gun at your back says to you, “Your money or your life,” and you surrender your wallet. This is a case of coercion, and ordinarily we’d say you don’t give up your wallet voluntarily.

OK, now the problems begin. What exactly distinguished these cases? Some say that a voluntary act is one of which one can say that just before it one could have done otherwise. Thus the patellar reflex and other reflex actions are not voluntary; you can’t prevent the response.

But all our everyday actions are by that definition voluntary, including our response to the gunman: we could have, just before surrendering the wallet, decided not to surrender it. That was within our power. (Indeed, some would say, “Under the circumstances, you voluntarily chose to give up your money.”) The result of using thisdefinition is that practically all our acts are voluntary, even the robber example used as a paradigm case of not being voluntary. So, I said, let’s take another criterion for voluntariness. With the gunman you can still choose, but your choices are limited by his actions. (You can choose to give your life rather than your money, whereas without his intervention you would have kept both.) The gunman limits your choices. But so does the employer when he fires an employee, or lays him off because the factory is losing money. The employee’s choices are now more limited, limited by the employer’s actions.

But has the employer coerced him? Some would say yes, though he didn’t threaten the employee’s life as in the gunman case. Others would say no, he only limits the employee’s choices. Indeed, the rainfall that prevents you from going to the picnic also limits your choices as to what to do that day. Our choices are limited hundreds of times a day — limited by a wide variety of conditions, human and non-human. (Ouroptions are never limitless in any case.) So that definition won’t distinguish our two paradigm cases from each other; there is something in both cases to limit our choices.

Let’s try another, I persisted: an act is voluntary if it’s not forced. But now what exactly is the import of the verb “force”? Did he force you to give up your wallet, since you could have said no? Is the child whose parents say to him “Kill your pet dog or we’ll never feed you again” forced to kill his dog? Are you ever 100 percent forced, except when you are physically overpowered and literally can’t do anything else?

But very few acts are forced in this sense. When we say “He forced me to go with him,” we need not mean that he physically overpowered her, but rather that he threatened her or even that he “knew what buttons to push” to get her to do what he wanted. Shall we say in that case that she did his bidding voluntarily? No matter which definition we employ, there are cases that seem to slip between the cracks. Thus, saying “He did it voluntarily” doesn’t convey as clear a piece of information as most people think it does.

I concluded that when people say “He did it voluntarily” they usually have no idea of the complexities of meaning that can be plausibly attached to that word; they have no idea which fork in the road they would choose in deciding which meaning of several to take. They just blurt out the word. And that, I suggested, is what philosophicalanalysis is all about — by suggestion and example (“Would you say this is a case of X? No, then perhaps that would be?” etc.) to draw out the meaning behind the words — to pierce the veil of words so as to get a hold on those meanings. But the words constantly obscure this, often in a bewilderingly complex way. Yet it’s important to keep us from blurting out some quick and easy verbal formula. It’s not easy, andtakes a lot of practice; as Brahms said of his second piano concerto, “It’s not a piece for little girls.”

But there it is, the difficulties are there, not only for “voluntary” but for “free” and “caused” and “responsible” and “intentional” (to take a few from just one area of philosophy). These are especially dense philosophical thickets, which require lots of thankless untangling. Most people haven’t the heart or the will to go through with it.  I fear my little lecture was pretty much lost on Ayn. Her philosophical aspirations lay in an entirely different area. And in time the tension between these approaches to doing philosophy is what probably marked the beginning of the end for us.  — Click here for Part 2 –>

(Originally published in Liberty magazIne, 1987)

When most people talked philosophy with Ayn Rand, the relationship was student to teacher. But with Rand and John Hospers, it was philosopher to philosopher.

Here is a portion of Hospers’ June 2, 1994 letter to me: 

Just because I don’t accept your conclusions, do no infer that I have not given these matters deep and profound thought. Why do you ASSUME that I haven’t (which you do when you say “don’t you think it is time to think about spiritual things… etc..)? Why do you start out being so insulting?

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From Adrian Rogers’ LOVE WORTH FINDING website we find this devotion and some of these points were on the cassette tape that I sent to Dr. John Hospers:

The Decision To Become An Atheist

Why does someone decide to become an atheist? Perhaps they’ve been raised in a home where their parents are atheists. Perhaps they started out in life believing in God, but when they prayed about a situation and didn’t get the answer they wanted—or didn’t get it quickly enough—they said, “Well, there must not be a God after all.” Or they decided the problem of why God allows evil in the world is just too great to overcome.

In his message “No Other Way to Heaven except through Jesus,” Adrian Rogers presents the case for belief in God, the reasons many choose unbelief, and the clear, simple path one can take to know that first, there is a God, and then we can know Him personally.

It’s a comprehensive message, one that cannot be reduced to a short article, so we encourage you to hear it in its entirety on June 6-7, or in the broadcast archives on those dates or afterward at our website, www.lwf.org.

In this article, we take one aspect of that extensive message: looking at the path a person may take when they make the choice to become an atheist.

In Romans 1, Paul says (v. 16-20)

For I am not ashamed of the Gospel of Christ, for itis the power of God unto salvation to everyone that believeth, to the Jew first and also to the Greek, for therein is the righteousness of God revealed. From faith to faith, as it is written, “the just shall live by faith,” for the wrath of God is revealed from Heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men who hold the truth in unrighteousness, because that which may be known of God is manifest in them, for God hath showed it unto them, for the invisible things of Him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made,even His eternal power and godhead [and here’s the bottom line], so that they are without excuse.

Every Person Has Some Light

All people have been given have some light about the reality and existence of God. Paul makes that clear.

Imagine that the end of time has come, the time we call “the final judgment.” Standing before the throne are all those who’ve never heard the Gospel of Jesus Christ, as well as those who did hear and rejected it.

The indictment is given,
For the wrath of God is revealed from Heaven against all ungodliness of men who hold the truth in unrighteousness.”

Some say, “Your Honor, we’re not guilty! We never heard the Gospel; we never knew how to be saved. We’re innocent by reason of ignorance.”

Then the Apostle Paul will speak up. He’ll point out, “Your Honor, I will prove they’re not innocent because of ignorance or never had an equal chance. I call two witnesses to testify. Witness number one, take the stand. Give the court your name.”

He says, “My name is Creation.”
“You’re the witness that God exists?”
“Yes. Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them, for God hath showed it unto them, for the invisible things of Him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and godhead, so that they are without excuse” (Romans 1:19-20).

Creation testifies, “The Heavens declare the glory of God” Psalm 19:1.

If you have a creation, you have to have a Creator. The Bible says that the Creator “is clearly seen by the things that are made.” When I see a finely tuned piano, I know someone crafted and tuned it. When I see a watch running with precision, I know someone crafted it. When I see a building put together in symmetry, I say, “There is an architect.” When I see this mighty creation, I say, “Creator.” When I see order and system, I say, “Intelligence.” That’s the reason the Bible says, “The fool hath said in his heart, ‘There’s no God’” (Psalm 14:1).

Then Paul will call his second witness.

“My name is Conscience. For when the Gentiles [those who’ve never heard the Gospel], which have not the law,” [Old Testament law], “do by nature the things contained in the law, these having not the law are a law unto themselves, which show the work of the law written in their hearts; their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts the meanwhile accusing or else excusing one another.” Romans 2:14.

Two witnesses all people on earth must face: the outward, objective witness of creation and the inward, subjective witness of conscience. “Unto them” is creation, “in them” is conscience. T

Man has a built‑in knowledge of God. God made man to know, love, serve and have fellowship with Him forever. “Christ is that true light that lighteth every man that cometh into the world” (John 1:9).

Augustine said, “The soul of man is restless until it rests in God.” You cannot get around the two witnesses. Creation and conscience testify that no matter who you are or where you are, every person has some light.
Atheists are not in atheists because of intellectual problems. They’re atheists because of moral problems. It’s not a matter of intelligence.
Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools.” Romans 1:22

All of us have a God‑consciousness. It’s not a matter of intellectualism; it’s a matter of morality. “The fool hath said in his heart, ‘There is no God’” (Psalm 14:1).

An atheist is someone who is uncomfortable with the existence of God, so he says, “If I can get rid of this idea of God, I can get rid of this uncomfortable feeling.”

But he really doesn’t get rid of it—not down deep. He’s like a man who bought a new boomerang and killed himself trying to throw the old one away. The knowledge that God is just there, and the more you try to get rid of it, the more you know subconsciously God exists, because deep in your heart, conscience speaks.

Light Refused Increases Darkness

There is great danger in refusing the light we’ve been given.

They are without excuse, because when they knew God [by creation and conscience they knew God exists], they glorified Him not as God, neither were thankful, but became vain in their imaginations and their foolish heart wasdarkened.”

Darkened.
All mankind has some light. Light refused increases darkness.

You cannot simply take light or truth and put it in your pocket and say, “That’s very interesting, I’ll spend it someday if I need it.” No, when God gives you light, when creation and conscience speak to the heart of any individual anywhere on earth, if they do not glorify God, believe there is a God, and desire to know Him, they do not remain static. They begin to regress. And they lose even the light that they had. Their foolish heart will be darkened.

Watch carefully here. I pray you won’t miss what I’m about to say. In the Bible, the opposite of truth is not error, it is sin. Why does a person refuse truth? Because of the sin in his heart.

For the wrath of God is revealed from Heaven against all ungodlinessand unrighteousness of men who hold the truth in unrighteousness” (v. 18)

The word “hold” literally means to resist the truth; suppress, smother, hold back the truth. How do you hold back the truth? Not in error, but in unrighteousness.

Why Does A Person Not Believe In God?

Belief in God means they have to adjust their lifestyle. On the one hand, on one side is the person’s unrighteous lifestyle. On the other side are creation and conscience.  Creation and conscience tell him there’s a God. His lifestyle says, “If you admit that, you’re going to have to change how you’re living.”

He’s in a quandary between the two. If he turns toward acknowledging God, he turns from that lifestyle; but if he turns away from truth, he’s free to embrace his old lifestyle. So when he says, “I will resist the truth in unrighteousness,” and turns away, he gets farther from the truth, father from the light, into the darkness, and “his foolish heart is darkened.”

Unbelief Is the Baggage That Comes With Sin

This truth is never more graphically illustrated than in 2 Thessalonians 2:9-12, a most terrifying passage in the Bible. It speaks of the Antichrist who is coming:

Even him whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders and with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish because”—note—“they received not the love of the truth that they might be saved.”

Why do they perish?
For this cause God shall send them strong delusion.” (v. 11)

You say, “Hold it, Pastor! God doesn’t send anybody delusion.”  Go back and read verse 11. Why would God send them strong delusion? Verse 11 continues, “That they should believe a lie.”

It’s getting worse, isn’t it? God sends delusion “that they should believe a lie” What is the end result?  “…that they all might be damnedwho believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.” (v. 12)

There in that last phrase is your key: they had the truth, they saw it, yet they chose to “believe not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.”

They heard the truth! They knew the truth! They turned from the truth! They pleasure in their sin! They looked at God, they looked at their sin, and they chose their sin.

God responds, “All right. That’s what you want. You want your sin, and the baggage that comes with it is delusion, a lie, and damnation.”

How does this compute with the verse, “God is not willing that any should perish”?

He is not willing. But He also will not violate a person’s free will. I have often observed,

You are free to choose.
You are not free not to choose.
You are also not free to choose the consequences of your choice.

Again, the problem is not in the head. The problem is in the heart. One of the greatest promises in the Bible is John 7:17. People were wondering, “Who is Jesus Christ?” The Pharisees were testing Him, taunting Him, picking at Him. Jesus responded, “My doctrine is not Mine, but His who sent Me.” Then He threw out one of the greatest challenges in the Bible:

If any man will do His will, he shall know of the doctrine, whether it be of God or whether I speak of Myself,” in other words, “whether I’m just some megalomaniac, some peasant prophet who has a messianic complex, or if I have come from God.”

Do you will to do the will of God? If you do, and if you take up this challenge, then you will know.

 

How can I know the Bible is the Word of God? by Adrian Rogers

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Is the Bible historically accurate? Here are some of the posts I have done in the past on the subject: 1. The Babylonian Chronicleof Nebuchadnezzars Siege of Jerusalem2. Hezekiah’s Siloam Tunnel Inscription. 3. Taylor Prism (Sennacherib Hexagonal Prism)4. Biblical Cities Attested Archaeologically. 5. The Discovery of the Hittites6.Shishak Smiting His Captives7. Moabite Stone8Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III9A Verification of places in Gospel of John and Book of Acts., 9B Discovery of Ebla Tablets10. Cyrus Cylinder11. Puru “The lot of Yahali” 9th Century B.C.E.12. The Uzziah Tablet Inscription13. The Pilate Inscription14. Caiaphas Ossuary14 B Pontius Pilate Part 214c. Three greatest American Archaeologists moved to accept Bible’s accuracy through archaeology.

 The Bible and Archaeology – Is the Bible from God? (Kyle Butt)

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During the 1990′s I actually made it a practice to write famous atheists and scientists that were mentioned by Adrian Rogers and Francis Schaeffer and challenge them with the evidence for the Bible’s historicity and the claims of the gospel. Usually I would send them a cassette tape of Adrian Rogers’ messages “6 reasons I know the Bible is True,” “The Final Judgement,” “Who is Jesus?” and the message by Bill Elliff, “How to get a pure heart.”  I would also send them printed material from the works of Francis Schaeffer and a personal apologetic letter from me addressing some of the issues in their work. My second cassette tape that I sent to both Antony Flew and George Wald was Adrian Rogers’ sermon on evolution and here below you can watch that very sermon on You Tube.   Carl Sagan also took time to correspond with me about a year before he died. 

(Francis Schaeffer pictured below)

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Adrian Rogers pictured below

I have posted on Adrian Rogers’ messages on Evolution before but here is a complete message on it.

Evolution: Fact of Fiction? By Adrian Rogers

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Featured artist is Michael Heizer

Michael Heizer

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Michael Heizer
Born 1944 (age 71–72)
Berkeley, California
Nationality American
Education San Francisco Art Institute
Known for Land art, sculpture

Michael Heizer is a contemporary artist specializing in large-scale sculptures and earth art (or land art). He currently lives and works in Hiko, Nevada.[1]

Early life and education[edit]

Michael Heizer was born in Berkeley, California in 1944, the son of the distinguished University of California, Berkeley archaeologist Dr. Robert Heizer. He spent one year of high school in France.[2] He attended the San Francisco Art Institute (1963–64) and moved to New York City (1966), where he found a loft on Mercer Street in SoHo and began producing conventional, small-scale paintings and sculptures….

Work[edit]

In the late 1960s, Heizer left New York City for the deserts of California and Nevada, where he began to produce large-scale works that could not fit into a museum setting and could only possibly be displayed through photographs. In 1967, he completed North, East, South, West 1, which included several holes he dug in the Sierra Nevada, the holes akin to the shapes in his paintings.[2] In 1969, Heizer made the series Primitive dye paintings, in which bright big bags of white lime powder and concentrated aniline dyes were spread over the dry desert landscape, covering large areas that, when viewed from the air, formed amorphous, organic shapes.[2] Later that year, Heizer began to create “negative” sculptures by cutting directly into the earth.[1] Made in 1968, Heizer’s Nine Nevada Depressions series of pieces was located primarily on dry lakes throughout the state, comprising a 520-mile earthwork. Jean Dry Lake, south of Las Vegas, has totally absorbed Heizer’s “Rift 1”, a zig-zag trench dug into the lake surface in 1968, as the first of the Nine Nevada Depressions.[3] Dissipate consisted of five small trenches lined in wood, inserted into the playa at the Black Rock Desert.[4] Isolated Mass/Circumflex, the ninth piece, is a circular loop made in a dry lake bed surface at Massacre Dry Lake, near Vya, Nevada.[5] Heizer displaced 6 tons of earth, making a one-foot-wide trench, 120 feet long, with the loop being 12 feet in diameter. This culminated in the production of Double Negative in 1969 and 1970, a project for which he displaced 240,000 tons of rock in the Nevada desert, cutting two enormous trenches—each one 50-feet-deep and 30-feet-wide and together spanning 1,500 feet—at the eastern edge of Mormon Mesa near Overton, Nevada.[6]

Since then, Heizer has continued his exploration of earthworks. His Adjacent, Against, Upon (1976) juxtaposes three large granite slabs in different relationships to cast concrete forms; the 30-50 ton granite slabs were quarried in the Cascade Mountain Range and transported by barge and train to Myrtle Edwards Park.[7] For “Displaced/Replaced Mass” (1969/1977), later installed outside the Marina del Rey, California, home of Roy and Carol Doumani, he planted four granite boulders of different sizes from the High Sierra into lid-less concrete boxes in the earth so that the tops of the rocks are roughly level with the ground.[8] For a 1982 work at the former IBM Building in New York, Heizer sheared off the top of a large rock and cut grooves into the surface before setting it on supports hidden within a stainless steel structure. Designed as a fountain, the boulder appears to float over running water. He called it Levitated Mass, a title he would use for later works as well.[8] Commissioned by the president of the Ottawa Silica Company, the Effigy Tumuli earthwork in Illinois is composed of five abstract animal earthworks reclaiming the site of an abandoned surface coal mine along the Illinois River; the shapes (1983–85)—a frog, a water strider, a catfish, a turtle, and a snake—reflect the environment of the site, which overlooks the river.

Since the late 1990s, Heizer’s work has focused primarily on City, an enormous complex in the rural desert of Lincoln County, Nevada. His work on the project continues to this day, supported by the Dia Art Foundation through a grant from the Lannan Foundation. In 1970, Heizer hired G. Robert Deiro, a pilot from Las Vegas, to help him find the property.[2] In 1972, he acquired land in Garden Valley, near the border with Nye County, and began work on the first part. He finished Complex One in 1974, working mostly alone, using a paddle-wheel scraper a farmer lent him and following plans drawn up by seismic engineers.[9] While working on the first parts of the project, he gradually acquired three square miles, at $30 an acre; the last parcel was paid off in 1997.[2] City is not yet available to the public.

A campaign to have the Basin and Range area around City designated as a national monument to protect it from development took place, and a group of American museums, including the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA), the Museum of Modern Art, the Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston and the Walker Art Center, have joined together to draw public attention to a petition urging preservation of the area.[10][11] In July 2015, President Barack Obama signed a proclamation (using his authority under the Antiquities Act of 1906) creating the Basin and Range National Monument on 704,000 acres in Lincoln and Nye counties, an area including Heizer’s City.[12][13]

Heizer’s latest project, Levitated Mass (2012), was for LACMA. He tried to build it in 1969 with a smaller boulder, but the crane attempting to lift it snapped.[14] It was not until 2005 that he discovered an appropriate boulder, when a routine blast at Stone Valley Quarry in Riverside County, California, produced the piece he had imagined, and the project started coming together.[15] LACMA’s director Michael Govan first visited the site in 1994 as director of Dia:Beacon. Since then, Govan has become Heizer’s greatest ally in the art world, raising $10 million from private donors to realize Levitated Mass and serving as a spokesman for the artist.[8] It took eleven nights, from February 28 to March 10, 2012, to move the 340-ton rock from Jurupa Valley to the museum. The granite boulder (21.5 feet wide and 21.5 feet high) is installed atop a 456-foot-long trench, which allows people to walk under it. The long channel, descending to a depth of 15 feet, is encircled by a lozenge-shaped line of weathering steel embedded in the earth and rusting to a velvety brown. The installation is situated in a field of polished concrete slices, set at a slight angle between the Resnick Pavilion and Sixth Street.[16] Heizer opened the exhibit on June 24, 2012.[17] A feature documentary,[18] also named “Levitated Mass,” was directed and edited by the filmmaker Doug Pray. It details the making of the sculpture as it relates to Heizer’s career, while portraying the boulder’s 105-mile journey through Los Angeles and the public’s reaction to its installation. The film premiered at the Los Angeles Film Festival in June 2013 [19] and opened theatrically at the Landmark’s Nuart Theater in Los Angeles, CA on September 5, 2014.[20] Heizer’s most recent work is Tangential Circular Negative Line in Mauvoisin, Switzerland, commissioned by Fondation Air&Art directed by Jean Maurice Varone.

Heizer has also produced a number of abstract paintings, and his large-scale sculptures, often inspired by Native American forms, can be found in museums and public spaces worldwide.

Major permanent commissions[edit]

  • Tangential Circular Negative Line (2012), Mauvoisin, Switzerland, an Air&Art Foundation commission directed by Jean Maurice Varone

The Rock installation in LACMA’s backyard

Other works[edit]

Exhibitions[edit]

In 1968, Heizer was included in Earth Works, the influential group show at Virginia Dwan‘s gallery, and then in the Whitney Museum painting annual in 1969, where his contribution was a huge photograph of a dye painting in the desert.[9] For his first one-person show, at the Galerie Heiner Friedrich, Munich in 1969, he removed 1,000 tons of earth in a conical shape to create Munich Depression. In 1977, he was included in documenta 6, Kassel. Major exhibitions of his work have been staged at institutions such as the Museum Folkwang, Essen (1979), the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles (1984), and Fondazione Prada, Milan (1996).[22]

Homages[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jump up to:a b Michael Heizer National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Michael Kimmelman (December 12, 1999), A Sculptor’s Colossus of the Desert New York Times.
  3. Jump up^ Michael Heizer, “Rift 1” (1968-72) Center for Land Use Interpretation, Los Angeles.
  4. Jump up^ Michael Heizer, Dissipate (1968-72) Center for Land Use Interpretation, Los Angeles.
  5. Jump up^ Michael Heizer, Isolated Mass/Circumflex (#2) (1968-72) Center for Land Use Interpretation, Los Angeles.
  6. Jump up^ Christopher Knight (June 3, 2012), Art review: ‘Ends of the Earth’ brings Land art indoors Los Angeles Times.
  7. Jump up^ Michael Heizer, Adjacent, Against, Upon (1976) Seattle Public Art
  8. ^ Jump up to:a b c Jori Finkel (May 25, 2012), Michael Heizer’s calling is set in stone Los Angeles Times.
  9. ^ Jump up to:a b Michael Kimmelman (February 6, 2005), Art’s Last, Lonely Cowboy New York Times.
  10. Jump up^ Tennent, Scott (18 March 2015). “Protect Michael Heizer’s “City””. LACMA. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
  11. Jump up^ Burns, Charlotte (18 March 2015). “Museums unite in campaign to save massive land art project”. The Art Newspaper. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
  12. Jump up^ Steve Tetreault & Henry Brean, A done deal, Obama to create Basin and Range monument, Las Vegas Review-Journal (July 9, 2015).
  13. Jump up^ Mascaro, Lisa (December 20, 2016). “The artist and the senator: One built a desert masterpiece, the other a Nevada legacy”. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  14. Jump up^ Danielle Paquette (June 24, 2012), It’s opening day for Michael Heizer’s ‘Levitated Mass’ at LACMA Los Angeles Times.
  15. Jump up^ Ina Jaffe (June 20, 2012), 340 Tons Of Art: ‘Levitated Mass’ To Rock L.A. NPR.
  16. Jump up^ Christopher Knight (June 22, 2012), Review: LACMA’s new hunk ‘Levitated Mass’ has some substance Los Angeles Times.
  17. Jump up^ Deborah Vankin (September 22, 2011), LACMA set to roll away the stone Los Angeles Times.
  18. Jump up^ The Boulder (Doug Pray/Jamie Patricof)
  19. Jump up^ http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/review/levitated-mass-laff-review-573330
  20. Jump up^ BWW Movies News Desk
  21. Jump up^ Christopher Knight, A rock star is born–or is it?, Los Angeles Times, March 13, 2012
  22. Jump up^ Michael Heizer Dia Art Foundation.
  23. Jump up^ Aspen Art Museum, July 4, 2012, exhibition
  24. Jump up^ Observatoire du Land Art, Feb 29 – March 10, 2012, transatlantic action
  25. Jump up^ Greg Kucera Gallery http://www.gregkucera.com/_images/daws/daws_life-on-the-farm-heizer_web.jpg

External links[edit]

Michael Heizer arkin michael heizer dissipate 8 of nine nevada

Land art celebrating the work of michael heizer robert smithson and walter de maria

Early life and education

Michael Heizer Michael Heizer Effigy Tumuli Enviromental Art

Michael Heizer was born in Berkeley, California, in 1944, the son of the distinguished University of California, Berkeley archaeologist Dr. Robert Heizer. He spent a year in high school, in France. He attended the San Francisco Art Institute (1963–64) and moved to New York City (1966), where he found a loft on Mercer Street in SoHo and began producing conventional, small-scale paintings and sculptures.

Work

Michael Heizer 1960 MICHAEL HEIZER COMPLEX CITY Bronzo Reader

In the late 1960s, Heizer left New York City for the deserts of California and Nevada, where he began to produce large-scale works that could not fit into a museum setting, except perhaps in photographs. In 1967, he completed North, East, South, West 1, which included several holes he dug in the Sierra Nevada, the holes akin to the shapes in his paintings. In 1969, Heizer made the series Primitive dye paintings, in which bright big bags of white lime powder and concentrated aniline dyes were spread over the dry desert landscape, covering large areas that, when viewed from the air, formed amorphous, organic shapes. Later that year, Heizer began to create “negative” sculptures by cutting directly into the earth. Made in 1968, Heizer’s Nine Nevada Depressions series of pieces was located primarily on dry lakes throughout the state, comprising a 520-mile earthwork. Jean Dry Lake, south of Las Vegas, has totally absorbed Heizer’s “Rift 1”, a zig-zag trench dug into the lake surface in 1968, as the first of the Nine Nevada Depressions. Dissipate consisted of five small trenches lined in wood, inserted into the playa at the Black Rock Desert. Isolated Mass/Circumflex, the ninth piece, is a circular loop made in a dry lake bed surface at Massacre Dry Lake, near Vya, Nevada. Heizer displaced 6 tons of earth, making a one-foot-wide trench, 120 feet long, with the loop being 12 feet in diameter. This culminated in the production of Double Negative in 1969 and 1970, a project for which he displaced 240,000 tons of rock in the Nevada desert, cutting two enormous trenches—each one 50-feet-deep and 30-feet-wide and together spanning 1,500 feet—at the eastern edge of Mormon Mesa near Overton, Nevada.

Michael Heizer troublemakersthefilmcomwpcontentuploads20140

Since then, Heizer has continued his exploration of earthworks. His Adjacent, Against, Upon (1976) juxtaposes three large granite slabs in different relationships to cast concrete forms; the 30-50 ton granite slabs were quarried in the Cascade Mountain Range and transported by barge and train to Myrtle Edwards Park. For “Displaced/Replaced Mass” (1969/1977), later installed outside the Marina del Rey, California, home of Roy and Carol Doumani, he planted four granite boulders of different sizes from the High Sierra into lid-less concrete boxes in the earth so that the tops of the rocks are roughly level with the ground. For a 1982 work at the former IBM Building in New York, Heizer sheared off the top of a large rock and cut grooves into the surface before setting it on supports hidden within a stainless steel structure. Designed as a fountain, the boulder appears to float over running water. He called it Levitated Mass, a title he would use for later works as well. Commissioned by the president of the Ottawa Silica Company, the Effigy Tumuli earthwork in Illinois is composed of five abstract animal earthworks reclaiming the site of an abandoned surface coal mine along the Illinois River; the shapes (1983–85)—a frog, a water strider, a catfish, a turtle, and a snake—reflect the environment of the site, which overlooks the river.

Michael Heizer Artist Michael Heizer in the Nevada desert for 43 years

Since the late 1990s, Heizer’s work has focused primarily on City, an enormous complex in the rural desert of Lincoln County, Nevada. His work on the project continues to this day, supported by the Dia Art Foundation through a grant from the Lannan Foundation. In 1970, Heizer hired G. Robert Deiro, a pilot from Las Vegas, to help him find the property. In 1972, he acquired land in Garden Valley, near the border with Nye County, and began work on the first part. He finished Complex One in 1974, working mostly alone, using a paddle-wheel scraper a farmer lent him and following plans drawn up by seismic engineers. While working on the first parts of the project, he gradually acquired three square miles, at $30 an acre; the last parcel was paid off in 1997. City is not yet available to the public.

Michael Heizer seeds Michael Heizer Landart artist USA

A campaign to have the Basin and Range area around City designated as a national monument to protect it from development took place, and a group of American museums, including the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA), the Museum of Modern Art, the Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston and the Walker Art Center, have joined together to draw public attention to a petition urging preservation of the area. In July 2015, President Barack Obama signed a proclamation (using his authority under the Antiquities Act of 1906) creating the Basin and Range National Monument on 704,000 acres in Lincoln and Nye counties, an area including Heizer’s City.

Heizer’s latest project, Levitated Mass (2012), was for LACMA. He tried to build it in 1969 with a smaller boulder, but the crane attempting to lift it snapped. It was not until 2005 that he discovered an appropriate boulder, when a routine blast at Stone Valley Quarry in Riverside County, California, produced the piece he had imagined, and the project started coming together. LACMA’s director Michael Govan first visited the site in 1994 as director of Dia:Beacon. Since then, Govan has become Heizer’s greatest ally in the art world, raising $10 million from private donors to realize Levitated Mass and serving as a spokesman for the artist. It took eleven nights, from February 28 to March 10, 2012, to move the 340-ton rock from Jurupa Valley to the museum. The granite boulder (21.5 feet wide and 21.5 feet high) is installed atop a 456-foot-long trench, which allows people to walk under it. The long channel, descending to a depth of 15 feet, is encircled by a lozenge-shaped line of weathering steel embedded in the earth and rusting to a velvety brown. The installation is situated in a field of polished concrete slices, set at a slight angle between the Resnick Pavilion and Sixth Street. Heizer opened the exhibit on June 24, 2012. A documentary about the installation process has been made by the filmmaker Doug Pray and premiered at the Landmark’s Nuart Theater in Los Angeles, CA on September 5, 2014. His most recent work is Tangential Circular Negative Line in Mauvoisin, Switzerland, commissioned by Fondation Air&Art directed by Jean Maurice Varone.

Heizer has also produced a number of abstract paintings, and his large-scale sculptures, often inspired by Native American forms, can be found in museums and public spaces worldwide.

Major permanent commissions

 

  • Tangential Circular Negative Line (2012), Mauvoisin, Switzerland, an Air&Art Foundation commission directed by Jean Maurice Varone
  • Levitated Mass (2012), Resnick Pavilion North Lawn at LACMA (Los Angeles, California)
  • 45 Degrees, 90 Degrees, 180 Degrees (1984), Rice University (Houston, Texas)
  • North, East, South, West (1982), 5th and Flower Streets, Los Angeles

 

Other works

 

  • Isolated Mass/Circumflex (#2) (1968–72), Nine Nevada Depressions, Menil Collection (Houston, Texas)
  • Rift # 1 (1968–72; deteriorated), Nine Nevada Depressions, Massacre Dry Lake, Nevada
  • Windows and Matchdrops (1969), seven small rills in the floor in front of the Kunsthalle Dusseldorf entrance, Germany
  • Double Negative (1969–70), located near Overton, Nevada
  • City (1972, unfinished), Lincoln County, Nevada
  • Adjacent, Against, Upon (1976), Myrtle Edwards Park (Seattle, Washington)
  • This Equals That (1980), Michigan State Capitol Complex, Lansing, Michigan
  • North, East, South, West (1967/2002), Dia:Beacon, Beacon, New York

 

Exhibitions

In 1968, Heizer was included in Earth Works, the influential group show at Virginia Dwan’s gallery, and then in the Whitney Museum’s painting annual in 1969, where his contribution was a huge photograph of a dye painting in the desert. For his first one-person show, at the Galerie Heiner Friedrich, Munich, in 1969, he removed 1,000 tons of earth in a conical shape to create Munich Depression. In 1977, he was included in documenta 6, Kassel. Major exhibitions of his work have been staged at institutions such as the Museum Folkwang, Essen (1979), the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles (1984), and Fondazione Prada, Milan (1996).

Homages

 

  • Mungo Thomson, Levitating Mass (2012), Aspen, Colorado.
  • Regis Perray, 340 grammes deplaces… during Levitated Mass by Michael Heizer (2012), Nantes, France.
  • Jack Daws, Life on the Farm (Heizer), 2010

 

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Image result for michael heizer art

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RESPONDING TO HARRY KROTO’S BRILLIANT RENOWNED ACADEMICS!! Part 122 Haroon Ahmed, Physics Dept, Cambridge “I decided then as a thinking child that religion was not good for one”

 

On November 21, 2014 I received a letter from Nobel Laureate Harry Kroto and it said:

…Please click on this URL http://vimeo.com/26991975

and you will hear what far smarter people than I have to say on this matter. I agree with them.

Harry Kroto

Nick Gathergood, David-Birkett, Harry-Kroto

I have attempted to respond to all of Dr. Kroto’s friends arguments and I have posted my responses one per week for over a year now. Here are some of my earlier posts:

Arif Ahmed, Sir David AttenboroughMark Balaguer, Horace Barlow, Michael BatePatricia ChurchlandAaron CiechanoverNoam Chomsky,Alan DershowitzHubert Dreyfus, Bart Ehrman, Stephan FeuchtwangDavid Friend,  Riccardo GiacconiIvar Giaever , Roy GlauberRebecca GoldsteinDavid J. Gross,  Brian Greene, Susan GreenfieldStephen F Gudeman,  Alan Guth, Jonathan HaidtTheodor W. Hänsch, Brian Harrison,  Hermann HauserRoald Hoffmann,  Bruce HoodHerbert Huppert,  Gareth Stedman Jones, Steve JonesShelly KaganMichio Kaku,  Stuart Kauffman,  Lawrence KraussHarry Kroto, George LakoffElizabeth Loftus,  Alan MacfarlanePeter MillicanMarvin MinskyLeonard Mlodinow,  Yujin NagasawaAlva NoeDouglas Osheroff,  Jonathan Parry,  Saul PerlmutterHerman Philipse,  Carolyn PorcoRobert M. PriceLisa RandallLord Martin Rees,  Oliver Sacks, John SearleMarcus du SautoySimon SchafferJ. L. Schellenberg,   Lee Silver Peter Singer,  Walter Sinnott-ArmstrongRonald de Sousa, Victor StengerBarry Supple,   Leonard Susskind, Raymond TallisNeil deGrasse Tyson,  .Alexander Vilenkin, Sir John WalkerFrank WilczekSteven Weinberg, and  Lewis Wolpert,

Haroon Ahmed

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 Haroon Ahmed FREng[4] (born 2 March 1936), is a prominent British Pakistani scientist in the fields of microelectronics and electrical engineering. He is an Emeritus Professor of Microelectronics at the Cavendish Laboratory, the Physics Department of the University of Cambridge.[1][3][5][6][7][8][9][10]

Education[edit]

Ahmed was educated at St Patrick’s High School, Karachi, followed by an undergraduate degree at Imperial College London.[1] He went on to obtain his PhD in 1963[11] and his Doctor of Sciencedegrees in 1996 from the University of Cambridge.

Career[edit]

Ahmed was appointed a faculty member of the Engineering Department, Cambridge in 1963 and worked there for 20 years before moving to the Physics Department where he was promoted to Professor of Microelectronics and was the Head of the Microelectronics Research Centre until his retirement in 2003. He is a former Fellow, Director of Studies in Engineering, and Master of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and is now an Honorary Fellow.

Research[edit]

Ahmed has published a large number of papers in scientific and engineering research journals on microelectronics, micro and nanofabrication, electron and ion beam lithography, semiconductor single electron devices and related topics.[3][5][12]

He established a number of major collaborations between industry and the University including the Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory in the Microelectronics Research Centre. He is the author with P.J. Spreadbury of Electronics for Engineers (CUP 1973) and An Introduction to Physical Electronics with A.H.W. Beck (Elsevier, 1968, out of print). He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering in 1990.

He has served as a Syndic of Cambridge University Press, as Non-Executive Director of the Addenbrooke’s Hospital NHS Trust, as President of the Philosophical Society, as a member of the MacRobert Committee which awards a prize annually to the most innovative engineering company in the UK and is currently a member of the Development Board of Imperial College. He has also worked as a consultant to several major electronics industrial companies. He was elected a Fellow of Corpus Christi College in 1967, became Warden of Leckhampton (the College’s Graduate Campus) in 1993 and Master in 2000, succeeding Professor Sir Tony Wrigley and resigned in 2006 to advise the Government of Pakistan on Higher Education matters.

He was the College’s 48th Master since its foundation in 1352. In his time as Master the College celebrated its 650th anniversary, the Taylor Library project was implemented, the Conservation Centre for manuscripts was built and the project on the digital imaging of the College’s Parker collection was started.

Awards and nominations[edit]

In January 2014, Ahmed was nominated for the Science and Engineering award at the British Muslim Awards.[13]

Personal life[edit]

Among his other interests are golf and cricket.[citation needed]

In  the second video below in the 84th clip in this series are his words and  my response is below them. 

50 Renowned Academics Speaking About God (Part 1)

Another 50 Renowned Academics Speaking About God (Part 2)

A Further 50 Renowned Academics Speaking About God (Part 3)

 

 

Interview of Haroon Ahmed, Part 1

Uploaded on Feb 13, 2012

Haroon Ahmed interviewed by Alan Macfarlane 8th December 2009 on his life and work

All revenues to World Oral Literature Project

Interview of Haroon Ahmed, Part 2

Haroon Ahmed interviewed by Alan Macfarlane 8th December 2009

Below is a letter I wrote to Dr. Ahmed and in this letter I respond to his quote from You Tube:

 

March 27, 2016

Professor Haroon Ahmed, The Old Schools,

Dear Dr. Ahmed,

Since you an avid golfer I wanted to tell you a couple of my golf stories that I thought you would find interesting.

In 1977, two huge events made national news at the now titled “Danny Thomas Memphis Classic.” First, President Gerald Ford made a hole-in-one during Wednesday’s Celebrity Pro-Am. That event is now referred to as the “Shot Heard ‘Round the World.” Two days later, Al Geiberger shocked the golf world with his record low round of 59 on Friday of the tournament. The 13-under-par round still stands as a PGA TOUR record. (Chip Beck and David Duval have since tied the mark.)

Entertainer Danny Thomas cheers former President Gerald Ford’s hole-in-one at the Danny Thomas Memphis Classic at Colonial Country Club’s fifth hole on June 9, 1977.

I had the chance to hear the roar that came from the crowd that day that President Ford hit the hole in one (on hole #5 at Colonial Country Club in Cordova, TN). Just a few holes later I saw Danny Thomas walking around saying with slurred speech, :”This is the ball, this is the ball” while he held up a golf ball. I thought he was going to fall on me as he passed by.

 

Al Geiberger’s 59 in 1977

Danny Thomas Hugs Al Geiberger after famous 59 in 1979

__

Then just two days later I saw the last 5 holes of Al Geiberger’s 59. He was walking around with this silly grin on his face because almost every putt was going in.

I learned much from your in-depth interview with Dr. Alan MacFarlane. Since you have studied science all your life I thought you would be interested in the subject of this letter today and when I heard your interview with Dr. MacFarlane that  that prompted me to send you two CD’s today. Recently I had the opportunity to come across a very interesting article by Michael Polanyi, LIFE TRANSCENDING PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY, in the magazine CHEMICAL AND ENGINEERING NEWS, August 21, 1967, and I also got hold of a 1968 talk by Francis Schaeffer based on this article. Polanyi’s son John actually won the 1986 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. This article by Michael Polanyi concerns Francis Crick and James Watson and their discovery of DNA in 1953. Polanyi noted:

Mechanisms, whether man-made or morphological, are boundary conditions harnessing the laws of in
animate nature, being themselves irreducible to those laws. The pattern of organic bases in DNA which functions as a genetic code is a boundary condition irreducible to physics and chemistry. Further controlling principles of life may be represented as a hierarchy of boundary conditions extending, in the case of man, to consciousness and responsibility.

 

James Watson (1928-) and Francis Crick  (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004)

Michael Polanyi, FRS[1] (11 March 1891 – 22 February 1976)

John Charles Polanyi,  (born 23 January 1929)

I am sending you this two CD’s of this talk because I thought you may find it very interesting. It includes references to not only James D. Watson, and Francis Crick but also  Maurice Wilkins, Erwin Schrodinger, J.S. Haldane (his son was the famous J.B.S. Haldane), Peter Medawar, and Barry Commoner.

 

John Scott Haldane (2 May 1860 – 14/15 March 1936)

J. B. S. Haldane
J. B. S. Haldane.jpg

Haldane in 1914

(5 November 1892 – 1 December 1964)

Maurice Wilkins (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004)

Erwin Schrödinger (12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961)

Sir Peter Medawar ( 28 February 1915 – 2 October 1987)

Barry Commoner (May 28, 1917 – September 30, 2012)

In the You Tube video “A Further 50 Renowned Academics Speaking About God (Part 1),” you asserted at the 32 min mark in the interview: 

32:54:00 When I was in the refugee camp I asked my father why we were there and why were they trying to kill us; he told me these were riots between people of the Hindu religion and people of the Muslim religion, so the conflict was religious; I decided then as a thinking child that religion was not good for one; I abandoned it then; my mother was aware and scolded me sometimes, but my father had been completely honest with me and accepted that I would not have any religious belief after that; that has remained the case, although I have sat through many religious services; before becoming Master of Corpus Christi College I went to see the clerics in the College and talked about my lack of religious belief although strongly supported the right of others to hold them; one of them said, “Well, Master-Elect, if you are prepared to do your duty we will not hold that against you”; I was rather moved and thought that if they had that sort of trust in me I would go to Evensong; I was fortunate that I was married to a Vicar’s daughter; long before I went to Corpus I had learned a great deal about the Anglican faith; her father was at Christ’s and grandfather at Corpus Christi, and her great-grandfather, all became vicars, so I was very supportive of other people’s religious beliefs; when I went to Evensong I didn’t know the hymns but my wife knows them without even looking at the hymn book; so we went into Chapel and I read the lesson when asked to; I did it as my duty and some were constrained to say that I did it well; I was President of the Philosophical Society; I certainly don’t think that religion has been destroyed by science, and I wouldn’t dream of being critical about people’s religious beliefs; I have a great interest in cathedrals and I look with awe at them; they started to build them in the eleventh century, and what powerful forces had moved the people who then built these marvellous buildings; if you look at their history, they were built, torn down, built again, destroyed by fire or invaders, and yet there they rise above the sky; look at the mosques in Islamic countries; what wonderful buildings are created for the love of God; I just have a strong personal view that religion is not for me, and that religion taken to any extreme is very dangerous; however, my religious beliefs were coloured by the effect of Partition and have remained with me ever since; I have brought my children up to believe that they have to be extremely tolerant, to have strong principles. 

I am going to answer you in an indirect way. Today is Easter and sometimes a song will just minister to a person in a special way and I heard this song at church today and I wanted to share it with you. It is  called MAN OF SORROWS and it can be found on You Tube Man Of Sorrows – Hillsong Live (2013 Album Glorious Ruins) Worship Song with Lyrics and here are the lyrics:

“Man Of Sorrows”

Man of sorrows Lamb of God
By His own betrayed
The sin of man and wrath of God
Has been on Jesus laid

Silent as He stood accused
Beaten mocked and scorned
Bowing to the Father’s will
He took a crown of thorns

Oh that rugged cross
My salvation
Where Your love poured out over me
Now my soul cries out
Hallelujah
Praise and honour unto Thee

Sent of heaven God’s own Son
To purchase and redeem
And reconcile the very ones
Who nailed Him to that tree

Now my debt is paid
It is paid in full
By the precious blood
That my Jesus spilled

Now the curse of sin
Has no hold on me
Whom the Son sets free
Oh is free indeed

See the stone is rolled away
Behold the empty tomb
Hallelujah God be praised
He’s risen from the grave

We sang that song at our Easter service.

On Easter morning March 27, 2016 at FELLOWSHIP BIBLE CHURCH our teaching pastor Brandon Barnard delivered the message THIS CHANGES EVERYTHING based on I Corinthians chapter 15 and I wanted to share a portion of that sermon with you today.

This day is the day that changes everything. The resurrection changes everything and that is why we are gathered here today to celebrate the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ because it changes everything.

Some of you are going to be blown away by the opportunity before you this Easter morning because the resurrection of Jesus Christ stands at the very heart of Christianity. If what we we are gathered here to celebrate did not happen then people need to pity us as believers.  They need to feel sorry for you and me more than anyone on earth because we have set our hopes firmly on a lie.

But if the resurrection really did happen, then we need to repent and we need to believe in Jesus and we need to rejoice that we have hope in this life and the life to come. 

Paul wrote this to the believers in Corinth.

1 Corinthians 15:3-6, 13-21 English Standard Version (ESV)

3 For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the Scriptures, and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. Then he appeared to more than five hundred brothers at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have fallen asleep.

13 But if there is no resurrection of the dead, then not even Christ has been raised. 14 And if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is in vain and your faith is in vain. 15 We are even found to be misrepresenting God, because we testified about God that he raised Christ, whom he did not raise if it is true that the dead are not raised.16 For if the dead are not raised, not even Christ has been raised. 17 And if Christ has not been raised, your faith is futile and you are still in your sins. 18 Then those also who have fallen asleep in Christ have perished.19 If in Christ we have hope[a] in this life only, we are of all people most to be pitied.

20 But in fact Christ has been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep. 21 For as by a man came death, by a man has come also the resurrection of the dead.

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If Christ hasn’t been raised then these facts are true:

  1. PREACHING AND FAITH ARE IN VAIN.
  2. WE ARE FALSE WITNESSES
  3. WE ARE STILL IN OUR SINS.
  4. THOSE WHO DIED IN FAITH ARE STILL DEAD
  5. WE ARE TO BE PITIED MORE THAN ANYONE ELSE IN THE WORLD.

Verse 20 says, “but Christ has been raised!!! Therefore, these things are true:

  1. Our faith is significant, valuable and eternal.
  2. we are truth tellers!!
  3. we are forgiven of our sins.
  4. death is not our final stop.
  5. don’t pity us but join us in believing in Jesus Christ.

You said above that you are an agnostic. However, would you agree that if the Bible is correct in regards to history then Jesus did rise from the grave? Let’s take a closer look at evidence concerning the accuracy of the Bible.

I know that you highly respected Surgeon General C. Everett Koop and he co-authored with Francis Schaeffer the book WHATEVER HAPPENED TO THE HUMAN RACE? Below is a piece of evidence from that book.

 

  

Francis Schaeffer (30 January 1912 – 15 May 1984[1])  and his wife Edith  (November 3, 1914 – March 30, 2013)

C. Everett Koop, MD (October 14, 1916 – February 25, 2013) 13th Surgeon General of the United States

  

 

 

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Two things should be mentioned about the time of Moses in Old Testament history.

First, consider the archaeological evidence that relates to the period. True, it is not of the same explicitness that we have found, say, in relation to the existence of Ahab or Jehu or Jehoiakim. We have no inscription from Egypt which refers to Moses being taken out of the bulrushes and removed from the waterproof basket his mother had made him. But this does not mean that the Book of Exodus is a fictitious account, as some critics has suggested. Some say it is simply an idealized reading-back into history by the Jews under the later monarchy. There is not a reason why these “books of Moses,” as they are called, should not be treated as history, just as we have been forced to treat the Books of Kings and Chronicles dating 500 years later.

There is ample evidence about the building projects of the Egyptian kings, and the evidence we have fits well with Exodus. There are scenes of brick-making (for example, Theban Tomb 100 of Rekhmire). Contemporary parchments and papyri tell of production targets which had to be met. One speaks of a satisfied official report of his men as “making their quota of bricks daily” (Papyrus Anastasi III vso, p.3, in the British Museum. Also Louvre Leather Roll in the Louvre, Paris, col ii, mentions quotes of bricks and “taskmasters”). Actual bricks found show signs of straw which had to be mixed in with the clay, just as Exodus says. This matter of bricks and straw is further affirmed by the record that one despairing official complained, “There are no men to make bricks nor straw in my area.”

We know from contemporary discoveries that Semites were found at all levels of Egypt’s cosmopolitan society. (Brooklyn Museum, New York, no. 35, 1446. Papyrus Brooklyn). There is nothing strange therefore about Joseph’s becoming so important in the pharaoh’s court.

The store cities of Pithom and Raamses (Rameses) mentioned in Exodus 1:11 are well known in Egyptian inscriptions. Raamses was actually in the east-Delta capital, Pi-Ramses (near Goshen), where the Israelites would have had ample experience of agriculture. Thus, the references to agriculture found in the law of Moses would not have been strange to the Israelites even though they were in the desert at the time the law was given. Certainly there is no reason to say, as some critics do, that these sections on agriculture were an indication of a reading-back from a latter period when the Jews were settled in Canaan.

The form of the covenant made at Sinai has remarkable parallels with the covenant forms of other people at that time. (On covenants and parties to a treaty, the Louvre; and Treaty Tablet from Boghaz Koi (i.e., Hittite) in Turkey, Museum of Archaeology in Istanbul.) The covenant form at Sinai resembles just as the forms of letter writings of the first century after Christ (the types of introductions and greetings) are reflected in the letters of the apostles in the New Testament, it is not surprising to find the covenant form of the second millennium before Christ reflected in what occurred at Mount Sinai. God has always spoken to people within the culture of their time, which does not mean that God’s communication is limited by that culture. It is God’s communication but within the forms appropriate to the time.

The Pentateuch tells us that Moses led the Israelites up the east side of the Dead Sea after their long stay in the desert. There they encountered the hostile kingdom of Moab. We have firsthand evidence for the existence of this kingdom of Moab–contrary to what has been said by critical scholars who have denied the existence of Moab at this time. It can be found in a war scene from a temple at Luxor (Al Uqsor). This commemorates a victory by Ramses II over the Moabite nation at Batora (Luxor Temple, Egypt).

Also the definite presence of the Israelites in west Palestine (Canaan) no later than the end of the thirteenth century B.C. is attested by a victory stela of Pharaoh Merenptah (son and successor of Ramses II) to commemorate his victory over Libya (Israel Stela, Cairo Museum, no. 34025). In it he mentions his previous success in Canaan against Aschalon, Gize, Yenom, and Israel; hence there can be no doubt the nation of Israel was in existence at the latest by this time of approximately 1220 B.C. This is not to say it could not have been earlier, but it cannot be later than this date.

Christ came and laid his life down to die for our sins and there is evidence that indicates the Bible is true!!!!! Some 400 years before crucifixion was invented, both Israel’s King David and the prophet Zechariah described the Messiah’s death in words that perfectly depict that mode of execution. Further, they said that the body would be pierced and that none of the bones would be broken, contrary to customary procedure in cases of crucifixion (Psalm 22 and 34:20; Zechariah 12:10). Again, historians and New Testament writers confirm the fulfillment: Jesus of Nazareth died on a Roman cross, and his extraordinarily quick death eliminated the need for the usual breaking of bones. A spear was thrust into his side to verify that he was, indeed, dead.

Psalm 22 New American Standard Bible (NASB)

A Cry of Anguish and a Song of Praise.

For the choir director; upon [a]Aijeleth Hashshahar. A Psalm of David.

22 My God, my God, why have You forsaken me?
[b]Far from my deliverance are the words of my [c]groaning.
O my God, I cry by day, but You do not answer;
And by night, but [d]I have no rest.
But I am a worm and not a man,

A reproach of men and despised by the people.
7 All who see me [g]sneer at me;
They [h]separate with the lip, they wag the head, saying,
[i]Commit yourself to the Lord; let Him deliver him;
Let Him rescue him, because He delights in him.”

12 Many bulls have surrounded me;
Strong bulls of Bashan have encircled me.
13 They open wide their mouth at me,
As a ravening and a roaring lion.
14 I am poured out like water,
And all my bones are out of joint;
My heart is like wax;
It is melted within [l]me.
15 My strength is dried up like a potsherd,
And my tongue cleaves to my jaws;
And You lay me [m]in the dust of death.
16 For dogs have surrounded me;
[n]A band of evildoers has encompassed me;
[o]They pierced my hands and my feet.
17 I can count all my bones.
They look, they stare at me;
18 They divide my garments among them,
And for my clothing they cast lots.

Francis Schaeffer ended HOW SHOULD WE THEN LIVE? Episode 7 with these words:

When we think of Christ of course we think of his substitutionary death upon the cross when he who claimed to be God died in a substitutionary way and as such his death had infinite value and as we accept  that gift raising the empty hands of faith with no humanistic elements we have that which is real life and that is being in relationship to the infinite personal God who is there and being in a personal relationship to Him. But Christ brings life in another way that is not as often clearly thought about perhaps. He connects himself with what the Bible teaches in his teaching and as such he is a prophet as well as a savior. It is upon the basis of what he taught  and the Bible teaches because he himself wraps these together that we have life instead of death in the sense of having some knowledge that is more than men can have from himself, beginning from himself alone. Both of these elements are the place where Christ gives us life.  

The answer to find meaning in life is found in putting your faith and trust in Jesus Christ. The Bible is true from cover to cover and can be trusted.

Thanks for your time.

Sincerely,

Everette Hatcher, everettehatcher@gmail.com, http://www.thedailyhatch.org, cell ph 501-920-5733, Box 23416, LittleRock, AR 72221

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John Hospers pictured below:

Image result for john hospers

 

I sent a cassette tape of Adrian Rogers on Evolution to John Hospers in May of 1994 which was the 10th anniversary of Francis Schaeffer’s passing and I promptly received a typed two page response from Dr. John Hospers. Dr. Hospers had both read my letter and all the inserts plus listened to the whole sermon and had some very angry responses. If you would like to hear the sermon from Adrian Rogers and read the transcript then refer to my earlier post at this link.  Over the last few weeks I have posted  portions of Dr. Hospers’ letter and portions of the cassette tape that he listened to back in 1994, but today I want  to look at some other comments made on that cassette tape that John Hospers listened to and I will also post a few comments that Dr. Hospers made in that 2 page letter.

John Hospers Compares John Ross’s Unintended Consequences and Ayn Rand’s Atlas Shrugged

Published on May 2, 2012

John Hospers was professor emeritus of philosophy at the University of Southern California. He was also the first Libertarian Party Presidential candidate in 1972.

In this lecture from an International Society of Individual Liberty conference in 1996, Hospers compares John Ross’s novel Unintended Consequences with Ayn Rand’s Atlas Shrugged. Hospers was a personal friend of Rand during her lifetime. He passed away in 2011.

Download the .mp3 of this lecture here: http://bit.ly/KvAzAh

Image result for john hospers ayn rand

MemoirConversations
With Ayn Rand
Part 2
by John Hospers
(Originally published in Liberty magazine, 1987)

In our last issue, John Hospers related what it was like to talk philosophy with Ayn Rand. Now, in the conclusion to his memoir, he details some of their philosophical differences and relates the inevitable falling out between the philosopher and the visionary. . .
.
Ayn occasionally expressed some disquiet (perhaps resentment) that she
was not recognized as a philosopher by the contemporary philosophical
community. In spite of long philosophical passages in Atlas Shrugged,
philosophers had never taken note of her views, and her philosophizing
in Atlas had largely fallen on deaf ears in the academic community.
I told her that philosophical discussion goes on almost entirely in
philosophical journals. What about philosophical books? she asked.
“Yours is a philosophical book,” I said, “but it is a novel. It’s not
that philosophers don’t read novels—though a lot of them don’t—but
they don’t consider it their professional duty to do so.” Besides, I
added, she had acquired a right-wing image in the popular press, and
that is a position that most academicians are strongly opposed to.
There were a few well-placed curses from Ayn about the prejudices of
the “liberal establishment.”

I told her that if she wanted to become known in philosophical
circles, she should write a piece or two and submit it to the Journal
of Philosophy or the Philosophical Review or the Review of
Metaphysics. After its publication, I said, it would be studied,
commented on, and probably criticized. She would then respond to these
criticisms, which again would evoke more from others, and at that
point, I said, “I guarantee that you will be known as a philosopher.”
But she never did this. She did not want to enter the arena of public
give-and-take with them. She wanted them to come to her. What she
wanted of philosophers, other than recognition, is not easy to say. I
am sure she would have cursed them soundly if they offered criticisms.
Even a mild criticism would often send her to the stratosphere in
anger.

At the same time, I must add, she would often tolerate criticism, even
revel in responding to it, if (1) it was given “in the right spirit”
(the vibes had to be non-hostile) and (2) it was sort of “on the right
track”—the sort of thing that could be said by someone who was “on his
way to the truth” but hadn’t yet arrived there; then she would
“correct him” painstakingly and in detail.

I sometimes pondered how people could approach so differently the
enterprise of philosophy. I thought of the composers Igor Stravinsky
and Richard Strauss; each occupies a high place in contemporary music,
but neither could tolerate the other’s musical idiom. Similarly, was
it just a difference of style among philosophers? Surely not. Each
comes to philosophy as a satisfaction for a felt need. I had been
“burned” early on by over-eager philosophic generalizations, and I was
weary of systems in which different philosophers said opposed things,
with no apparent way of resolving the issues in favor of the one or
the other. I had come to the conceptual-analysis route as a way of
resolving (or sometimes dissolving) problems that had long haunted me.
Ayn had aimed instead at a “final philosophical synthesis,” and
regardless of its strengths or weaknesses, that is what she had to
present to the world.
 
Human beings are distinguished from all other creatures by the power
of choice. I agreed with Ayn about this—we know that the dog scratches
at the door but we don’t know that he chose to do it (nor do we know
that he didn’t). But I tended to disagree with Ayn about some of the
things that (according to her) we choose. Do we really choose “to
think, or not to think”? I for one (I said) don’t remember making such
a choice. I would often think about things, perhaps because I am a
questioning sort of person and don’t usually take things on faith.
Yes, often when confronted by a specific problem, I have said “I’ll
think about it.” But when my first acts of thinking occurred I no more
chose “to think or not to think” than I chose “to be or not to be.”
But more than that I considered the scope of human choice to be much
more limited than she did. Some limitations we would both agree on: a
dunce can’t choose to be a genius, and a crippled person can’t choose
to walk (he can only choose to try, unsuccessfully). Without practice
a person can’t choose to do shorthand or typing at 60 words a minute.
Neither can a person, just by choosing (or even by choosing and
trying), extricate himself from situations that have been years
abuilding. An obsessive-compulsive cannot just stop doing whatever he
obsessively has been doing for years, such as putting the key in the
lock three times and then tapping the floor three times (or whatever
his ritual is). And if a teenager ran away from home to escape
alcoholic parents and now has lived on the city streets for two years,
she can’t just suddenly “straighten out” and become a normal
citizen—the gutter-instincts (survival by any means) are just too
strong by now. And so on for thousands of cases in which we may
unthinkingly believe people could have chosen to do what we want them
to do.

At this point in my diatribe Ayn reminded me that people do escape
from the slums, that with determination they overcome seemingly
impossible odds and sometimes become leaders in society. Prepared for
this observation, I granted that it was true; but the fact that one
person, A, can do this, doesn’t show that other persons, B, C, and D,
can also do it. Each of them acts under somewhat different conditions
from A. They have one common denominator, slum upbringing; but some
had the love and trust of their parents, and the wherewithal to
prepare them to surmount adversities, and others did not; some had
father-figures with whom they could identify; and so on. (If a person
tries hard enough, he will succeed; but what is meant by “hard
enough”? Would you call it “hard enough” if he did not succeed?
Doesn’t the statement come to the tautology “If you try till you
succeed, you’ll succeed”?)

Anyway, all this preparatory conversation was so much chaff in the
wind, for Ayn hit me with the charge that I was sure she would come up
with sooner or later. “You don’t believe in freedom at all, you are a
determinist.”

I knew what dense philosophical thicket lay in waiting here, with
vague and overlapping meanings of crucial terms like “free,”
“determined,” and “caused.” I hesitated even to embark on it. One must
come at the issue from so many different aspects, breaking one stone
and then another along the way—and most people lack the tenacity to go
through it all, they want quick and easy solutions, so that they can
repeat certain verbal formulas and convince themselves that they have
the problem mastered. So I began simply: “Determinism is just
universal causation. Everything that happens has some cause or other,
that’s the core meaning of ‘determinism’ (to which other meanings have
sometimes become attached). The causes may be matter or mind, spirits
or God—all that determinism says is that everything has a cause, even
if we never find out what all the causes are.” This was determinism in
its most neutral, vanilla-flavored sense, without the punch it was
supposed to pack, for there was nothing in my formulation that made it
incompatible with freedom, yet that was the main feature which led
many people to oppose it.

Of course, I continued, if everything is caused, events in human life
are caused too. Every decision you or I make is caused. But so what? I
decide to rake the leaves because I think the lawn looks unsightly. So
what’s so hostile to freedom in that? Would it be better if I
causelessly raked the lawn?

But of course, no matter how many actions are caused by decisions (or
other things going on in the mind), ultimately these events in the
mind are caused by things that take place in the world outside the
mind. They may be hereditary factors or factors in the environment,
all very complex indeed, but if my decisions are caused, so are the
factors that caused them, and so on back. And over the hereditary and
early environmental factors I had no control at all. So am I really
free?

Once the term “free” is raised, more clarification is called for. (I
discussed this with Ayn at much greater length than I have indicated
here.) The word “free,” I began, does have a use; it does describe
something. Ordinarily we say that I am free when I am not coerced,
when no one has forced me to act as I do; I act as a result of my own
choice, unforced and unconstrained by others. If she marries him
because she wants to, she does so freely, but if she is dragged to the
altar she is forced. This is a rough-and-ready distinction that
everyone understands and uses. Does determinism (I said) really deny
this? Determinism says “My act is caused”; freedom says “I caused my
act.” The difference is between the active and the passive voice.
Ayn started to object, but I went on. Sure, you can find causal
antecedents of human actions in the brain, in the environment, in
parental influences—in such complex causation as this there are
antecedents to be found all over the place. Most of the factors,
however, we don’t know at all, such as what makes one person make this
decision and another person in the same circumstances make a different
decision. In the human realm we are very far from having established
determinism as we have done in physics and astronomy, where we can
predict an eclipse to the split-second a hundred years ahead.
Determinism asserts the universality of causes in the human realm,
without having gone much of the distance toward proving it that has
been accomplished in the natural sciences.

Ayn expressed the belief that in the area of human choices, there are
indeed causes, but that a person in so acting is self-caused (causa
sui). I expressed doubt as to what this could mean. If something is
caused, isn’t it caused by something else, something other than
itself? How could my decision cause itself? Cause has to do with
origination, and how could the origin of choice X be choice X itself?
We can say, truly, that I caused my choices—that I, a complex set of
actual and dispositional characteristics, caused this act of choosing
to occur—but that is not the same as saying that X caused X. I was not
able to see causa sui as anything but a desperate attempt to escape
“the dilemma of determinism.”

At any rate, what I wanted to make crystal clear to Ayn was that the
“principle of determinism” (or Causal Principle), that everything that
occurs has a cause, is not merely a statement (true or false) about
nature’s workings; I tried to give her a sense that it had a much more
complex and ambivalent epistemological status than that, which
rendered labels like “true” and “false” extremely dubious.
I tried to make the epistemological point very simply. Suppose a
chemistry student gets some quite unexpected results when he repeats a
laboratory experiment. He then reports to his teacher that the same
effects don’t always arise from the same cause: he set up the
experiment exactly the same both times, yet got different results (an
orange precipitate in the first case, none in the second). Conditions
C produced result E-l the first time and E-2 the second time—different
effects from the same cause! Yet his teacher wouldn’t tolerate this
for a moment. Maybe he had some evidence that the C’s weren’t the
same—he might find an impurity in the liquid the second time that
wasn’t there the first. But more usually he had no evidence at
all—there was a difference in the E’s, he reasoned, so there had to be
a difference in the C’s. And we would say this whether we know it or
not, whether we ever discover it or not.

And so on in general, I said. If after repeated trials we discover the
cause of something, we say that confirms the Causal Principle even
more; but if after repeated trials we fail to discover the cause, we
don’t say it had no cause, but only (and always) that it’s there but
we haven’t discovered it yet. Isn’t this a remarkable asymmetry? Isn’t
this very peculiar—a principle that discoveries confirm but no
discoveries can disconfirm? A principle that parades as a truth about
the world, yet is apparently immune to refutation by discoveries about
the world? What does this show? Isn’t there “something funny going on”
here? Aren’t we trying to run with the hare and hunt with the hounds?
Isn’t this asymmetry a ground for suspicion?

I was not sure whether Ayn followed the direction in which I was
pointing, but I went on. I suggested that the much-vaunted Causal
Principle was not a statement about the world at all—not like “All
birds fly,” which can be disconfirmed by finding a few ostriches. That
which can be confirmed by experience but not disconfirmed by
experience is not a statement about the world. It might be an a priori
truth, like the Law of Identity, not subject to, and not requiring,
confirmation by experience. But I could not think it a priori because
it made claims about nature which, I suggested, could only be
confirmed by observing nature—which can’t be done from one’s armchair.
Instead, I suggested that it was a kind of scientific rule-of-the-game
(“heuristic maxim”) that has stood us in good stead because when we
used it in the past we have found lots of causes, but one which we
don’t permit to be disconfirmed, for there’s nothing that we could do
that we need to count as disconfirming it. It’s a rule, the following
of which has pragmatic value—it helps us to find more causes; but
since it isn’t falsifiable it doesn’t count as an empirical rule,
which is what it would be if it were like “All birds fly” or “All
bodies gravitate.”

Something may look like a plain and simple statement about the world,
the only question about it being “Is it true or false?” But what looks
like a statement needn’t be a statement, and perhaps this one
isn’t—instead maybe it’s a rule that we use to guide our future
scientific activities, or express a faith in some ultimate uniformity
of nature. And if it has that status, then our talk about the
Principle of Determinism being true or false is mistaken from the
outset. We have been misled into thinking it has this simple
true-false status at all.

I could not expect Ayn or anyone else to grasp the import of this at
once: to someone who has spent most of a lifetime asking “Is it true
or is it false?” it is disorienting and mind-blowing to be told that
this distinction may not be applicable to the question at hand. One
has to see how this approach can be applied to other philosophical
problems (not just determinism), and how it clarifies or dissolves
those problems rather than leaving them forever intractable. But to
appreciate all this requires much more one-on-one philosophizing than
I had done with Ayn. I had high hopes that we might yet do it. But
whether it was the defects of my presentation or her disinclination to
think outside the traditional categories with which she had operated
for many years, I was never able to get far with her on this—it
remained terra incognita to her, and her responses seldom indicated
that she had grasped the true import of what I had said.
 
It seemed to me that she failed to appreciate the subtle shifts of
meaning of crucial terms that often occur midway in a discussion, and
result in total confusion unless the shifts are pointed out when they
arise. She seemed to have a number of ideas packaged together under
the heading she called “determinism” and assumed that the term
retained the same meaning in its various contexts of use (a common
enough error). One example that I particularly remember is that she
would say that according to determinism a person never could  do other
than he did; and that if exactly the same circumstances were to arise
again (according to determinism), the same result would occur.
“And if the same thing didn’t recur,” I said, “then you’d conclude,
without further evidence, that some factor in the circumstances
leading up to it were different this time. And you would say it,” I
insisted, “as an a priori assumption, without any independent evidence
that any of the conditions were different.” I remember using this
analogy: A says “All swans are white,” and B replies that there are
black swans in Australia; to which A replies, “If they’re not white,
they’re not swans.”

I tried to open up to her the logic of the word “could.” I said that
“could” is an ability word: when someone says “You couldn’t have done
otherwise,” this charge invites the retort, “Not even if I wanted to?”
And of course if I had wanted to I would have done something
different—I would have continued reading the paper instead of going to
the kitchen. My wanting to do X instead of Y could well be the
deciding factor that caused me to do X instead of Y. So, I said, it
isn’t true that I couldn’t have done Y; I would have done Y if I had
wanted to.

But the next step, of course, was “According to determinism, you
couldn’t have wanted anything other than you did.” But what, I said,
does “couldn’t” mean in this sentence? That I wouldn’t have wanted
anything else even if I had wanted to? No? If not, then what does
“could” mean in this sentence? I suggested that it would be preferable
to say that if exactly the same conditions were repeated the same
event would have happened—and then show the unprovability of that
statement because of the impossibility of tracking down all the
conditions.

Ayn was impatient with such subtleties. When we recapitulated, she
would always return to the position that if you are a determinist you
believe that nothing could have happened except what did happen. And
once again I would inquire what “could” might mean in that
sentence—and we would start on the merry-go-round once again.
Of course, I went on, there are (as usual) other senses of “could” as
well, not specifically applying to human action. We may say that when
you let go this pencil from your hand it could not fly upwards, that
it could not do anything but go downwards in accordance with the law
of gravity. But that is only to say that the downward motion of the
pencil is the one that accords with laws of nature. That is, if you
assume certain laws of physics, then the pencil could not (logically
could not) have moved in any other way. The “could” here is a logical
“could” (not an empirical one) expressing the logical connection
between statements—statements of the laws of nature, statements about
the mass and volume of the pencil, and the third statements (the
conclusion) about the behavior of the pencil. We can say that granted
certain premises, this behavior could not have been other than it was.
(But, I added, saying that the pencil could not have behaved otherwise
is already a departure from the central meaning of “could,” which has
to do with ability.)
 
I never made much progress with her on determinism, but when we talked
one evening about a specific kind of causation—extra-sensory
perception—I evoked in her an unexpectedly vigorous response.
I do not remember how the subject arose, and I didn’t even consider it
a philosophical area of discussion, but I was describing to her Soal
and Bateman’s book Experiments in Parapsychology. I explained that out
of thousands of tries, a few people made very good subjects; they were
able to state with considerable accuracy truths that (as far as we
knew) were discoverable only by sense-perception, but which they could
not have known through sense-perception.

A man was sealed into a room evening after evening, and there was no
possible communication between this room and another room three doors
away—there were scientists who averred that there was no way a person
in Room 1 could convey information to someone in Room 4. In each of
these two sealed-off rooms, cards were being pulled from a deck one
per minute. Every minute a bell would ring, at which moment a card
would be pulled from a deck in one room and the subject in the other
room would write on a piece of paper which card he thought it was.
There were five different kinds of cards (apple, elephant etc.) and
thus one chance out of five of guessing correctly. Getting the correct
result slightly above chance (20 percent) for a time wasn’t
particularly noteworthy, but getting results like 40 percent correct
over 100,000 attempts was quite remarkable, the chances against this
being some trillions to one. Yet several subjects were reported to
have done just that, and no one knew how. Ayn looked skeptical but
allowed me to proceed.

Moreover, I went on, the subjects had improved with practice. From a
fifth they had gone gradually to a quarter and even to a third. No one
could figure out how they got the ability to do this. They themselves
didn’t know: they weren’t aware at the time that they were guessing
correctly, they just “put down the first thing that popped into their
heads.” And then the rules of the game were changed—”You will now
write down the card that was being pulled last night at this point in
the sequence”—and their achievements vanished (went down to chance),
but came up again with practice to the previous fraction.

And then, most curious of all, the rules were changed once more: “You
will write down the card that is going to be pulled at this point in
the sequence tomorrow evening.” Again the results went down to chance,
but again with practice the record gradually improved. But the
implications of it shocked me: How could they possibly know the
future? What if between tonight and tomorrow night the entire building
burned down? And so on.

Ayn was now taken quite aback, and thought I should give no credence
to any of this. It implied reverse causality, she said, and that was
impossible—something at a later time causing something at an earlier
time. I agreed that reverse causality was impossible—such as the rain
tomorrow helping the crops grow today. But I didn’t think the example
involved reverse causality but only precognition. We all predict the
future, I said, usually with some evidence; what made this case
peculiar was the ability of the person to make a correct prediction
again and again without apparently having any evidence whatever. (At
least there was nothing known to science that we would call evidence.)
That was what I found different about this kind of case, and I
couldn’t think of any explanation.

Ayn was quite shocked that I would take any of this “mystery-
mongering” seriously. (It was hard to convey briefly the
import of entire books on the subject, and the extraordinary lengths
to which people had gone to make sure there was no sensory route by
which A could have known B.) Didn’t I know that reality does not work
in that way? Perhaps so, I said—and I added I didn’t much care whether
reality does work in that way or not—but whether it does or doesn’t is
not something we can know by just pontificating about it from our
armchairs: we have to go the difficult route of empirical
investigation to find out whether people can know truths about the
universe that are not mediated through sense-organs. One cannot know
this a priori, I claimed; one has to go the more difficult route of
checking it all out in detail. But I gathered that she considered this
all a matter of necessity—that it was necessarily the case that nature
doesn’t work in this way. She was more disturbed about my
permissiveness on this subject than I had thought she would be.
Instead of saying that nature can’t work in this way, the question for
me was whether in fact it does; if it does, then it won’t do to say
that it can’t.

For me, the question of what caused what is entirely a contingent
matter, on which we can make judgments only in the light of
observation of the world. But it dawned on me that Ayn didn’t accept
the distinction between necessary and contingent at all. For her, it
seemed (though I never got it in just these words) every statement
that is true is necessarily true. “Doesn’t everything that happens
have to happen?” she once asked me.

I replied that one would first have to inquire about the meaning of
the phrase “have to.” In most locutions, “have to” involves a command
or order—”I have to be in by midnight.” When one says that events in
nature, such as a comet entering the earth’s atmosphere, have to
happen, it sounds first off as if this event is being commanded,
perhaps by God. But this is surely not what most people mean when they
say it. Perhaps we mean that if one accepts certain laws of nature
(concerning gravitation, mass, velocity), and if one grants certain
initial conditions (Comet X is in such-and-such a position at
such-and-such a time), then Comet X must be another place at a
specific other time. (Not that the comet must—but that the
statement—the conclusion—logically must be true if the premises are
true. The “must” is about the relation between statements, not about
phenomena in nature.) When I say that if I let go of this pencil it
must fall, doubtless I am saying that the statement that it does (or
will) follows from certain laws of nature plus initial conditions. But
it would be clearer if I just said that the pencil will fall.

There are many uses of “must” and “have to” (I took her through
several more) and I told Ayn that I thought she was telescoping
several disparate uses of the term “must” into one, without
distinguishing among them, and that this might be why she was led to
make such a statement as “whatever happens must (has to) happen.” (If
you take it quite literally, I said, it seems like a more extreme
fatalism than any view I have ever countenanced.)
 
Ayn usually let me take the initiative in deciding what subjects we
should discuss. The conversations described in this paper reflect
largely my choice of topics—these were the things about which I was
interested in sounding her out. I reflected later that in this respect
I had probably made a mistake. Only occasionally did we get around to
discussing topics that were central to her philosophy. That is why
some topics central to her are largely absent from these pages. Her
papers on these subjects had yet to be written.
 
“A is A” is, I insisted, a tautology, but an important one: every time
a person is guilty of a logical inconsistency he is saying A and then
in the next breath not-A. Thus “A is A” is something of which we need
to remind ourselves constantly. But it is not, I said, an empirical
statement: we don’t have to go around examining cats to discover
whether they are cats. (We might have to examine this creature to
discover whether it is a cat.)

But, I said, statements of what causes what, such as “Friction causes
heat,” are empirical statements; we can only know by perceiving the
world whether they are true. How, I wondered, can the Law of Causality
be merely an application of the Law of Identity? You could manipulate
the Law of Identity forever and never squeeze out anything as specific
as a single causal statement.

But (I went on) I could see how such a confusion might be generated. A
tautology can easily look like something else. “A thing acts in
accordance with its nature” might be one example. This might be taken
as an instance of the Law of Identity: if a creature of type X acts in
accordance with laws A, B, C, and this creature doesn’t do that, then
it isn’t an X. If dogs bark and growl and this creature hisses and
meows, it isn’t a dog; that is, we wouldn’t call anything a dog that
did this. So we can plausibly classify the statement about what we
call “a thing’s nature” as special cases of the Law of Identity. But
this, I insisted, tells us nothing about the world, but only about how
we are using words like “dog” and “cat.”

What is a thing’s “nature” supposed to be anyway? I went on. Is a
thing’s nature its definition? Some might say yes: it’s the nature of
water to be two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen. But one might also
answer no: it’s the nature of water, one might say, to flow downwards,
and this is no part of any (usual) definition of “water.” It wouldn’t
even be true if atmospheric pressure were ever so much less than on
earth (it might evaporate and not flow). So to answer the question, we
have to know what the person means by talking about a thing’s nature.
Often, I suggested, when we talk about a thing’s nature we are talking
about a set of dispositional traits: thus, “It is the nature of cats
to prowl”—yet so far as I know the tendency to prowl is not listed in
the definition of “cat.” Or, when we say “I used to think his lying
was just a quirk, but now I think it’s his nature,” we are saying that
his tendency to lie is a more fundamental trait than we had previously
thought.

I could see that Ayn was getting bored, so I summarized the moral of
the tale: that statements about “X’s nature” sound simple and easy,
but that under this linguistic simplicity lies a morass of vagueness,
which comes out only gradually as we explicate one case after another
in which we actually use the expression. I seemed unable to convey to
Ayn any sense of this; and yet, it seemed to me, what was wrong with
the usual philosophic formulations, including hers, couldn’t be
appreciated without going through the detailed “digging” required to
turn up these disparate meanings, and their confusion with one another
from which the errors flow. Philosophic formulas, I said, merely give
us “philosophy on the cheap.”
 
It was inevitable that sooner or later we would get to the subject of
definition. I never had an opportunity to present my views on this
systematically, from the ground up. I had done this in some detail in
my book Introduction to Philosophical Analysis, in the long 100-page
introductory chapter entitled “Words and the World.” I gave her a copy
of the book and encouraged her to read the relevant chapter. But she
never did; I was disappointed by this, for I had thought we could use
this material at least as a starting place for discussion, but in time
I realized that she read almost no philosophy at all. And I was amazed
how much philosophy she could generate “on her own steam,” without
consulting any sources.

She began by insisting that one should search for true definitions,
and I responded that definitions were neither true nor false. But it
shortly turned out that I was talking about definitions of words and
phrases, and she was talking about definitions of things (entities in
the world) or, sometimes, concepts of those things. But I expressed
ignorance as to what the phrase “the definition of a thing” meant. (We
also discussed “definition of concepts,” examining the differences
between words and concepts.)

I suggested that there were no true or false definitions. “The word
‘symphony’ once referred to any orchestral composition, without voice,
in four movements,” I said. “Then, as in Beethoven’s 9th, voices would
sometimes be introduced and the work would still be called a symphony,
so that was no longer a defining feature. Then in the 20th century
came one-movement symphonies, such as Sibelius’ 7th, so the
four-movement requirement fell out. What happened was that the word
‘symphony’ was no longer used to describe what it had described
before. But there is no true or false definition of ‘symphony.'”

A simple case to the contrary, Ayn said, was that H2O is a true
definition of water; if someone said water was HO or H2SO4, he would
be mistaken.

I responded that I saw nothing but confusion in this. “It depends on
what you mean in the first place by the word ‘water.’ If by ‘water’
you mean H2O, then course ‘Water is H2O’ is true because you’ve
already defined water to mean that. All you get that way is ‘H2O is
H2O,’ a simple tautology. But of course you might not already mean
that by the word ‘water’—early man surely did not. He meant the liquid
that flows in streams and rivers. In that meaning, it is true that
water is H2O—that is, the liquid in streams and rivers has the
chemical formula H2O. That is a true statement about water—an
empirically true statement, not a definition. Once you are clear what
you mean by the word, the issue is resolved.”

Ayn alleged that man is a rational animal, and that this is a true
definition. It is true, in other words, that that’s what man is. I
replied that it all depends what you mean by “man” in that sentence.
As a rule we employ a biological definition of man—man is a creature
with two legs, two arms, walks upright, etc.; that’s how we identify
creatures as human without knowing anything more about them than our
senses present to us. Now, the creature that fulfills that biological
requirement is also a rational animal (that is, has rational
potentialities, even if unfulfilled)—that is a true statement: not a
definition, but a statement about the creatures identified by the
first (biological) definition. (Of course, again, if by “man” you
already mean “rational animal,” then it’s a sheer tautology.)
We could say, I suggested, that man is a laughing animal, or an
aesthetic animal (the only creature that enjoys works of art), a
volitional animal (the only creature capable of choice), and perhaps
several others. But, as Ayn aptly pointed out, these features are less
fundamental. If we were not rational animals we would not be able to
comprehend works of art or see the point of jokes; the rationality
explains the other characteristics, not vice versa. I assented to
this; but I insisted that my point still held, that if “man” is
already defined as a rational animal, the statement that man is a
rational animal is a tautology (merely an example of A is A); whereas
if “man” is defined biologically, as we ordinarily do, then the
statement that man is a rational animal is true, but not a definition.
A stipulative definition, I said, merely tells others how we’re going
to use a word (“I’ll use this noise to mean so-and-so”), and a
stipulation isn’t a true statement, just a proposal to use a noise in
a certain way. A reportive definition is a report of what a word is
used to mean in a language-group. Thus, “A father is a male parent” is
a report (in this case a true one) of what the word “father” is used
to mean in the English language. And finally, if you already mean by
“father” a male parent, the definition of “father” as male parent is
presupposed, and the statement “A father is a male parent” comes to “A
male parent is a male parent,” another instance of “A is A.” Confusion
comes only if we get these scrambled together.

Is “Steel is an alloy of iron” a true definition of steel? No, I said,
it is a definition of “steel” if that is what you choose to mean by
the word “steel.” It is also a true report about how users of the
English language use the word “steel,” and as such it is a true
reportive definition. And if you already mean “alloy of iron” by the
word “steel,” then again you have a tautology, Steel is steel, A is A.
It seemed to me that these distinctions clear up the question. In
every case we define words and phrases, and we describe things (using
the words or phrases).

Whales were once thought to be fish. When it was discovered that they
were mammals, wasn’t this a discovery of the true definition of
whales? The discovery (an empirical one), I said, was that those
creatures which we called “whales” (on the basis of their shape, size,
and general appearance) also had the feature of being mammalian. We
then changed (or biologists did) the definition of the word so as to
include being mammalian as a defining feature; biological
classification on the basis of mammal, reptile, etc., had already long
been in place; so after the discovery nothing that looked like a whale
but was a fish would have been called a whale. The re-definition of
the term was simply an adaptation to existing methods of biological
classification. But the discovery, that these creatures were mammals,
was an empirical one, like the discovery that some nebulae are
actually galaxies.

This is one of the issues that seemed so obvious to me that I did not
see how anyone could think otherwise. That is why I tended not even to
remember opposing remarks as long as they were not clear to me. Rather
than misreport what Ayn said, I have chosen not to say anything about
her remarks: what I said is very clear to me, what she said is not.
At the time being described, Rand’s non-fiction works, including
Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology, had not yet been written. I
would like to think that our discussions helped motivate her to write
some of these non-fiction works. At the time of our discussions she
was writing very little. Time was on her hands, and perhaps that was
one reason for inviting me back.
 
She vehemently denied the validity of certain distinctions, like
analytic vs. synthetic and a priori vs. a posteriori. Both were
Kantian distinctions, and her hatred of Kant may have played a part in
the rejection; but more likely her rejection of the distinctions
played a part in her hatred of Kant.

Already at the time of our discussions there was critical talk in
philosophic circles about the analytic-synthetic distinction. Is it
analytic to say that all green things are extended? Quine had asked,
and concluded that the failure to provide a satisfactory answer was
due to the unclarity of the term “analytic,” not to any defects in
“green” or “extended.” But the examples I used were of the very
simplest sort: “All A is A” is analytic, I said (it’s another
formulation of the Law of Identity), and “All A is B” is not. “Lions
are lions” is analytic and “Lions are fierce” is not—to determine that
you have to observe lions. And the same for a priori: you don’t have
to go to the next room to discover whether the cat is a cat, but you
do have to in order to find out whether the cat is lying on the bed
there.

Why did Ayn deny a distinction that seemed to me so obvious—perhaps
not for far-out cases like colors being extended, but for ordinary “A
is A” type cases? She seemed to think, as Leibniz had done for
different reasons, that the distinctions do not apply because all the
statements are really in the same bag. All the features of lions,
whether now known or not, are really a part of their definition. All
statements about X follow from X’s definition—that seemed to be the
view.

But I did not see how this could be so. That this table is a solid
object does follow from (or is contained in) the definition of a
table. But that we are now sitting at this table does not. Nothing in
any definition of a table known to me could possibly tell us whether
it is true that we are now sitting at the table.

Perhaps the issue has a different focus: This would not be the egg
that it is if it had not been laid by this hen, and I would not be the
person I am if I had not been born to the specific parents I had.
True—but would I also have to have the characteristic of having been
born at the moment that I was? If I had been born a day earlier (to
the same parents etc.), wouldn’t it still have been me? True, it
wouldn’t have been me if the birth had taken place in ancient
Greece—the parents wouldn’t have been the same, etc. But would one
really be prepared to say that all features of me are defining,
including the mole on my cheek and the fact that a bee had just stung
me? I saw nothing but endless confusion in that way of trying to deny
the difference between necessary and contingent statements.
I tried using some examples, of the kind that made my students catch
on to the distinction most quickly. That this flower is red, that
there are six of them on this plant, that such plants exist at
all—these are contingent statements, they depend on the way the world
is, which can’t be known a priori; that 2 + 2 = 4, that the angles of
a triangle equal 180 degrees, that if A is larger than B then B is
smaller than A—these are necessary truths, I tried to explain, even if
one doesn’t accept the analytic-synthetic distinction.

Or again, with regard to possibility and impossibility: I can’t jump
20 feet high, but I (logically) might, and if I claimed to do so my
statement would be false, but there would be no contradiction in it.
But if I claimed to have gone backward in time, and disappeared from
1961 to 2500 B.C. (and what could that mean?), and actually helped the
Egyptians build the pyramids—this, I said, was a logical
impossibility, because contradictions would be involved in asserting
it: I would be saying that (for example) the pyramid-building occurred
without me (I wasn’t born yet) and also that I participated in it (by
“going back” in 1961 to 2500 B. C.); and that there were, let’s say,
5,368 persons building the pyramids and (with the new addition of
myself) there were 5,369—but there (logically) couldn’t have been both
5,368 and other than 5,368. And so on. She granted the impossibility
in the second case, but perhaps not for the reason I mentioned. To her
all impossibility was of one stripe, and she did not admit the
distinction between logical and empirical possibility.
 
I stated a problem (or pseudo-problem) which seemed to fascinate my
students: “How do you know that you and I are seeing the same color?
True, we both pass the color-blindness tests, and you say you see
green when you look at the tree, just as I do, but how do I know you
aren’t the victim of a “reversed spectrum,” for example that you
regularly see red where I see green and vice versa, but of course you
call it green like everyone else, since that’s the word you’ve been
taught to use in describing the color of trees? But perhaps if I could
see what you’re seeing, I’d call it red, or something else. After all,
how do I know?” Maybe the outcome has no practical import, but it’s a
nice theoretical question anyway—the sort of thing that science seems
unable to answer.

I cannot say that Ayn was fascinated by this question. She regarded it
as rather trivial. But she heard me out. I suggested that you can
(usually, perhaps always) get to what a questioner means by his
question, if he can tell you what sort of thing would satisfy him as
an answer—what precisely does he want to know? Now consider these
possibilities (I said): (1) Suppose it were technically possible, as
one day it may be, to connect one person’s eyes and optic nerve with
another person’s brain. You could, then, quite literally see through
the other person’s eyes; and then you would know whether the leaves
looked the same color to you as they did when you looked through your
own eyes. You’d be able to compare what you saw with your former eyes
with what you saw through your new eyes. Perhaps when you did this you
would say, “They still look the same to me,” and that would settle the
question; or you might say “They don’t look as they used to at all,”
and that too would settle the question.

But of course (I pursued) one may object that this won’t do. (2)
Exchanging eyes isn’t enough, runs the objection. The interpretation
of these visual data takes place in the brain. To settle the issue, I
would not only have to have your eyes, I’d have to have your brain (or
at least a part of it). But now we run into what’s called the problem
of personal identity. If my brain were put into your body and vice
versa (assuming this to be as technically possible as exchanging eyes)
would it still be me? Would it still be me, with all my brain’s
memory-traces now inside your head? Here we run into a problem that’s
more than a technical problem; what is it that constitutes one’s self,
if not one’s perceptions, dispositions, and memories? How can I
exchange brains with you and still be me? Thus, if this second
alternative is the one demanded to resolve the problem, then unlike
the first alternative, it can’t be solved: the conditions demanded for
the solution are self-contradictory.

Ayn wasn’t very impressed with all this. She didn’t consider the
issue to be of any importance in the first place. She was
temperamentally unsympathetic to this way of doing philosophy. And she
had no patience with the distinctions I used in order to arrive at a
solution. For her it was a non-solution to a non-problem.
 
In spite of her lack of concern for shifts of meaning in a word or
phrase, I had to be very careful what terms I used in her presence;
for some terms, if I used them, would trigger in her an instant
conclusion that was quite foreign to anything I meant. When I
mentioned that a theory in science can be accepted or rejected on
pragmatic grounds—as a device for explaining the most by means of the
least—she would hear the term “pragmatic” and accuse me of being a
pragmatist. And then I would explain at some length that I was not a
pragmatist in any sense that she probably had in mind—for example, I
did not hold that the truth of a statement had anything to do with its
utility. I only used the term within a definite context, with a
meaning defined within that context—and one should not jump to the
conclusion “You’re a pragmatist,” for I wouldn’t even know what she
meant by the term in that sentence.

For a person who was always insisting on “iron-clad definitions,” I
found her linguistic habits quite sloppy. I was aware that Rome wasn’t
built in a day and that she had not grown up in a tradition in which
sensitivity to these matters was considered important—one just strode
over the issues in seven-league boots (my characterization, not hers).
Still, philosophic outcomes depend so much on just such subtleties
that I became discouraged when after many hours of discussion she
showed no more awareness of where I was really coming from than she
had when we started.

I had no problems with her ignorance of modern logic or physics (such
as Heisenberg’s principle), but when the very issues she raised
required a finely honed instrument to grapple with them insightfully,
and she seemed quite unaware of what that instrument could do, and
remained so after time, I gradually became as discouraged with her as
she was impatient with me.
 
Somewhere she had picked up the idea that philosophers in the
twentieth century were skeptical about the existence of an “external
world” (tables, trees, stars, etc.). I told her that skeptical
arguments in this area were still extensively examined, in the
tradition of Hume, but that no one so far as I knew had any actual
doubts about the existence of the chair they were sitting on, and so
on. But that, she said, was the mistake: they don’t doubt it in
practice but they do in theory—they don’t practice what they preach. I
explained that when skeptical arguments occur, as in Hume, they have
to be met, in an attempt to make theory accord with practice; one
can’t just assume that “common sense” is always right. I explained a
similar situation in Zeno’s paradoxes, and Parmenides’ attempt to deny
the reality of motion. I said there were lots of problems about the
relation of the world to the senses by means of which we perceive it.
I did mention, almost incidentally, an attempt to prove that we know
the existence of the external world for certain, namely by Prof.
Norman Malcolm in his essay “The Verification Argument” (in Max
Black’s anthology, Philosophical Analysis). Instantly she picked up on
this, inquiring about Malcolm as a possible ally. She wanted to know
more about him and even to invite him to New York for a personal
meeting. She did not read his article, or anything else by him, but I
outlined the rather complex argument of the article for her in two
typed pages, trying to state his premises accurately and show how they
yielded his conclusions. She expressed gratitude to me for doing this.
But, she wondered, why should a person go to such lengths to defend a
thesis that was so obvious? I realized that to Ayn the existence of
the physical world was axiomatic and didn’t require defense, and told
her that she would probably find no particular ally in Malcolm, who
was most interested (in the essay) in exploring the implications of
terms like “verification” and “certainty.” At any rate, there the
matter dropped. She took my word as to what his arguments were, and as
far as I know she  never read anything to enlighten her further on the
issue.
 
We discussed many other philosophical issues, often in a brief and
fragmentary way, before concentrating on something else. I omit here
those issues of which I could not now give an accurate account from
memory. In many cases I remember more clearly what I said than what
she said. Her non-fiction works had yet to be written, and what I
endeavor to record here is what she and I said then, not what we might
have said later. Moreover, most of my readers will probably be
acquainted with her position on various issues, but unacquainted with
mine; and I want to provide some conception, however brief and
unsystematic, of where I was coming from on the issues we discussed.
 
When we discussed metaphysical and epistemological issues, a certain
tension between us would very gradually and almost imperceptibly
arise. I could usually avoid an unpleasant scene by attributing
(correctly) the view being discussed to some actual philosopher,
living or dead, and then she could curse the philosopher in question
and take the heat off me. It’s not that I wanted to avoid
responsibility for the view, but I wanted to avoid unpleasant scenes,
which only impeded the progress of our discussions, and achieved no
worthwhile end that I could think of. But it was clear that I was not
“giving in” to her brand of metaphysics, and equally clear that my
methods of what I liked to call philosophical clarification were
falling on arid ground in the present case. I became somewhat
discouraged, especially since she seldom acknowledged an error and
seemed less interested in learning than in defending prepared
positions. Moreover, what seemed like a blinding philosophical light
to me would be a total dud to her, and her highly abstract
philosophical pronouncements often seemed to me confused, unclear, or
false, effective though they might be as banners for enlisting the
philosophically un-washed.
 
Meanwhile, several incidents occurred that distressed me. There was a
professor at a midwestern university who had been denied tenure some
months earlier, for saying that he wouldn’t mind too much if his
daughter slept around a bit before she decided on whom to mate with
for life. The faculty was up in arms against the university
administration for terminating him, and started a nation-wide petition
on his behalf. I had also signed a petition requesting that he not be
terminated.

When I showed Ayn the letter to which I had responded on his behalf,
Ayn saw my name on the letterhead and urged me strongly to dissociate
myself from any attempt to defend him. He should not have referred to
his daughter publicly in that way, she said. I asked her whether she
really thought he should be denied tenure just on account of having
said what he did. And Ayn’s reply stunned me: he should have been
terminated from his job, she said, even if he’d had tenure. Knowing
all that tenure means to someone who has worked for years to earn it,
I found her reply shocking and astonishing.
 
Newsweek wrote a terribly unfair piece about Ayn. I responded to it by
letter, trying to answer their charges point by point. I gave Ayn a
copy of my letter. Newsweek never published it, but that, said Ayn,
made no difference; what mattered was that I had come to her defense
by writing it and responding to the false charges.

Not long after, New York University’s philosopher Sidney Hook attacked
her in print, and she wanted me to take him on as well. Knowing
Sidney, I was disinclined to do this. He already knew about my
acquaintance with Ayn, but we had never discussed it further (I hardly
ever saw him). Should I now condemn him publicly and destroy a
long-standing friendship? I knew that this friendship would be at an
end if I condemned him.

Ayn was sure that nothing less than a public condemnation was required
to prove to him how much I was devoted to “intellectual objectivity.”
But she had very little conception of the manners and morals of
professional academicians—they can get along well and even be friends,
while disagreeing strongly with one another on rather fundamental
issues. The philosophic arena was one for the friendly exchange of
diverse ideas. But for her, it was a battlefield in which one must
endlessly put one’s life on the line. I was not willing to risk years
of occasional friendly communion with Sidney by condemning him
publicly, even if I thought he was mistaken in some of his
allegations.

But for Ayn this was a betrayal. It almost cost us our friendship. In
the end she attributed my attitude to the misfortune of having been
brainwashed by the academic establishment, at least with regard to
their code of etiquette.

I once mentioned to her my friendship with Isabel Hungerland, a
distinguished aesthetician from Berkeley with whom I would discuss
issues at philosophical conventions. Ayn inquired what her politics
were. “As far as I know, she’s a liberal,” I said. “What!” exclaimed
Ayn, “a friend of yours—a liberal?”

I realized then that I was expected, once I knew Ayn, to sacrifice
the friendship of all persons with political (and other) views opposed
to hers. Not that I would have to—I was supposed to want to. It was
immoral of me to continue to deal with such people. With many of them,
as with Isabel, I had a kind of relaxed, laid-back relationship, never
talking politics at all from one year to the next, and often not
knowing what their political views were. But now I was supposed to
excommunicate them all. “If thine hand offend thee, cut it off.” I was
not willing to plant a flag on a new terrain and thereby disavow my
allegiance to all other views, and I deeply resented Ayn’s attempt to
steer me in that direction—or should I say, her assumption that I
would “of course” do such a thing.

It wasn’t that I would have been unwilling to declare where I stood,
if I had been totally convinced and was prepared to defend it. I try
not to back off of commitments. But my whole way of coming at
philosophy was quite different from hers, and in spite of various
attempts I don’t think she ever understood mine. With her, it was as
if she were developing a Euclidean geometry from a set of axioms; I,
on the contrary, was the gadfly who kept puncturing the axioms or
finding their meaning (in some cases) to be vague or confused. As a
result of this I was convinced that “the high priori road” was not the
way to go in philosophy; I was sure that a careful, step-by-step,
case-by-case approach, frustrating though it might be in the work
required and the time needed to get anywhere with it, was the only
road to progress. This wearied her, bored her, and ultimately repelled
her.
 
The more time elapsed, the more the vise tightened. I could see it
happening; I hated and dreaded it; but knowing her personality, I saw
no way to stop it. I was sure that something unpleasant would happen
sooner or later. The more time she expended on you, the more
dedication and devotion she demanded. After she had (in her view)
dispelled objections to her views, she would tolerate no more of them.
Any hint of thinking as one formerly had, any suggestion that one had
backtracked or still believed some of the things one had assented to
previously, was greeted with indignation, impatience, and anger. She
did not espouse a religious faith, but it was surely the emotional
equivalent of one.

When I was authorized by the American Society for Aesthetics to ask
Ayn to give a twenty-minute talk at their annual meeting, which would
take place this time in Boston the last weekend of October 1962, I
passed on the offer to her at once. She accepted, with the provision
that I be her commentator (all papers were required to be followed by
a response from a commentator). She thought that I would understand
her views better than those who had no previous acquaintance with
them. I consented.

And so it was that on the last Friday night of October 1962, she gave
her newly-written paper “Art and Sense of Life” (now included in The
Romantic Manifesto). In general I agreed with it; but a commentator
cannot simply say “That was a fine paper” and then sit down. He must
say things, if not openly critical, at least challengingly exegetical.
I did this—I spoke from brief notes and have only a limited
recollection of the points I made. (Perhaps I repressed it because of
what happened shortly thereafter.) I was trying to bring out certain
implications of her talk. I did not intend to be nasty. My fellow
professors at the conference thought I had been very gentle with her.
But when Ayn responded in great anger, I could see that she thought I
had betrayed her. She lashed out savagely, something I had seen her do
before but never with me as the target. Her savagery sowed the seeds
of her own destruction with that audience.

When her colleague Nathaniel Branden and I had a walk in the hall
immediately following this exchange, there was no hint of the
excommunication to come. But after the evening’s events were
concluded, and by previous invitation I went to Ayn and her husband
Frank’s suite in the hotel, I saw that I was being snubbed by everyone
from Ayn on down. The word had gone out that I was to be (in Amish
terminology) “shunned.” Frank smiled at me, as if in pain, but he was
the only one. When I sensed this, I went back to my room. I was now
officially excommunicated. I had not so much as been informed in
advance. It was all over. In the wink of an eye.
So now a two-and-a-half-year friendship was at an end. It had come
with such suddenness, I couldn’t quite handle it at first. The long
evenings with Ayn were now a thing of the past. I was now the one to
feel a sense of betrayal.

But my pain was not entirely unmixed with relief. The pressure had
been mounting, and certain tensions between us had been increasing
steadily. Being forced to choose between friendship and truth as I saw
it (even if I saw it mistakenly), was not my way of conducting
intellectual life. I would sooner or later have had to escape from the
vise, I reflected. Perhaps it was better this way, with an outside
event precipitating the break. Sooner or later, probably sooner, I
would have been too explicitly frank or honest, and she would have had
an angry showdown with me, and that would have been that. Or so I told
myself. At any rate, along with the pain and the desolation, I felt a
sense of release from an increasing oppressiveness, which had been
inexorably tightening.

At dinner earlier that evening, when the radio announcer said that
Kennedy would not call off his blockade of Cuba even at the risk of
nuclear war, Ayn had said, “Good!” Privately I wondered whether she
had also said “Good” in connection with the break in our relations.
Perhaps she merely reflected with regret that the years of her efforts
on my behalf had been largely wasted.

At any rate, that night was the last time I ever saw her.
 
But I heard her once after that. In the late summer of 1968, not long
before the Big Break, Nathan phoned me in California and said “I want
to put you on the line to someone.” The conversation with Ayn was very
brief. “I understand that you are presenting my philosophy to your
classes,” she said. I replied that I was—I considered Ayn’s views in
several of my courses, without thereby implying that I did so with
total agreement. She seemed gratified, and wondered how I was, and
then turned the telephone back to Nathan.
 
I thought of her endlessly during the years. Her enthusiasm for ideas,
her intensity, her unfailing bluntness and those piercing eyes—the
image of these things was never far away from me, especially when I
assigned some of her essays in my classes and discussed them with
students point by point. But I never regretted that I had not been
enveloped further in the web of intellectually stifling allegiances
and entanglements, the route I had seen so many of her disciples go.
In the next few years, as her non-fiction essays appeared, I read them
avidly and made many notes and comments in the margins—points to raise
with her, questions to ask her. But of course I never got to ask them.
And then, almost fifteen years after my expulsion, I heard on the
radio that she had died. I felt, even after all these years, a
devastating sense of loss. It was hard to stay in control during my
talk at the memorial service for her in Barnsdall Park in Los Angeles.
How often, on visiting New York, I had almost stopped at her apartment
building. No, I thought, her friendships are broken but her enmities
last. It wouldn’t be any good. And surely she had treated me pretty
shabbily. But I thought of her, up there in that apartment, without
Frank now, and I wanted to be mesmerized by those piercing eyes once
again, and have another all-night discussion as in the old days.
I never got up the courage to take that step. It would probably have
been useless.  The occasion is past, and the past is gone forever.
That, I thought to myself with a certain grim irony, is at least one
necessary proposition to which she would have given her assent.

Here is a portion of Hospers’ June 2, 1994 letter to me: 

You don’t just throw these statements at an audience and then (without explaining the first ones) go on to throw others. It’s like hurling huge gobs of undigested food around. One would have to go thru each one separately, asking for its presuppositions and hidden assumptions, showing how the argument has shifted, and so on. Most preachers don’t go in for this even know this (never having taken a course in valid REASONING). So they just on pontificating. I feel sorry for the audience, their victims.

BELOW is from a sermon by Adrian Rogers that was included on the cassette tape I sent to DR. JOHN HOSPERS: 

There are not only the historical facts that indicate that the Bible is the Word of God but also there are the scientific facts of the Bible!!!!

There a medical book that has been discovered that goes all the way back at least to 1,552 B.C. It’s called the papyrus Ebers. And that is a compendium, a gathering together of the medical knowledge of ancient Egypt. Ancient Egypt had the dominant position of medicine in the ancient world. And what the ancient Egyptians were able to do is astounding and incredible. And people are still trying to figure out such things as how they embalmed the dead and did certain procedures and so forth. But, in this medical book, there are also some ludicrous things that you read. I’ll give you some of the prescriptions in the papyrus Ebers.

For example, to prevent your hair from turning gray, you anoint it with the blood of a black cat which has been boiled in oil, or with the fat of a rattlesnake. Now, here is a prescription if your hair’s falling out. One remedy is to apply a mixture of 6(?) fats, including those of the snake and the ibex (wild goat). I think I’ll try that! Here’s another prescription. If you have a splinter that’s embedded, you take worm’s blood and donkey’s dung and you put it on that splinter. Can you imagine the tetanus spores and bacteria that would be in donkey’s dung? Other drugs that they used were lizard’s blood, swine’s teeth, rotten meat, moisture from pig’s ears, donkey’s hooves, even excretion from animals.

Now listen. I want you to understand, dear friend. This was written by the sophisticated and learned ancient Egyptians. Now, put on top of that the fact that Moses studied in the University of Egypt. Did you know the Bible says that Moses was trained in all the knowledge of the Egyptians? (Acts 7:22). He had the best education that money could buy because his adopted granddaddy was the Pharaoh of Egypt!

Aren’t you glad that when you read the book of Genesis or Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, and so forth, you don’t read anything about lizard’s blood and donkey’s dung, and all of this kind of stuff as being these cures? Listen, when you read the books of Moses in the Bible, and you read the sanitary code and the dietary code, you’re going to find one of the highest levels of scientific knowledge that you’ll find even to this day. And you’ll not find one medical misconception in Moses’ writings. As a matter of fact, Moses says things that are incredible, like, “The life of the flesh is in the blood” (Lev. 17:11, 14). How did Moses know that this blood is a red river of life? Holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit. The dietary laws excluded such things as pig meat, catfish and shrimp. They taste great, but they raise your cholesterol and have other harmful effects.

In the 14th century the Black Plague was the greatest human disaster that’s ever come. An estimated 60 million people died in the Black Plague in Europe. But let me tell you what brought the Black Plague to a close. It was the Church, and not the doctors. In desperation those leaders in the Church began to read the Word of God. They read Leviticus 13:46, and it spoke of someone who had a plague. And it says, “All the days wherein the plague shall be in him, he shall be defiled. He is unclean. He shall dwell alone outside the camp.” That’s the principle that we use today when we put people in an isolation ward. But friend, they didn’t understand germs. You couldn’t have said, “He has a germ.” They’d say, “What?” They couldn’t say, “He has a virus.” They didn’t understand something that was invisible to the eye. But God taught these people so long ago that principle of isolation and quarantining, and putting that into practice saved millions of lives.

How can I know the Bible is the Word of God? by Adrian Rogers

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Is the Bible historically accurate? Here are some of the posts I have done in the past on the subject: 1. The Babylonian Chronicleof Nebuchadnezzars Siege of Jerusalem2. Hezekiah’s Siloam Tunnel Inscription. 3. Taylor Prism (Sennacherib Hexagonal Prism)4. Biblical Cities Attested Archaeologically. 5. The Discovery of the Hittites6.Shishak Smiting His Captives7. Moabite Stone8Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III9A Verification of places in Gospel of John and Book of Acts., 9B Discovery of Ebla Tablets10. Cyrus Cylinder11. Puru “The lot of Yahali” 9th Century B.C.E.12. The Uzziah Tablet Inscription13. The Pilate Inscription14. Caiaphas Ossuary14 B Pontius Pilate Part 214c. Three greatest American Archaeologists moved to accept Bible’s accuracy through archaeology.

 The Bible and Archaeology – Is the Bible from God? (Kyle Butt)

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During the 1990′s I actually made it a practice to write famous atheists and scientists that were mentioned by Adrian Rogers and Francis Schaeffer and challenge them with the evidence for the Bible’s historicity and the claims of the gospel. Usually I would send them a cassette tape of Adrian Rogers’ messages “6 reasons I know the Bible is True,” “The Final Judgement,” “Who is Jesus?” and the message by Bill Elliff, “How to get a pure heart.”  I would also send them printed material from the works of Francis Schaeffer and a personal apologetic letter from me addressing some of the issues in their work. My second cassette tape that I sent to both Antony Flew and George Wald was Adrian Rogers’ sermon on evolution and here below you can watch that very sermon on You Tube.   Carl Sagan also took time to correspond with me about a year before he died. 

(Francis Schaeffer pictured below)

Image result for francis schaeffer

Adrian Rogers pictured below

I have posted on Adrian Rogers’ messages on Evolution before but here is a complete message on it.

Evolution: Fact of Fiction? By Adrian Rogers

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Featured artist is Frank Stella 

Frank Stella: A Retrospective

 

Image result for frank stella art

Frank Stella

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Frank Stella
Born Frank Philip Stella
May 12, 1936 (age 80)
Malden, Massachusetts
Nationality American
Known for Painting, Printmaking, Sculpture, Architecture
Movement Modernism, Minimal art, Abstract expressionism, Geometric abstraction, Abstract Illusionism, Lyrical abstraction, Hard-edge painting, Shaped canvas painting, Color field painting
Awards 1984 Harvard University Charles Eliot Norton lectures

Frank Philip Stella (born May 12, 1936) is an American painter and printmaker, noted for his work in the areas of minimalism and post-painterly abstraction. Stella lives and works in New York.

Biography[edit]

Frank Stella was born in Malden, Massachusetts,[1] to parents of Italian descent. His father was a gynecologist, and his mother was an artistically inclined housewife who attended fashion school and later took up landscape painting.[2]

After attending high school at Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, where he learned about abstract modernists Josef Albers and Hans Hofmann,[3] he attended Princeton University, where he majored in history and met Darby Bannard and Michael Fried. Early visits to New York art galleries fostered his artistic development, and his work was influenced by the abstract expressionism of Jackson Pollock and Franz Kline. Stella moved to New York in 1958, after his graduation. He is one of the most well-regarded postwar American painters still working today.[citation needed] He is heralded for creating abstract paintings that bear no pictorial illusions or psychological or metaphysical references in twentieth-century painting.[4]

As of 2015, Stella lives in Greenwich Village and keeps an office there but commutes on weekdays to his studio in Rock Tavern, New York.[2]

Work[edit]

Late 1950s and early 1960s[edit]

Upon moving to New York City, he reacted against the expressive use of paint by most painters of the abstract expressionist movement, instead finding himself drawn towards the “flatter” surfaces of Barnett Newman‘s work and the “target” paintings of Jasper Johns. He began to produce works which emphasized the picture-as-object, rather than the picture as a representation of something, be it something in the physical world, or something in the artist’s emotional world. Stella married Barbara Rose, later a well-known art critic, in 1961. Around this time he said that a picture was “a flat surface with paint on it – nothing more”. This was a departure from the technique of creating a painting by first making a sketch. Many of the works are created by simply using the path of the brush stroke, very often using common house paint.

This new aesthetic found expression in a series of new paintings, the Black Paintings (59) in which regular bands of black paint were separated by very thin pinstripes of unpainted canvas. Die Fahne Hoch! (1959) is one such painting. It takes its name (“The Raised Banner” in English) from the first line of the Horst-Wessel-Lied, the anthem of the National Socialist German Workers Party, and Stella pointed out that it is in the same proportions as banners used by that organization. It has been suggested that the title has a double meaning, referring also to Jasper Johns’ paintings of flags. In any case, its emotional coolness belies the contentiousness its title might suggest, reflecting this new direction in Stella’s work. Stella’s art was recognized for its innovations before he was twenty-five. In 1959, several of his paintings were included in “Three Young Americans” at the Allen Memorial Art Museum at Oberlin College, as well as in “Sixteen Americans” at the Museum of Modern Art in New York (60).

From 1960 Stella began to produce paintings in aluminium and copper paint which, in their presentation of regular lines of color separated by pinstripes, are similar to his black paintings. However they use a wider range of colors, and are his first works using shaped canvases (canvases in a shape other than the traditional rectangle or square), often being in L, N, U or T-shapes. These later developed into more elaborate designs, in the Irregular Polygon series (67), for example.

Also in the 1960s, Stella began to use a wider range of colors, typically arranged in straight or curved lines. Later he began his Protractor Series (71) of paintings, in which arcs, sometimes overlapping, within square borders are arranged side-by-side to produce full and half circles painted in rings of concentric color. These paintings are named after circular cities he had visited while in the Middle East earlier in the 1960s. The Irregular Polygon canvases and Protractor series further extended the concept of the shaped canvas.

Late 1960s and early 1970s[edit]

Frank Stella Harran II 1967

Stella began his extended engagement with printmaking in the mid-1960s, working first with master printer Kenneth Tyler at Gemini G.E.L. Stella produced a series of prints during the late 1960s starting with a print called Quathlamba I in 1968. Stella’s abstract prints used lithography, screenprinting, etching and offset lithography.

In 1967, he designed the set and costumes for Scramble, a dance piece by Merce Cunningham. The Museum of Modern Art in New York presented a retrospective of Stella’s work in 1970, making him the youngest artist to receive one.[citation needed] During the following decade, Stella introduced relief into his art, which he came to call “maximalist” painting for its sculptural qualities. The shaped canvases took on even less regular forms in the Eccentric Polygon series, and elements of collage were introduced, pieces of canvas being pasted onto plywood, for example. His work also became more three-dimensional to the point where he started producing large, free-standing metal pieces, which, although they are painted upon, might well be considered sculpture. After introducing wood and other materials in the Polish Village series (73), created in high relief, he began to use aluminum as the primary support for his paintings. As the 1970s and 1980s progressed, these became more elaborate and exuberant. Indeed, his earlier Minimalism [more] became baroque, marked by curving forms, Day-Glo colors, and scrawled brushstrokes. Similarly, his prints of these decades combined various printmaking and drawing techniques. In 1973, he had a print studio installed in his New York house. In 1976, Stella was commissioned by BMW to paint a BMW 3.0 CSL for the second installment in the BMW Art Car Project. He has said of this project, “The starting point for the art cars was racing livery. In the old days there used to be a tradition of identifying a car with its country by color. Now they get a number and they get advertising. It’s a paint job, one way or another. The idea for mine was that it’s from a drawing on graph paper. The graph paper is what it is, a graph, but when it’s morphed over the car’s forms it becomes interesting, and adapting the drawing to the racing car’s forms is interesting. Theoretically it’s like painting on a shaped canvas.”[citation needed]

In 1969, Stella was commissioned to create a logo for the Metropolitan Museum of Art Centennial. Medals incorporating the design were struck to mark the occasion.[5]

1980s and afterward[edit]

Frank Stella La scienza della pigrizia (The Science of Laziness), 1984, oil paint, enamel paint, and alkyd paint on canvas, etched magnesium, aluminum and fiberglass, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC

Stella’s Memantra, 2005, Metropolitan Museum of Art

From the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s, Stella created a large body of work that responded in a general way to Herman Melville’s Moby-Dick.[6] During this time, the increasingly deep relief of Stella’s paintings gave way to full three-dimensionality, with sculptural forms derived from cones, pillars, French curves, waves, and decorative architectural elements. To create these works, the artist used collages or maquettes that were then enlarged and re-created with the aids of assistants, industrial metal cutters, and digital technologies.[6] La scienza della pigrizia (The Science of Laziness), from 1984, is an example of Stella’s transition from two-dimensionality to three-dimensionality. It is fabricated from oil paint, enamel paint, and alkyd paint on canvas, etched magnesium, aluminum and fiberglass.

In the 1990s, Stella began making free-standing sculpture for public spaces and developing architectural projects. In 1993, for example, he created the entire decorative scheme for Toronto’s Princess of Wales Theatre, which includes a 10,000-square-foot mural. His 1993 proposal for a Kunsthalle and garden in Dresden did not come to fruition. In 1997, he painted and oversaw the installation of the 5,000-square-foot “Stella Project” which serves as the centerpiece of the theater and lobby of the Moores Opera House located at the Rebecca and John J. Moores School of Music on the campus of the University of Houston, in Houston, TX.[7][8] His aluminum bandshell, inspired by a folding hat from Brazil, was built in downtown Miami in 2001; a monumental Stella sculpture was installed outside the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.

Stella’s wall-hung Scarlatti K Series was triggered by the harpsichord sonatas of Domenico Scarlatti and the writings of the U.S. 20th-century harpsichord virtuoso and musicologist Ralph Kirkpatrick, who made the sonatas widely known. (The title’s “K” refers to Kirkpatrick’s chronology numbers.) Scarlatti wrote more than 500 keyboard sonatas; Stella’s series today includes about 150 works.[9]

From 1978 to 2005, Stella owned the Van Tassell and Kearney Horse Auction Mart building in Manhattan’s East Village and used it as his studio. His nearly 30-year stewardship of the building resulted in the facade being cleaned and restored.[10] After a six-year campaign by the Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation, in 2012 the historic building was designated a New York City Landmark.[11] After 2005, Stella split his time between his West Village apartment and his Newburgh, New York studio.[12]

Artists’ rights[edit]

Stella had been an advocate of strong copyright protection for artists such as himself. On June 6, 2008, Stella (with Artists Rights Society president Theodore Feder; Stella is a member artist of the Artists Rights Society[13]) published an Op-Ed for The Art Newspaper decrying a proposed U.S. Orphan Works law which “remove[s] the penalty for copyright infringement if the creator of a work, after a diligent search, cannot be located.”

In the Op-Ed, Stella wrote,

The Copyright Office presumes that the infringers it would let off the hook would be those who had made a “good faith, reasonably diligent” search for the copyright holder. Unfortunately, it is totally up to the infringer to decide if he has made a good faith search. Bad faith can be shown only if a rights holder finds out about the infringement and then goes to federal court to determine whether the infringer has failed to conduct an adequate search. Few artists can afford the costs of federal litigation: attorneys’ fees in our country vastly exceed the licensing fee for a typical painting or drawing.

The Copyright Office proposal would have a disproportionately negative, even catastrophic, impact on the ability of painters and illustrators to make a living from selling copies of their work… It is deeply troubling that government should be considering taking away their principal means of making ends meet—their copyrights.[14]

Exhibitions[edit]

Stella’s work was included in several important exhibitions that defined 1960s art[citation needed], among them the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum’s The Shaped Canvas (1965) and Systemic Painting (1966). The Museum of Modern Art in New York presented a retrospective of Stella’s work in 1970.[6] His art has since been the subject of several retrospectives in the United States, Europe, and Japan. In 2012, a retrospective of Stella’s career was shown at the Kunstmuseum Wolfsburg (de).[15]

Collections[edit]

Stella’s work is included in major international collections, including the Menil Collection, Houston; the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C.; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; National Gallery of Art; the Toledo Museum of Art and the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; the Portland Art Museum, Oregon; The Hunter Museum, Chattanooga, TN. In 2014, Stella gave his sculpture Adjoeman (2004) as a long-term loan to Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles.[16]

Recognition[edit]

Among the many honors he has received was an invitation from Harvard University to give the Charles Eliot Norton Lectures in 1984. Calling for a rejuvenation of abstraction by achieving the depth of baroque painting,[17] these six talks were published by Harvard University Press in 1986 under the title Working Space.[18]

In 2009, Frank Stella was awarded the National Medal of Arts by President Barack Obama.[19] In 2011, he received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Contemporary Sculpture by the International Sculpture Center. In 1996 he received an honorary Doctorate from the University of Jena in Jena, Germany, where his large sculptures of the “Hudson River Valley Series” are on permanent display, becoming the second artist to receive this honorary degree after Auguste Rodin in 1906.[20]

Art market[edit]

Stella joined dealer Leo Castelli’s roster of artists in 1959. Since 2014, he has been represented worldwide in an exclusive arrangement shared by Dominique Lévy Gallery and Marianne Boesky.[21][22]

Gallery[edit]

Interviews[edit]

  • Heti, Sheila (November–December 2008). “‘I’m All in Favor of the Shifty Artist'”. The Believer. 6 (9): 40–46.
  • De Antonio, Emile (director), Painters Painting: The New York Art Scene: 1940-1970, 1973. Arthouse films

References[edit]

  1. Jump up^ “Frank Stella Biography, Art, and Analysis of Works”. The Art Story. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b Deborah Solomon (September 7, 2015), The Whitney Taps Frank Stella for an Inaugural Retrospective at Its New HomeNew York Times.
  3. Jump up^ Peter Schjeldahl (November 9, 2015), “Big Ideas: a Frank Stella Retrospective”, The New Yorker
  4. Jump up^ Birmingham Museum of Art (2010). Birmingham Museum of Art : guide to the collection. [Birmingham, Ala]: Birmingham Museum of Art. p. 236. ISBN 978-1-904832-77-5.
  5. Jump up^ Finding aid for the George Trescher records related to The Metropolitan Museum of Art Centennial, 1949, 1960-1971 (bulk 1967-1970). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b c Frank Stella Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.
  7. Jump up^ About the Stella Project in the Moores Opera House
  8. Jump up^ “Home”. Music.uh.edu. 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
  9. Jump up^ Karen Wilkin (June 23, 2011), Complementary AbstractionistsWall Street Journal.
  10. Jump up^ 128 East 13th Street [1] Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation.
  11. Jump up^ “Van Tassell & Kearney Auction Mart Designation Report”(PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
  12. Jump up^ Sightlines: Frank Stella Wall Street Journal, March 15, 2010.
  13. Jump up^ Artists Rights Society’s List of Most Frequently Requested Artists Archived July 2, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
  14. Jump up^ Frank Stella, “The proposed new law is a nightmare for artists,” Archived October 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. The Art Newspaper, June 6, 2008.
  15. Jump up^ Rhodes, David (November 2012). “Frank Stella: The Retrospective, Works 1958-2012”. The Brooklyn Rail.
  16. Jump up^ Deborah Vankin (July 7, 2014), Abstract Frank Stella sculpture ‘Adjoeman’ joins Cedars-Sinai artworks Los Angeles Times.
  17. Jump up^ John Russell (March 18, 1984), Frank Stella at Harvard – The Artist as Lecturer New York Times.
  18. Jump up^ Frank Stella, Working Space (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986), ISBN 0-674-95961-2. Listing at Harvard University Press website.
  19. Jump up^ White House Announces 2009 National Medal of Arts Recipients
  20. Jump up^ Frank Stella in Jena
  21. Jump up^ Carol Vogel (March 20, 2014), Seasonal Changes New York Times.
  22. Jump up^ Lévy, Dominique. “Artists”. Dominique Lévy Gallery. Retrieved 14 April 2015.

More references

External links[edit]

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RESPONDING TO HARRY KROTO’S BRILLIANT RENOWNED ACADEMICS!! Part 121 Jared Diamond, UCLA, Geography Dept, “So explanation I would suggest is an early function, maybe one of the original functions of religion”

 

On November 21, 2014 I received a letter from Nobel Laureate Harry Kroto and it said:

…Please click on this URL http://vimeo.com/26991975

and you will hear what far smarter people than I have to say on this matter. I agree with them.

Harry Kroto

I have attempted to respond to all of Dr. Kroto’s friends arguments and I have posted my responses one per week for over a year now. Here are some of my earlier posts:

Arif AhmedHaroon Ahmed,  Jim Al-Khalili, Sir David AttenboroughMark Balaguer, Horace Barlow, Michael BateSir Patrick BatesonSimon Blackburn, Colin Blakemore, Ned BlockPascal BoyerPatricia ChurchlandAaron CiechanoverNoam Chomsky, Brian CoxPartha Dasgupta,  Alan Dershowitz, Frank DrakeHubert Dreyfus, John DunnBart Ehrman, Mark ElvinRichard Ernst, Stephan Feuchtwang, Robert FoleyDavid Friend,  Riccardo GiacconiIvar Giaever , Roy GlauberRebecca GoldsteinDavid J. Gross,  Brian Greene, Susan GreenfieldStephen F Gudeman,  Alan Guth, Jonathan HaidtTheodor W. Hänsch, Brian Harrison,  Stephen HawkingHermann Hauser, Robert HindeRoald Hoffmann,  Bruce HoodGerard ‘t HooftCaroline HumphreyNicholas Humphrey,  Herbert Huppert,  Gareth Stedman Jones, Steve JonesShelly KaganMichio Kaku,  Stuart KauffmanMasatoshi Koshiba,  Lawrence KraussHarry Kroto, George Lakoff,  Rodolfo LlinasElizabeth Loftus,  Alan MacfarlaneDan McKenzie,  Mahzarin BanajiPeter MillicanMarvin MinskyLeonard Mlodinow,  P.Z.Myers,   Yujin NagasawaAlva NoeDouglas Osheroff, David Parkin,  Jonathan Parry, Roger Penrose,  Saul PerlmutterHerman Philipse,  Carolyn PorcoRobert M. PriceVS RamachandranLisa RandallLord Martin ReesColin RenfrewAlison Richard,  C.J. van Rijsbergen,  Oliver Sacks, John SearleMarcus du SautoySimon SchafferJ. L. Schellenberg,   Lee Silver Peter Singer,  Walter Sinnott-ArmstrongRonald de Sousa, Victor StengerJohn SulstonBarry Supple,   Leonard Susskind, Raymond TallisMax TegmarkNeil deGrasse Tyson,  Martinus J. G. Veltman, Craig Venter.Alexander Vilenkin, Sir John Walker, James D. WatsonFrank WilczekSteven Weinberg, and  Lewis Wolpert,

____________

Jared Diamond

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jared Diamond
Jared diamond.jpg
Born Jared Mason Diamond
September 10, 1937 (age 77)
Boston, Massachusetts
Residence United States
Citizenship American
Fields Physiology, biophysics,ornithology, environmentalism,history, ecology, geography,evolutionary biology andanthropology
Institutions University of California, Los Angeles
Alma mater
Thesis Concentrating activity of the gall-bladder (1961)
Notable awards

Jared Diamond in London, February 2013

Jared Mason Diamond (born September 10, 1937) is an American scientist and author best known for his popular science books The Third Chimpanzee (1991), Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997, awarded aPulitzer Prize), Collapse (2005) and The World Until Yesterday (2012). Originally trained in physiology, Diamond’s work is known for drawing from a variety of fields, including anthropology, ecology, geography, and evolutionary biology. As of 2013, he is Professor of Geography at the University of California, Los Angeles.[1][2] He has been described as “America’s best-known geographer“.[3]

In  the third video below in the 125th clip in this series are his words and  my response is below them. 

50 Renowned Academics Speaking About God (Part 1)

Another 50 Renowned Academics Speaking About God (Part 2

A Further 50 Renowned Academics Speaking About God (Part 3)

QUOTE:

In short, explanation is a function of religion which I think was maximized in early religions in tribal societies which has decreased and even disappeared in recent times in some societies. So explanation I would suggest is an early function, maybe one of the original functions of  religion.

Basically I don’t see this as a groundbreaking statement. It is my view that God created the world and Romans 1 tells us that everyone knows in their heart that God exists. Below is a letter I wrote to Dr. Diamond and I did mention in passing his quotation.

April 7, 2015

Dr. Jared Diamond, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles,

Dear Dr. Diamond,

I saw you on the program CLOSER TO TRUTH and  that is what me started reading your material. Let me start off by saying that this is not the first time that I have written you. Earlier I shared several letters of correspondence I had with Carl Sagan, and Antony Flew. Both men were strong believers in evolution as you are today. Instead of talking to you about their views today I wanted to discuss the views of you and Charles Darwin. 

TWO THINGS MADE ME THINK OF YOU RECENTLY. On April 5, 2015 at the Fellowship Bible Church Easter morning service in Little Rock, Arkansas our pastor Mark Henry described DOUBTING THOMAS and that description made me think of you.  Moreover, your skeptical view towards  Christianity reminds me of CHARLES DARWIN’S growing doubts throughout his life on these same theological issues such as skepticism in reaction to the claims of the Bible!!!

I’m an evangelical Christian and you are a secularist but I am sure we can both agree with the apostle Paul when he said in First Corinthians 15 that if Christ did not rise from the dead then Christians are to be most pited!!!! I attended Easter services this week and this issue came up and Mark Henry asserted that there is plenty of evidence that indicates that the Bible is historically accurate. Did you know that CHARLES DARWIN thought about this very subject quite a lot?

I just finished reading the online addition of the book Darwin, Francis ed. 1892. Charles Darwin: his life told in an autobiographical chapter, and in a selected series of his published letters [abridged edition]. London: John Murray. There are several points that Charles Darwin makes in this book that were very wise, honest, logical, shocking and some that were not so wise. The Christian Philosopher Francis Schaeffer once said of Darwin’s writings, “Darwin in his autobiography and in his letters showed that all through his life he never really came to a quietness concerning the possibility that chance really explained the situation of the biological world. You will find there is much material on this [from Darwin] extended over many manufacturers years that constantly he was wrestling with this problem.”

I saw this QUOTE from you on You Tube:

In short, explanation is a function of religion which I think was maximized in early religions in tribal societies which has decreased and even disappeared in recent times in some societies. So explanation I would suggest is an early function, maybe one of the original functions of  religion. 

Quotes like this indicate to me that you are a DOUBTING THOMAS type. YOU MAY FIND IT INTERESTING THAT CHARLES DARWIN WAS ALSO INTERESTED IN THE HISTORICAL ASPECT OF THE BIBLE. When I read the book  Charles Darwin: his life told in an autobiographical chapter, and in a selected series of his published letters, I also read  a commentary on it by Francis Schaeffer and I wanted to both  quote some of Charles Darwin’s own words to you and then include the comments of Francis Schaeffer on those words. I have also enclosed a CD with two messages from Adrian Rogers and Bill Elliff concerning Darwinism.

Charles Darwin observed:

“But I was very unwilling to give up my belief; I feel sure of this, for I can well remember often and often inventing day-dreams of old letters between distinguished Romans, and manuscripts being discovered at Pompeii or elsewhere, which confirmed in the most striking manner all that was written in the Gospels.

Francis Schaeffer commented:

This is very sad. He lies on his bunk and the Beagle tosses and turns and he makes daydreams, and his dreams and hopes are that someone would find in Pompeii or some place like this, an old manuscript by a distinguished Roman that would put his stamp of authority on it, which would be able to show that Christ existed. This is undoubtedly what he is talking about. Darwin gave up this hope with great difficulty. I think he didn’t want to come to the position where his accepted presuppositions were driving him. He didn’t want to give it up, just as an older man he understood where it would lead and “man can do his duty.” Instinctively this of brains understood where this whole thing was going to eventually go…

SINCE CHARLES DARWIN’S DEATH WE NOW HAVE LOTS OF HISTORICAL RECORDS AND MUCH EVIDENCE FROM THE FIELD OF ARCHAEOLOGY THAT SHOW THE BIBLE IS HISTORICALLY ACCURATE.

**************TAKE TIME TO CONSIDER THIS EVIDENCE BELOW********************

I  have been amazed at the prophecies in the Bible that have been fulfilled in history, and also many of the historical details in the Bible have been confirmed by archaeology too. One of the most amazing is the prediction that the Jews would be brought back and settle in Jerusalem again. Another prophecy in Psalms 22 describes the Messiah dying on a cross  almost 1000 years before the Romans came up with this type of punishment.

Many times it has been alleged that the author of the Book of Daniel was from a later period but how did a later author know these 5 HISTORICAL FACTS? How did he know [1] that Belshazzar was ruling during the last few years of the Babylonian Empire when the name “Belshazzar” was lost to history until 1853 when it was uncovered in the monuments? [2] The author also knew that the Babylonians executed individuals by casting them into fire, and that the Persians threw the condemned to the lions. [3] He knew  the practice in the 6th Century was to mention first the Medes, then the Persians and not the other way around. [4] Plus he knew the laws made by Persian kings could not be revoked and [5] he knew that in the sixth century B.C., Susa was in the province of Elam (Dan. 8:2). Of course, the Book of Daniel (2:37-42) clearly predicted the rise of the 4 world empires in the correct order of Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome.

One of the top 10 posts on my blog on this next subject concerning Tyre.   John MacArthur went through every detail of the prophecy concerning Tyre and how history shows the Bible prophecy was correct.  Sagan said he had taken a look at Old Testament prophecy and it did not impress him because it was too vague.

HOW CAN ANYONE SAY THAT THIS FOLLOWING PROPHECY CONCERNING TYRE IS “TOO VAGUE?”

Below is an outline from a sermon from Dr. John MacArthur

Photo of John MacArthur

________________

John MacArthur on the amazing fulfilled prophecy on Tyre and how it was fulfilled by historical events.

LESSON

I. BIBLICAL PROPHECY CONCERNING TYRE (Ezekiel 26:1–28:19)

A. The Forecast

1. The specifics

a) That King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon would destroy the mainland city of Tyre (26:7-8).

b) That many nations would rise up against Tyre. These nations would come like waves of the sea, one after another (26:3- 4).

c) That Tyre will be made like a flat rock (26:4, 14).

d) That fisherman will dry their nets there (26:5, 14).

e) That the rubble of the city would be cast into the sea (26:12).

f) That Tyre would never be rebuilt (26:14).

2. The setting

Tyre was a great city. It was one of the largest and most powerful cities of Phoenicia, which is modern day Lebanon.

It was well fortified. A great wall protected the city from land attacks while their world-renowned fleet protected them from attack by sea.

Tyre was a flourishing city during the time when Joshua led Israel into the Promised Land. King Hiram, who began his reign during the rule of David, offered David cedars from Tyre to build his palace. He also loaned David his artisans to craft parts of the great palace (1 Chron. 14:1). Hiram also helped Solomon build the Temple by floating cedars down the shoreline to be picked up and hauled to Jerusalem (2 Chron. 2:16). So Tyre was a great city, and both David and Solomon looked to it for aid.

B. The Fulfillment

1. The prophetic call

a) To Nebuchadnezzar

Not long after the prophecy given by Ezekiel, Nebuchadnezzar did exactly what had been predicted–he laid siege against the city in 585 B.C. For thirteen years Nebuchadnezzar cut off the flow of supplies into the city. In 537 B.C. he finally succeeded in breaking the gates down, but found the city almost empty.

During the thirteen-year siege, the people of Tyre moved all their possessions by ship to an island one-half mile offshore. So Nebuchadnezzar gained no plunder (Ezek. 29:17- 20). Although he destroyed the mainland city (Ezek. 26:8), the new city offshore continued to flourish for 250 years. The prophecy of Ezekiel 26:12–“they shall lay thy stones and thy timber and thy dust in the midst of the water”–remained unfulfilled.

b) To Alexander the Great

At age twenty-two, Alexander the Great came east conquering the known world with an army of between thirty and forty thousand men. Having defeated the Persians under Darius III, Alexander was on the march toward Egypt.

(1) The dilemma

Alexander arrived in the Phoenician territory and demanded that the cities open their gates to him. The citizens of Tyre refused, feeling they were secure on their island with their superior fleet.

(2) The decision

Realizing he did not have a fleet that could match Tyre’s, Alexander decided to build a causeway to the island using the ruins from the mainland city. It was about two hundred feet wide. The prophet said that the city would be thrown into the water, and that’s exactly what happened.

(3) The details

Arrian, a Greek historian, wrote about the overthrow of Tyre and how it was accomplished (The Campaigns of Alexander [New York: Penquin, 1958], pp. 132-43). The fortification of Tyre resembled Alcatraz. The city sat offshore like a rock with walls that came down to the edge of the water. Alexander set out to build the only means to approach the city–a land peninsula. Soldiers started pitching rubble into the water, leveling it off as they went so they could march on it. The water got deeper as they approached the island, and to make their task even more difficult, the people of Tyre bombarded them with missiles.

Werner Keller in The Bible as History tells us that to safeguard the operation, Alexander built mobile shields called “tortoises” (New York: Bantam, 1956], p. 361). Knowing that when they reached the city they would have to scale the walls, Alexander built “Hele-poleis,” which were mobile siege towers 160 foot high. The idea was to roll these structures across the causeway and push them up against the walls. A drawbridge on the front of the towers enabled the soldiers to march across the top of the walls and into the city.

Alexander’s men were under constant attack from people within the city and from the Tyrian navy. Realizing that he needed ships to defend his flanks, Alexander returned to the cities he had conquered and demanded their assistance. That fulfilled the prophecy that God “will cause many nations to come up against thee, as the sea causeth its waves to come up” (Ezek. 26:3).

(4) The destruction

Alexander’s plan succeeded. Eight thousand people were slain and thirty thousand were sold into slavery. It took Alexander seven months to conquer Tyre. The causeway he built can be seen to this day.

2. The prophetic result

How did Ezekiel know all those things would happen? The only explanation is he expressed the mind of God. Historian Philip Myers said, “Alexander the Great reduced it [Tyre] to ruins (332 B.C.). She recovered in a measure from this blow, but never regained the place she had previously held in the world. The larger part of the site … is now as bare as the top of a rock–a place where the fishermen that still frequent the spot spread their nets to dry” (General History for Colleges and High Schools [Boston: Ginn and Co., 1889], p. 55). That fulfills the prophecies of Ezekiel 26:4-5, 14. The island city was repopulated, later to be destroyed by the Moslems in A.D. 1281. However, God said the mainland city would never be rebuilt–and it never has. Jerusalem has been rebuilt many times but Tyre will never be rebuilt because a prophet in Babylon said twenty-five centuries ago, “Thou shalt be built no more” (Ezek. 26:14).

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ANY HISTORIAN CAN HAVE ACCESS TO ALL OF THESE RECORDS. WHY NOT TAKE A FEW MOMENTS AND CHECK OUT THESE FACTS YOURSELF? As a secularist you believe that it is sad indeed that millions of Christians are hoping for heaven but no heaven is waiting for them. Paul took a close look at this issue too:

I Corinthians 15 asserts:

12 But if it is preached that Christ has been raised from the dead, how can some of you say that there is no resurrection of the dead? 13 If there is no resurrection of the dead, then not even Christ has been raised. 14 And if Christ has not been raised, our preaching is useless and so is your faith. 15 More than that, we are then found to be false witnesses about God, for we have testified about God that he raised Christ from the dead. But he did not raise him if in fact the dead are not raised. 16 For if the dead are not raised, then Christ has not been raised either. 17 And if Christ has not been raised, your faith is futile; you are still in your sins. 18 Then those also who have fallen asleep in Christ are lost. 19 If only for this life we have hope in Christ, we are of all people most to be pitied.

I sent you a CD that starts off with the song DUST IN THE WIND by Kerry Livgren of the group KANSAS which was a hit song in 1978 when it rose to #6 on the charts because so many people connected with the message of the song. It included these words, “All we do, crumbles to the ground though we refuse to see, Dust in the Wind, All we are is dust in the wind, Don’t hang on, Nothing lasts forever but the Earth and Sky, It slips away, And all your money won’t another minute buy.”

Kerry Livgren himself said that he wrote the song because he saw where man was without a personal God in the picture. Solomon pointed out in the Book of Ecclesiastes that those who believe that God doesn’t exist must accept three things. FIRST, death is the end and SECOND, chance and time are the only guiding forces in this life.  FINALLY, power reigns in this life and the scales are never balanced. The Christian can  face death and also confront the world knowing that it is not determined by chance and time alone and finally there is a judge who will balance the scales.

Both Kerry Livgren and the bass player Dave Hope of Kansas became Christians eventually. Kerry Livgren first tried Eastern Religions and Dave Hope had to come out of a heavy drug addiction. I was shocked and elated to see their personal testimony on The 700 Club in 1981 and that same  interview can be seen on You Tube today. Livgren lives in Topeka, Kansas today where he teaches “Diggers,” a Sunday school class at Topeka Bible ChurchDAVE HOPE is the head of Worship, Evangelism and Outreach at Immanuel Anglican Church in Destin, Florida.

The answer to find meaning in life is found in putting your faith and trust in Jesus Christ. The Bible is true from cover to cover and can be trusted.

Thank you again for your time and I know how busy you are.

Everette Hatcher, everettehatcher@gmail.com, http://www.thedailyhatch.org, cell ph 501-920-5733, Box 23416, LittleRock, AR 72221, United States

Is the Bible historically accurate? Here are some of the posts I have done in the past on the subject: 1. The Babylonian Chronicleof Nebuchadnezzars Siege of Jerusalem2. Hezekiah’s Siloam Tunnel Inscription. 3. Taylor Prism (Sennacherib Hexagonal Prism)4. Biblical Cities Attested Archaeologically. 5. The Discovery of the Hittites6.Shishak Smiting His Captives7. Moabite Stone8Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III9A Verification of places in Gospel of John and Book of Acts., 9B Discovery of Ebla Tablets10. Cyrus Cylinder11. Puru “The lot of Yahali” 9th Century B.C.E.12. The Uzziah Tablet Inscription13. The Pilate Inscription14. Caiaphas Ossuary14 B Pontius Pilate Part 214c. Three greatest American Archaeologists moved to accept Bible’s accuracy through archaeology.

You can hear DAVE HOPE and Kerry Livgren’s stories from this youtube link:

(part 1 ten minutes)

(part 2 ten minutes)

Kansas – Dust in the Wind (Official Video)

Uploaded on Nov 7, 2009

Pre-Order Miracles Out of Nowhere now at http://www.miraclesoutofnowhere.com

About the film:
In 1973, six guys in a local band from America’s heartland began a journey that surpassed even their own wildest expectations, by achieving worldwide superstardom… watch the story unfold as the incredible story of the band KANSAS is told for the first time in the DVD Miracles Out of Nowhere.

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Adrian Rogers on Darwinism

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FRANCIS SCHAEFFER ANALYZES ART AND CULTURE PART 154, this post includes portion of 6-2-94 letter from Hospers to me blasting Christian Evangelicalism, John Hospers Part J (Featured artist is Alex Katz)

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Image result for john hospers

13. Immigration Symposium: John Hospers, A Libertarian Argument Against Open Borders

Published on Dec 15, 2016

Not everyone who wishes to come to the United States should be permitted to do so, says John Hospers.

__________

I sent a cassette tape of Adrian Rogers on Evolution to John Hospers in May of 1994 which was the 10th anniversary of Francis Schaeffer’s passing and I promptly received a typed two page response from Dr. John Hospers. Dr. Hospers had both read my letter and all the inserts plus listened to the whole sermon and had some very angry responses. If you would like to hear the sermon from Adrian Rogers and read the transcript then refer to my earlier post at this link.  Over the last few weeks I have posted  portions of Dr. Hospers’ letter and portions of the cassette tape that he listened to back in 1994, but today I want  to look at some other comments made on that cassette tape that John Hospers listened to and I will also post a few comments that Dr. Hospers made in that 2 page letter.

Here is a portion of Hospers’ June 2, 1994 letter to me: 

“One would have to stop the speaker (Adrian Rogers) at every turn and say THIS DOESN’T FOLLOW FROM WHAT YOU SAID JUST BEFORE, and THIS WORD IS AMBIGIOUS, YOU ARE TRADING ON AN EQUIVOCATION and then sometimes he just shifts the ground entirely, like using passages from the Bible to prove that the Bible itself is true. Any intelligent person sees these dishonest strategies at once. I was onto most of them by the time I was 14.”

__________

One of my favorite messages by Adrian Rogers is called  “WHO IS JESUS?”and he goes through the Old Testament and looks at the scriptures that describe the Messiah.  I want to encourage you to listen to this audio message which I will send to anyone anywhere anytime. I have given thousands of these CD’s away over the years that contain this message and they all contain the following story from Adrian Rogers (WHICH WAS INCLUDED ON THE CASSETTE TAPE I SENT TO DR. HOSPERS) .  Here is how the story goes:

Years ago Adrian Rogers counseled with a NASA scientist and his severely depressed wife. The wife pointed to her husband and said, “My problem is him.” She went on to explain that her husband was a drinker, a liar, and an adulterer. Dr. Rogers asked the man if he were a Christian. “No!” the man laughed. “I’m an atheist.”

“Really?” Dr. Rogers replied. “That means you’re someone who knows that God does not exist.”

“That’s right,” said the man.

“Would it be fair to say that you don’t know all there is to know in the universe?”

“Of course.”

“Would it be generous to say you know half of all there is to know?”

“Yes.”

“Wouldn’t it be possible that God’s existence might be in the half you don’t know?”

“Okay, but I don’t think He exists.”

“Well then, you’re not an atheist; you’re an agnostic. You’re a doubter.”

“Yes, and I’m a big one.”

“It doesn’t matter what size you are. I want to know what kind you are.”

“What kinds are there?”

“There are honest doubters and dishonest doubters. An honest doubter is willing to search out the truth and live by the results; a dishonest doubter doesn’t want to know the truth. He can’t find God for the same reason a thief can’t find a policeman.”

“I want to know the truth.”

“Would you like to prove that God exists?”

“It can’t be done.”

“It can be done. You’ve just been in the wrong laboratory. Jesus said, ‘If any man’s will is to do His will, he will know whether my teaching is from God or whether I am speaking on my own authority’ (John 7:17). I suggest you read one chapter of the book of John each day, but before you do, pray something like this, ‘God, I don’t know if You’re there, I don’t know if the Bible is true, I don’t know if Jesus is Your Son. But if You show me that You are there, that the Bible is true, and that Jesus is Your Son, then I will follow You. My will is to do your will.”

The man agreed. About three weeks later he returned to Dr. Rogers’s office and invited Jesus Christ to be his Savior and Lord.

_____________________________________

Adrian Rogers: Who is Jesus? [#2264]

Published on May 21, 2016

What makes this one Man unique? Why does He stand out above all others? Adrian Rogers gives three reasons why Jesus deserves pre-eminence. To explain Jesus Christ is impossible. To ignore Him is disastrous. To reject Him is fatal. Understand who Jesus Christ is.

Scripture References: Colossians 1:12-21
Series: The Mystery of History
This Message: https://www.lwf.org/products/2264DVD
This Series: https://www.lwf.org/products/CDA197
1. Who is Jesus? [#2264]
2. Jesus Christ: The Son of God and God the Son [#2265]
3. The Unfinished Story of Christmas [#2266]
4. Planning Your Future [#2268]

If you would like more information please visit these following websites:
Official Website: https: http://www.lwf.org/
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If you would like to contact LWF Ministries
Write to: PO Box 38300, Memphis, Tennessee 38183
Call: (901) 382-7900

Adrian Rogers: The Biography of the King [#2325]

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How can I know the Bible is the Word of God? by Adrian Rogers

________________________

 

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Is the Bible historically accurate? Here are some of the posts I have done in the past on the subject: 1. The Babylonian Chronicleof Nebuchadnezzars Siege of Jerusalem2. Hezekiah’s Siloam Tunnel Inscription. 3. Taylor Prism (Sennacherib Hexagonal Prism)4. Biblical Cities Attested Archaeologically. 5. The Discovery of the Hittites6.Shishak Smiting His Captives7. Moabite Stone8Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III9A Verification of places in Gospel of John and Book of Acts., 9B Discovery of Ebla Tablets10. Cyrus Cylinder11. Puru “The lot of Yahali” 9th Century B.C.E.12. The Uzziah Tablet Inscription13. The Pilate Inscription14. Caiaphas Ossuary14 B Pontius Pilate Part 214c. Three greatest American Archaeologists moved to accept Bible’s accuracy through archaeology.

 The Bible and Archaeology – Is the Bible from God? (Kyle Butt)

______________________

During the 1990′s I actually made it a practice to write famous atheists and scientists that were mentioned by Adrian Rogers and Francis Schaeffer and challenge them with the evidence for the Bible’s historicity and the claims of the gospel. Usually I would send them a cassette tape of Adrian Rogers’ messages “6 reasons I know the Bible is True,” “The Final Judgement,” “Who is Jesus?” and the message by Bill Elliff, “How to get a pure heart.”  I would also send them printed material from the works of Francis Schaeffer and a personal apologetic letter from me addressing some of the issues in their work. My second cassette tape that I sent to both Antony Flew and George Wald was Adrian Rogers’ sermon on evolution and here below you can watch that very sermon on You Tube.   Carl Sagan also took time to correspond with me about a year before he died. 

(Francis Schaeffer pictured below)

Image result for francis schaeffer

Adrian Rogers pictured below

I have posted on Adrian Rogers’ messages on Evolution before but here is a complete message on it.

Evolution: Fact of Fiction? By Adrian Rogers

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Featured artist is Alex Katz

One morning. That’s how long it takes Alex Katz to start—and finish—a painting.

This high-speed routine has repeated itself many mornings, for many years. Such remarkable productivity would be a feat for any artist, but especially an 87-year-old whose towering pictures demand exacting brushwork across canvases that span entire walls. Mr. Katz, a painter best known for his portraits, recently finished landscapes for two new exhibits: one opening Saturday at his New York gallery, Gavin Brown’s enterprise, the other coming in June to Atlanta’s High Museum of Art.

The artist can’t quite explain his drive, beyond saying that he loves to paint. Still, he suggests that even this late in his career, after hundreds of shows and every kind of review, he has something to prove.

“I just love putting it to people who didn’t like me,” said Mr. Katz, sounding more like a cocky art student than an art world elder statesman. Around his New York apartment, which connects to his sunlit studio, pretty young women in bathing suits—an enduring subject for him—stare impassively from their canvases. “There are people from 20, 30, 40 years ago that I love meeting on the street and saying hello. I don’t have to say anything, I just have to say hello, and my presence reminds them of their mistakes.”

The late career of Mr. Katz defies easy categorization. To some, this is a master at the height of his powers in a race against time. To others, his later work pales in comparison to the canvases that brought him to fame more than 40 years ago. For his part, Mr. Katz recently told a friend that at this moment in his life, all he does is paint and sleep.

Artists who work into their old age raise an uncomfortable question: They paint because they want to—or even need to. But how do they deal with demanding art audiences, who, like fans at a Rolling Stones concert, prefer the old stuff?

It can be difficult to judge the significance of late paintings right away. The early art is already many decades old, so its broader impact may be easier to determine than it is with canvases finished yesterday. Without careful editing, a flood of late work could potentially depress the artist’s overall market if it is not well received, said Gavin Brown, Mr. Katz’s dealer, who countered that he believes the artist is experiencing a “supernova” of creativity right now, leading to some of the finest paintings of his career. He added that concerns about supply and demand have never mattered much to Mr. Katz regardless: “He’s not a strategist in that way,” he said.

These days, Mr. Katz said he rarely destroys a canvas and estimates that he keeps hundreds of his own works in storage. The basic framework of his art hasn’t changed: He paints in a flat style, over the years repeatedly gravitating to landscapes, flowers and portraits of those summery models—as well as art friends and, most enduringly, his wife of 57 years, Ada.

The Paintings of Alex Katz

A painter best known for his portraits, artist Alex Katz recently finished landscapes for two new exhibits: one opening Saturday at his New York gallery, Gavin Brown’s enterprise, the other coming in June to Atlanta’s High Museum of Art.

‘Ada (Oval),’ 1959
‘Red House 2,’ 2013 | Gavin Brown’s enterprise: ‘Alex Katz,’ May 2-June 13
‘10 am,’ 2014
‘Night House 1,’ 2013
‘Untitled Cityscape 6,’ 2014
‘Wet Day,’ 2013
‘Blue Umbrella #2,’ 1972 | The High Museum of Art in Atlanta: ‘Alex Katz, This is Now,’ June 21- Sept. 6
‘White Roses 9,’ 2012
‘4:30 PM,’ 2007
‘Summer Picnic,’ 1975
‘10:30 AM,’ 2007-08
‘Sunset 1,’ 2008
Alex Katz mural to be on display in May at Barneys New York. Mural by Alex Katz created exclusively for his collaboration with Barneys and Art Production Fund.
‘Ada,’ 1959 | Colby College Museum of Art in Waterville, Maine: ‘Brand-New & Terrific: Alex Katz in the 1950s,’ July 11- Oct 18
‘Ada in Blue Sweater,’ 1959
‘Bather,’ 1959
‘Slab City Road,’ 1959
‘Double Portrait of Robert Rauschenberg,’ 1959
‘Goldenrod,’ 1955
‘Wildflowers in Vase,’ 1954-55
‘Ada (Oval),’ 1959
‘Red House 2,’ 2013 | Gavin Brown’s enterprise: ‘Alex Katz,’ May 2-June 13

PreviousNext

1 of 20fullscreen
‘Ada (Oval),’ 1959 ALEX KATZ
‘Red House 2,’ 2013 | Gavin Brown’s enterprise: ‘Alex Katz,’ May 2-June 13 ALEX KATZ/GAVIN BROWN’S ENTERPRISE
‘10 am,’ 2014 ALEX KATZ/GAVIN BROWN’S ENTERPRISE
‘Night House 1,’ 2013 ALEX KATZ/GAVIN BROWN’S ENTERPRISE
‘Untitled Cityscape 6,’ 2014 ALEX KATZ/GAVIN BROWN’S ENTERPRISE
‘Wet Day,’ 2013 ALEX KATZ/GAVIN BROWN’S ENTERPRISE
‘Blue Umbrella #2,’ 1972 | The High Museum of Art in Atlanta: ‘Alex Katz, This is Now,’ June 21- Sept. 6 ALEX KATZ/VAGA, NEW YORK, NY
‘White Roses 9,’ 2012 ALEX KATZ/VAGA, NEW YORK, NY
‘4:30 PM,’ 2007 ALEX KATZ/VAGA, NEW YORK, NY
‘Summer Picnic,’ 1975 ALEX KATZ/VAGA, NEW YORK, NY
‘10:30 AM,’ 2007-08 ALEX KATZ/VAGA, NEW YORK, NY
‘Sunset 1,’ 2008 ALEX KATZ/VAGA, NEW YORK, NY
Alex Katz mural to be on display in May at Barneys New York. Mural by Alex Katz created exclusively for his collaboration with Barneys and Art Production Fund. BARNEYS NEW YORK
‘Ada,’ 1959 | Colby College Museum of Art in Waterville, Maine: ‘Brand-New & Terrific: Alex Katz in the 1950s,’ July 11- Oct 18 ALEX KATZ
‘Ada in Blue Sweater,’ 1959 ALEX KATZ
‘Bather,’ 1959 ALEX KATZ
‘Slab City Road,’ 1959 ALEX KATZ
‘Double Portrait of Robert Rauschenberg,’ 1959 ALEX KATZ
‘Goldenrod,’ 1955 ALEX KATZ
‘Wildflowers in Vase,’ 1954-55 ALEX KATZ
‘Ada (Oval),’ 1959 ALEX KATZ
‘Red House 2,’ 2013 | Gavin Brown’s enterprise: ‘Alex Katz,’ May 2-June 13 ALEX KATZ/GAVIN BROWN’S ENTERPRISE

Despite his adherence to familiar themes, Mr. Katz’s admirers say the painter is as inventive as ever.

Robert Storr, dean of Yale University’s school of art, described visiting Mr. Katz recently and coming across a new painting—an image of a Manhattan building reflected on wet pavement that he said dazzled with its depth of observation. “It was a wonderful picture, and he has never made anything like it before,” he said. “He keeps going back to places he’s been with a new attack.”

Some art critics look at the paintings—including canvases of landscapes and flowers that have been a frequent sight at art fairs around the world over the years—and find less meaning. “The work has a tendency to look just pretty,” said Christian Viveros-Fauné, an art critic for the Village Voice and Artnet News. “The stuff I’m seeing around, the flower paintings, look awful easy and look like basically art-size decoration.”

Mr. Katz said the subject of his art is not the point. “Pretty girls and flowers? Come on. Trees? It’s not banal, but it’s pretty pedestrian,” he said. “The experience of it, the time and light, is the big thing.”

Famous artists with long careers are complex case studies. Spanish romantic painter Francisco Goya’s early years were a kind of warm-up act for what would come next: He was nearly 70 when in 1814 he completed “The Third of May 1808,” an iconic picture of an execution that many call the first modern painting. Pierre-Auguste Renoir is celebrated as a genius for his paintings into his midlife in the 1880s and 1890s, but now some critics call his late canvases low-brow. (They did back in the day, too: Impressionist painter Mary Cassatt once dismissed a group of them as pictures of “enormously fat red women with very small heads.”)

A popular exhibit about J.M.W. Turner now at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles argues that in old age the British artist freed himself from academic constraints and displayed supreme technical proficiency as a painter. He tested new subjects and formats—painting on canvases shaped like circles and octagons, for instance—and fully grasped nuances in nature and atmosphere. Today, the late work also stands out because it is viewed through the lens of the Impressionist and Abstract Expressionist movements that it foreshadowed, said Julian Brooks, the show’s co-curator.

The art establishment has run hot and cold on Mr. Katz: On one hand, he is a commanding figure in the art scene, cited as an important influence on contemporary artists such as David Salle, Francesco Clemente and Elizabeth Peyton. “Alex is a wonderful artist and he casts a big shadow that younger painters have to deal with,” said the artist Eric Fischl.

That said, Mr. Katz hasn’t had a major retrospective in New York since 1986. Mr. Storr called him “A prophet without his own country.” Dealer Gavin Brown said Mr. Katz’s works sell for a fraction of the prices fetched by many of his contemporaries, with the new works priced at $350,000 to $1.1 million. Mr. Katz’s auction record was set in 2007 with the $690,600 sale of a 1967 painting of tulips.

Lately, the artist has started basing work on photographs, what he calls a first. He is drawn to the variety of gestures his iPhone can capture with his models, though he had to ask a stranger on the street how to work the camera.

While curators examine his earliest work—a show about the artist’s 1950s pieces opens this July at the Colby College Museum of Art in Waterville, Maine—Mr. Katz is testing new partnerships. In May, he will unveil window displays and an accompanying line of housewares for the luxury retailer Barneys New York.

The artist said he does most of his work himself, though once a week, two assistants come to his fifth-floor studio to set up his canvases. For a single artwork, he begins by painting a small picture on Masonite, sometimes following with another painted study and eventually transferring the outlines of that image to a large canvas. The actual painting of the monumental picture goes quickly as he applies wet paint on previous layers of wet paint, leaving little room for error.

Lanky and bald, zipped into a paint-splattered turquoise hoodie on a recent morning, he described an exercise regimen that can last up to three hours a day in the summers (“running, swimming, bike riding, calisthenics”). The idea of politics in painting (“idear,” in the lingering Queens accent of his childhood) never held much appeal, he said. Youth and beauty continue to serve as inspirations.

He recently completed a canvas with six versions of the same blond woman in a black swimsuit shifting back and forth in space against a bright orange background, a work he said took experimental leaps with size and movement. Soon, he’ll return to Maine, as he does every summer, looking like a Sunday painter outside with his easel as he works on landscape studies.

The artist said he’s not confronting his mortality head-on in his work: “I’ve come to terms with that. I think it’s here and now. Eternity is in total consciousness.” Such complete awareness comes to him while painting, he said, comparing the feeling to running the 440-yard dash in high school. “There’s always the end, where there’s an enormous push,” he said. “I like the resistance of the painting. When you’re getting to the end of it, you’re pushing it and you don’t know whether you’re going to get it or not.”

Write to Ellen Gamerman at ellen.gamerman@wsj.com

Alex Katz

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Alex Katz
Chuck Close, Alex.jpg

Alex Katz
Born July 24, 1927 (age 89)
Brooklyn, New York
Nationality American
Education The Cooper Union, Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture
Known for Sculpture, Painting, Printmaking
Movement East Coast Figurative painting, New Realism, Pop Art

Alex Katz (born July 24, 1927) is an American figurative artist. In particular, he is known for his paintings, sculptures, and prints and is represented by numerous galleries internationally.

Early life and career[edit]

Alex Katz was born to a Jewish family[1] in Brooklyn, New York, as the son of an émigré who had lost a factory he owned in Russia to the Soviet revolution.[2] In 1928 the family moved to St. Albans, Queens, where Katz grew up.[3]

From 1946 to 1949 Katz studied at The Cooper Union in New York, and from 1949 to 1950 he studied at the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture in Skowhegan, Maine. Skowhegan exposed him to painting from life, which would prove pivotal in his development as a painter and remains a staple of his practices today. Katz explains that Skowhegan’s plein air painting gave him “a reason to devote my life to painting.”[4] Every year from early June to mid-September, Katz moves from his SoHo loft to a 19th-century clapboard farmhouse in Lincolnville, Maine.[5] A summer resident of Lincolnville since 1954, he has developed a close relationship with local Colby College.[citation needed] From 1954 to 1960, he made a number of small collages of still lifes, Maine landscapes, and small figures.[6] He met Ada Del Moro, who had studied biology at New York University, at a gallery opening in 1957.[2] In 1960, Katz had his first (and only) son, Vincent Katz. Vincent Katz had two sons, Isaac and Oliver, who have been the subjects of Katz’s paintings.

Katz has admitted to destroying a thousand paintings during his first ten years as a painter in order to find his style. Since the 1950s, he worked to create art more freely in the sense that he tried to paint “faster than [he] can think.”[7] His works seem simple, but according to Katz they are more reductive, which is fitting to his personality.[8] “(The) one thing I don’t want to do is things already done. As for particular subject matter, I don’t like narratives, basically.”[9]

Work[edit]

Katz achieved great public prominence in the 1980s.[10] He is well known for his large paintings, whose bold simplicity and heightened colours are now seen as precursors to Pop Art.[11]

Painting[edit]

Katz’s paintings are divided almost equally into the genres of portraiture and landscape. Since the 1960s he has painted views of New York (especially his immediate surroundings in Soho), the landscapes of Maine, where he spends several months every year, as well as portraits of family members, artists, writers and New York society protagonists.[12] His paintings are defined by their flatness of colour and form, their economy of line, and their cool but seductive emotional detachment.[13] A key source of inspiration is the woodcuts produced by Japanese artist Kitagawa Utamaro.[14]

In the early 1960s, influenced by films, television, and billboard advertising, Katz began painting large-scale paintings, often with dramatically cropped faces. Ada Katz, whom he married in 1958, has been the subject of over 250[15] portraits throughout his career.[16]To make one of his large works, Katz paints a small oil sketch of a subject on a masonite board; the sitting might take an hour and a half. He then makes a small, detailed drawing in pencil or charcoal, with the subject returning, perhaps, for the artist to make corrections. Katz next blows up the drawing into a “cartoon,” sometimes using an overhead projector, and transfers it to an enormous canvas via “pouncing”—a technique used by Renaissance artists, involving powdered pigment pushed through tiny perforations pricked into the cartoon to recreate the composition on the surface to be painted. Katz pre-mixes all his colors and gets his brushes ready. Then he dives in and paints the canvas—12 feet wide by 7 feet high or even larger—in a session of six or seven hours.

Beginning in the late 1950s, Katz developed a technique of painting on cut panels, first of wood, then aluminum, calling them “cutouts”. These works would occupy space like sculptures, but their physicality is compressed into planes, as with paintings.[17] In later works, the cutouts are attached to wide, U-shaped aluminum stands, with a flickering, cinematic presence enhanced by warm spotlights. Most are close-ups, showing either front-and-back views of the same figure’s head or figures who regard each other from opposite edges of the stand.[18]

After 1964, Katz increasingly portrayed groups of figures. He would continue painting these complex groups into the 1970s, portraying the social world of painters, poets, critics, and other colleagues that surrounded him. He began designing sets and costumes for choreographer Paul Taylor in the early 1960s, and he has painted many images of dancers throughout the years. One Flight Up (1968) consists of more than 30 portraits of some of the leading lights of New York’s intelligentsia during the late 1960s, such as the poet John Ashbery, the art critic Irving Sandler and the curator Henry Geldzahler, who championed Andy Warhol. Each portrait is painted using oils on both sides of a sliver of aluminium that has then been cut into the shape of the subject’s head and shoulders. The silhouettes are arranged predominantly in four long rows on a plain metal table.[19]

After his Whitney exhibition in 1974, Katz focused on landscapes stating “I wanted to make an environmental landscape, where you were IN it.”[20] In the late 1980s, Katz took on a new subject in his work: fashion models in designer clothing, including Kate Moss and Christy Turlington.[4] “I’ve always been interested in fashion because it’s ephemeral,” he said.[21]

Printmaking[edit]

In 1965, Katz also embarked on a prolific career in printmaking. Katz would go on to produce many editions in lithography, etching, silkscreen, woodcut and linoleum cut, producing over 400 print editions in his lifetime. The Albertina, Vienna, and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, hold complete collections of Katz print oeuvre. A print catalogue raisonné is due for release by the Albertina in the fall of 2011.

Public commissions[edit]

In 1977, Alex Katz was asked to create a work to be produced in billboard format above Times Square, New York City. The work, which was located at 42nd Street and 7th Avenue, consisted of a frieze composed of 23 portrait heads of women. Each portrait measured twenty feet high, and was based on a study Katz did from life. The billboard extended 247 feet long along two sides of the RKO General building and wrapped in thee tiers above on a 60-foot tower. Katz was commissioned in 1980 by the US General Service Administration’s Art in Architecture Program to create an oil on canvas mural in the new United States Attorney’s Building at Foley Square, New York City. The mural, located inside the Silvio V. Mollo Building at Cardinal Hayes Place & Park Row, is 20 feet high by 20 feet wide.[22] In 2005, Katz participated in a public art project Paint in the City commissioned by United Technologies Corporation and organized by Creative Time. The work, titled Give Me Tomorrow, reached 28 feet tall and 53 feet long on a billboard space above the Bowery Bar. Located on the corner of the Bowery and East Fourth Street in the East Village, the work was hand painted by sign painters and was installed during the summer of 2005.[23]

Collaborations[edit]

Katz has collaborated with poets and writers since the 1960s, producing several notable editions such as “Face of the Poet”[24] combining his images with poetry from his circle, such as Ted Berrigan, Ann Lauterbach, Carter Ratcliff, and Gerard Malanga. He has worked with the poet John Ashbery, creating publications entitled “Fragment”[25] in 1966 and “Coma Berenices”.[26] in 2005. He has worked with Vincent Katz on “A Tremor in the Morning”[27] and “Swimming Home”.[28] Katz also made 25 etchings for the Arion Press edition of Gloria with 28 poems by Bill Berkson. Other collaborators include Robert Creeley, with whom he produced “Edges”[29] and “Legeia: A Libretto”.[30] and Kenneth Koch, producing “Interlocking Lives”.[31] In 1962, Harper’s Bazaar incorporated numerous wooden cutouts by Katz for a four-page summer fashion spread.

Numerous publications outline Katz’s career’s many facets: from Alex Katz in Maine[32] published by the Farnsworth Art Museum to the catalogue Alex Katz New York,[33] published by the Irish Museum of Modern Art. Alex Katz Seeing Drawing, Making,[34] published in 2008, describes Katz’s multiple-stage process of first producing charcoal drawings, small oil studies, and large cartoons for placing the image on the canvas and the final painting of the canvas. In 2005, Phaidon Press published an illustrated survey, Alex Katz, by Carter Ratcliff, Robert Storr and Iwona Blazwick. In 1989, a special edition of Parkett was devoted to Katz, showing that he is now considered a major reference for younger painters and artists.[35] Over the years, Francesco Clemente, Enzo Cucchi, Liam Gillick, Peter Halley, David Salle and Richard Prince have written essays about his work or conducted interviews with him.[36]

Exhibitions[edit]

Since 1951, Alex Katz’s work has been the subject of more than 200 solo exhibitions and nearly 500 group exhibitions throughout the United States and internationally.[3] Katz’ first one-person show was an exhibition of paintings at the Roko Gallery in New York in 1954. In 1974 the Whitney Museum of American Art showed Alex Katz Prints, followed by a traveling retrospective exhibition of paintings and cutouts titled Alex Katz in 1986. The subject of over 200 solo exhibitions and nearly 500 group shows internationally, Katz has since been honoured with numerous retrospectives at museums including the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Brooklyn Museum, New York; the Jewish Museum, New York; the Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin; Colby College Museum of Art, Maine; Staaliche Kunsthalle, Baden-Baden; Fondazione Bevilacqua La Masa, Venice, Centro de Arte Contemporáneo de Málaga and the Saatchi Gallery, London (1998).[37] In 1998, a survey of Katz’ landscape paintings was shown at the P.S. 1 Contemporary Art Center, featuring nearly 40 pared-down paintings of urban or pastoral motifs.[38]

Katz is represented by Gavin Brown’s Enterprise in New York, Timothy Taylor Gallery in London, and Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac in Paris/Salzburg. Before showing with Brown, he had been represented by Pace Gallery for 10 years and by Marlborough Gallery for 30 years.[39]

Collections[edit]

Katz’s work is in the collections of over 100 public institutions worldwide, including the Honolulu Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art, New York, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY; Whitney Museum of American Art, NY; the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.; Carnegie Museum of Art; the Art Institute of Chicago; Cleveland Museum of Art; the Tate Gallery, London; the Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris; Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid; Metropolitan Museum of Art, Tokyo; the Nationalgalerie, Berlin; and the Museum Brandhorst, Munich.[40] In 2010, Anthony d’Offay donated a group of works by Katz to the National Galleries of Scotland and Tate; they are shown as part of the national touring programme, Artist Rooms.[41][42] In 2011, Katz donated Rush (1971), a series of 37 painted life-size cutout heads on aluminum, to the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; the piece is installed, frieze-like, in its own space.[43]

Recognition[edit]

Throughout his career, Katz has been the recipient of numerous awards, including The John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Fellowship for Painting in 1972, and in 1987, both Pratt Institute‘s Mary Buckley Award for Achievement and The Queens Museum of Art Award for Lifetime Achievement. The Chicago Bar Association honored Katz with the Award for Art in Public Places in 1985. In 1978, Katz received the U.S. Government grant to participate in an educational and cultural exchange with the USSR.[44] Katz was awarded the John Simon Guggenheim Fellowship for Painting in 1972. Katz was inducted by the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1988, and recognized with honorary doctorates by Colby College, Maine (1984) and Colgate University, Hamilton, New York, (2005). In 1990 he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member, and became a full Academician in 1994. He was named the Philip Morris Distinguished Artist at the American Academy in Berlin in 2001 and received the Cooper Union Annual Artist of the City Award in 2000. In addition to this honor, in 1994 Cooper Union Art School created the Alex Katz Visiting Chair in Painting with an endowment provided by the sale of ten paintings donated by the artist, a position first held by the painter and art critic Merlin James.[45] In 2005, Katz was the honored artist at the Chicago Humanities Festival‘s Inaugural Richard Gray Annual Visual Arts Series. In 2007, he was honoured with a Lifetime Achievement Award from the National Academy of Design, New York.[37]

In October 1996, the Colby College Museum of Art opened a 10,000-square-foot wing dedicated to Katz that features more than 400 oil paintings, collages, and prints donated by the artist.[46] In addition, he has purchased numerous pieces for the museum by artists such as Jennifer Bartlett, Chuck Close, Francesco Clemente, Elizabeth Murray. In 2004, he curated a show at Colby of younger painters Elizabeth Peyton, Peter Doig and Merlin James, who work in the same figurative territory staked out by Katz.[2]

In 1996, Vincent Katz and Vivien Bittencourt produced a video titled Alex Katz: Five Hours, documenting the production of his painting January 3.[47] and in 2008 he was the subject of a documentary directed by Heinz Peter Schwerfel, entitled What About Style? Alex Katz: a Painter’s Painter.

Legacy[edit]

Katz’ work is said to have influenced many following painters, such as David Salle, Peter Halley and Richard Prince,[13] as well as younger artists like Peter Doig, Julian Opie, Liam Gillick, Elizabeth Peyton, Barb Januszkiewicz, Johan Andersson,[19] and Brian Alfred.[15] Furthermore, it has become ubiquitous in advertising and graphic design.[citation needed]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. Jump up^ Snider, Suzanne, “Why do Alex Katz’s elegant canvases strike critics as the ultimate in WASP art?”, Tablet, A New Read on Jewish Life, November 21, 2006
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b c Cathleen McGuigan (August 2009), Alex Katz Is Cooler Than Ever Smithsonian Magazine.
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b ALEX KATZ: Selections from the Whitney Museum of American Art, June 29 – October 13, 2013 Nassau County Museum of Art, Roslyn Harbor.
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b Alex Katz. “Alex Katz”. Phaidon, 2005. p. 210.
  5. Jump up^ Grace Glueck (September 9, 2005), Clever Collages and Quiet Maine Scenes: Two Sides of Alex Katz New York Times.
  6. Jump up^ “Alex Katz in Conversation with Phong Bui”. Brooklyn Rail. May 2009.
  7. Jump up^ Shama, Simon, Dave Hickey, Alanna Heiss. “Alex Katz Under the Stars: American Landscapes 1951–1995” (exh. cat.). New York: The Institute for Contemporary Art/ P. S. 1 Museum, 1996.
  8. Jump up^ Robert Ayers (January 18, 2006), National Alex Katz, ARTINFO, retrieved 2008-04-16
  9. Jump up^ David Salle (March 4, 2013), In Conversation, The Brooklyn Rail, retrieved 2013-07-22
  10. Jump up^ Alex Katz Museum of Modern Art, New York.
  11. Jump up^ Alex Katz, Lilies Against Yellow House (1983) National Galleries of Scotland.
  12. Jump up^ Alex Katz: FACE THE MUSIC, October 20 – November 19, 20119 Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Paris.
  13. ^ Jump up to:a b Alex Katz, 19 May – 23 September 2012 Tate St Ives.
  14. Jump up^ Alex Katz: Fashion and Studies, January 14 – February 14, 2009 Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Paris.
  15. ^ Jump up to:a b Martha Schwendener (August 29, 2013), Overcoming the Orthodoxy of AbstractionNew York Times.
  16. Jump up^ Lawrence Alloway, “Alex Katz Paints Ada” Yale University Press, 2006. p. 93.
  17. Jump up^ Carter Ratcliff, “Alex Katz, Cutouts” Hatje Cantz Publishers, 2003, p. 26
  18. Jump up^ Karen Rosenberg (February 13, 2014), Alex Katz / Dara Friedman New York Times.
  19. ^ Jump up to:a b Alastair Sooke (May 17, 2010), Alex Katz at the National Portrait Gallery The Daily Telegraph.
  20. Jump up^ Alex Katz, “Invented Symbols”, Cantz Verlag, 1997, p. 87
  21. Jump up^ Cathleen McGuigan (200), National Alex Katz, Smithsonian Magazine, retrieved 2011-01-25
  22. Jump up^ “Alex Katz – Public Art”.
  23. Jump up^ “Alex Katz – Public Art”.
  24. Jump up^ Berrigan, Ted et al. (Kenward Elmslie, John Godfrey, Ted Greenwald, Michael Lally, Ann Lauterbach, Gerard Malanga, Alice Notley, John Perreault, Carter Ratcliff, Rene Ricard, Peter Schjeldahl, Tony Towle, Bill Zavatsky) and Alex Katz “Face of the Poet”, New York: Brooke Alexander, Inc., NY and Marlborough Graphics, 1978.
  25. Jump up^ Ashbery, John and Alex Katz, “Fragment” Los Angeles: Black Sparrow Press, 1966
  26. Jump up^ Ashbery, John and Alex Katz, “Coma Berenices”. Photogravure images by Alex Katz; with text by John Ashbery. Tampa: Graphicstudio, Institute for Research in Art, 2005.]
  27. Jump up^ Katz, Vincent and Alex Katz, “A Tremor In The Morning”, New York: Peter Blum Edition, 1986.]
  28. Jump up^ Katz, Vincent and Alex Katz, “Swimming Home”, Photogravure images by Alex Katz with poem by Vincent Katz. Tampa: Graphicstudio/University of South Florida, 2011.
  29. Jump up^ Creeley, Robert and Alex Katz, “Edges” New York: Peter Blum Edition, 1998.]
  30. Jump up^ Creeley, Robert, “Ligeia: A Libretto” Set design sketch by Alex Katz. New York and Minneapolis: Granary Books; Hermetic Press, 1996.
  31. Jump up^ Koch, Kenneth and Alex Katz, “Interlocking Lives” New York: Kulchur Press, 1970.
  32. Jump up^ Schwartz, Sanford and Vincent Katz. “Alex Katz in Maine”. Milan, Italy and Rockland, Maine: Charta; The Farnsworth Art Museum, 2005.
  33. Jump up^ Bonet, Juan Manuel. New York. Dublin, Ireland: Irish Museum of Modern art and Charta, 2007.
  34. Jump up^ Moos, David and Kadee Robbins, “Alex Katz Seeing Drawing Making”, WIndsor Press, 2008.
  35. Jump up^ [1] http://www.parkettart.com
  36. Jump up^ Alex Katz: An American Way of Seeing”. Sara Hilden Art Museum, Musee de Grenoble, Museum Kurhaus Kleve, 2009. p. 130.
  37. ^ Jump up to:a b Alex Katz Timothy Taylor Gallery, London.
  38. Jump up^ Roberta Smith (May 1, 1998), A 2d Look Reveals Surprises New York Times.
  39. Jump up^ Sarah Douglas (September 13, 2011), (When Gavin Brown Met Alex Katz: An Artist’s New Show Is At An Unexpected Venue New York Observer.
  40. Jump up^ Alex Katz, September 10 – October 08, 2011 Gavin Brown’s enterprise, New York.
  41. Jump up^ Alex Katz, 4 March – 9 April 2010 Timothy Taylor Gallery, London.
  42. Jump up^ “ARTIST ROOMS: Alex Katz – Tate”.
  43. Jump up^ Alex Katz Prints, April 28, 2012 – July 29, 2012 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
  44. Jump up^ Sara Hilden Art Museum “Alex Katz: An American Way of Seeing”. Sara Hilden Art Museum, Musee de Grenoble, Museum Kurhaus Kleve, 2009. p. 130.
  45. Jump up^ James, Merlin. “Painting per se” lecture delivered at Cooper Union Great Hall, New York, 28th February 2002.
  46. Jump up^ colby.edu, accessed September 21, 2007.
  47. Jump up^ [2] http://www.alexkatz.com

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

________________________
Alex Katz

 ________

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Image result for john hospers

John Hospers on His Friendship with Ayn Rand

 

John Hospers, R.I.P.

 | 

John Hospers, distinguished author and philosopher, first presidential candidate of the Libertarian Party, and a senior editor of Liberty, died in Los Angeles on June 12. He was 93 and had been in fragile health for over a year.

John was a modest and self-skeptical man, but his accomplishments were legion. Born in provincial Iowa of Dutch immigrant stock, he became an internationally recognized philosopher, editor of The Personalist and later of The Monist — two of the most important academic journals of philosophy — and chairman of the Department of Philosophy at the University of Southern California. An early organizer of the Libertarian Party, he was its standard bearer in the election of 1972, in which he and his running mate, Tonie Nathan, achieved a vote in the Electoral College, making Tonie the only woman who had ever done so.

John used to laugh about his encounter with one of his academic colleagues in the hallways of USC during the presidential campaign:

“Hello, John. What are you doing these days?”

“I’m running for president.”

“I didn’t know that. President of the APA!” (APA stands for the American Philosophical Association.)

“Oh no. President of the United States.”

John ran a vigorous campaign (and enjoyed it). Many years later, I got him to write the inside story of this episode, exclusive to Liberty. It’s in our June 2007 issue, and includes a good picture of the candidate.

Before the election, John had published a thoughtful book about the idea of liberty, Libertarianism (1971). As editor of The Personalist, he gave many young libertarians, such as Robert Nozick, their first chance to publish. John was an early and regular contributor to Reason, and starting in the early 1990s he contributed many important articles to Liberty. Usually it worked like this: John would make a comment about a topic that appealed to him. Bill Bradford or I would suggest that he write something about it. “Oh,” John would say, “do you really think people would be interested?” “Yes, John,” we’d reply, “they certainly would be.” Then we’d give him our reasons for saying so. “Well, I don’t know,” he’d say. He’d think it over for a while, and about half the time he would write the article.

Bill and I were right: our readers were always interested in what John had to say. It wasn’t just that he was John Hospers and had a historic importance for libertarians. It was that John had a way of combining the provocative with the calmly, steadily rational — a rare intellectual achievement.

From 1960 to 1962, John was an intimate friend of Ayn Rand, the novelist and philosopher who was one of the greatest influences on modern American libertarianism. John met her not as a disciple (at a time when she engaged with few people who were not disciples) but as a person of independent intellectual development and ideas. Indeed, with the exception of Isabel Paterson in the early 1940s, he was probably the only person who ever debated both amicably and determinedly with Rand. On many occasions, he and Rand stayed up all night, discussing everything in the world, without pretense or intimidation, like Athena and Odysseus sitting together on the shores of Ithaka, plotting the institution of a just society.

John told the story of their relationship, and of its eventual sundering, in an important two-part article in Liberty(July and Sept. 1990). He added another chapter in our August 2006 issue. I think you’ll enjoy those articles.

John’s relationship with Rand ended in one of those disasters that were inevitable with her. I used to wonder how anyone, even she, could quarrel with someone so intelligent, so gentle, so transparently sincere, so sweet as John — or with someone who loved her as much as he did. I’m sorry I never asked him that question, in just that way. Of Rand he told me, with tears in his eyes, “She had so few friends.”

John was a quiet, meditative person, who could sit listening for hours while other people talked, not feeling that the right note had yet been struck for his own intervention. But if you drew him aside, and made just a little effort to draw him out, he was a warm and delightful conversationalist. Personal warmth was important for him. He had it banked up inside him, in his private feelings: his memories of his family, especially of his immigrant great-grandmother, who lived to be a hundred years old, who was kind to him, and talkative about important things; his feelings of disappointment when the Libertarian Party no longer sought his advice, when it failed even to notice him anymore; his concerns about the future of the country, regarding which he was very pessimistic, fearing that the public demand for welfare had become so insistent and so chronic that a truly liberal social order could never be reachieved. He was particularly fearful about the political effects of open immigration, against which he argued with a logic that had been endorsed by every earlier libertarian leader, but that many current leaders of the movement had since repudiated.

I sometimes argued with John. I argued against his pessimism, and he always said, smiling, “Well, I hope you are right.” I argued against his religious agnosticism, and John, who had been brought up in very pious surroundings, always said, “What people don’t understand is that before we argue about God’s existence, we must first define what we mean by God.” My attempts to address the topic by using standard, operative definitions of God — “the creator of the world, who has sometimes intervened in its affairs” — got me precisely nowhere. For Hospers the analytical philosopher, that wasn’t nearly good enough. But I did get him to publish a riposte to my own theism in Liberty’s Jan.-Feb. 2008 issue.

I believe that was, very unfortunately, the last essay John ever wrote. His response to my frequent entreaties to publish something more about his many interests were unavailing. He would say, “I’m not sure I have anything to add. If I do, of course, I’ll send it.” When I suggested that if everyone took that approach, scholarly publication would cease, he enjoyed the joke, but his severe judgment of what it means to “add” to intellectual conversation prevailed. He was, indeed, a modest man.

John could occasionally be acerbic, when he felt that proper definitions, proper philosophic standards, were not in place — although he was never that way in conversing with me, or other people I know. Smiles, and carefully considered comments, and graceful encouragement to continue the conversation, whether he agreed with you or not — those were John’s hallmarks. In his later years, he was the center of a group of friends — including people of all ages, from his own down to the early twenties — who met for regular viewing and discussion of classic films. Enviable group! John had an encyclopedic knowledge of the movies, and his own taste was not only catholic but insightful and . . . here’s that word again: warm. Beneath the modest, judicious, (not unduly) professorial exterior was a heart full of feeling for any real human accomplishment, for anything that made life pleasant, graceful, witty, noble, or courageous. And John was all those things, himself.

Here is a portion of Hospers’ June 2, 1994 letter to me: 

The tape is horrible. The mealy-mouthed sanctimoniousness is repellent enough (under the guise of humility). But the arguments are just simply awful.

How can I know the Bible is the Word of God? by Adrian Rogers

___________________

Also included on the cassette tape I sent to Dr. Hospers were these words below by Adrian Rogers (who is pictured below)

Image result for young adrian rogers

There are certain facts that cause me to believe the Bible is the word of God. I don’t believe the Bible is the Word of God by mere blind faith. As a matter of fact, I don’t like the term BLIND FAITH. When someone tells me to believe the first question that comes in my mind is WHY SHOULD I BELIEVE? A little boy was asked WHAT IS FAITH? and he said, “That is you believe what you know isn’t so.” No that is not [Biblical] faith. Faith is rooted in evidence. Faith is rooted in facts. I don’t have confidence in just quote  JUST BELIEVING.

I heard of the story of the boy who fell over a cliff and many hundreds of feet below were the jagged rocks and he grabbed a limb and was holding on swinging suspended in midair. It was too high to climb to the top and below was certain death. He began to yell at the top of his voice, “Help me is there anybody up there? Help me!”

A voice came and said, “I am here.” The boy said, “Help me!!” The voice said, “Very well. Let go of the limb.” The boy said, “Is anybody else up there?”

I am very much like this boy. WHY SHOULD WE JUST DO SOMETHING JUST BECAUSE SOMEONE SAYS SO? We need to have some evidence before we can have some faith. The Christian faith is rooted not in fable but in fact, and when you believe the Bible it is not a leap into the dark but it is a step into the light.

Let me give you some facts as to why I believe the Bible is the Word of God. Turn with me to the book of Luke 1:1-4. You are going to find that the Book of Luke is a historical document.

Luke 1 New King James Version (NKJV)

Inasmuch as many have taken in hand to set in order a narrative of those things which have been fulfilled[a] among us, just as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word delivered them to us, it seemed good to me also, having had perfect understanding of all things from the very first, (THAT MAY BE TRANSLATED “having understanding of things from above”) to write to you an orderly account, most excellent Theophilus, that you may know the certainty of those things in which you were instructed.

Now Luke said, Theophilus, you want to know about these things? He said, “Number one, I have interviewed eyewitnesses. Number two, I was careful and accurate in my historical research.” There was a man named Sir William Ramsay, who was the professor of humanities at Aberdeen University in Scotland. He was reputed to be the most eminent authority on the geography and history of ancient Asia Minor. At first he assumed that Luke’s writings were mainly a fabrication. But upon much more careful investigation, he came to an opposite conclusion. He wrote a book about Luke entitled, “The Beloved Physician”, in which he declared Luke to be one of the world’s greatest historians. And this is what he said after he took a more careful look, and I quote: “I take the view that Luke’s history is unsurpassed in regard to its trustworthiness. You may press the words of Luke in a degree beyond any other historian’s and they will stand the keenest scrutiny and the hardest treatment.”

(Sir William Ramsay pictured below,  March 1851 –  April 1939)

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Let me give you an example of what he’s talking about. In Luke 2:1-2, Luke states that the birth of Jesus was when Quirinius was the governor of Syria. And historians knew that Quirinius was governor A.D. 8 through 10. And yet, the Bible teaches that Jesus was born before the death of Herod. And Herod the Great died in 4 B.C. So, they say, “See there, the Bible is full of errors.” But as Sir William Ramsey continued to study, he found out that Quirinius was governor twice. The first time, when Jesus was born, and then he was governor again later. Isn’t that wonderful? But you see, those are the kind of things that somebody might read carelessly and say, “Well, the Bible is not the inspired Word of God.” But the more we do historical research, the more the Bible is confirmed.

Image result for quirinus

Do you remember the story about the handwriting on the wall that is found in the fifth chapter of Daniel? Belshazzar hosted a feast with a thousand of his lords and ladies. Suddenly, a gruesome hand appeared out of nowhere and began to write on a wall. The king was disturbed and asked for someone to interpret the writing. Daniel was found and gave the interpretation. After the interpretation, “Then commanded Belshazzar, and they clothed Daniel with scarlet, and put a chain of gold about his neck, and made a proclamation concerning him, that he should be the third ruler in the kingdom.” (Daniel 5:29). Basing their opinion on Babylonian records, the historians claim this never happened. According to the records, the last king of Babylon was not Belshazzar, but a man named Nabonidas. And so, they said, the Bible is in error. There wasn’t a record of a king named Belshazzar. Well, the spades of archeologists continued to do their work. In 1853, an inscription was found on a cornerstone of a temple built by Nabonidas, to the god Ur, which read: “May I, Nabonidas, king of Babylon, not sin against thee. And may reverence for thee dwell in the heart of Belshazzar, my first-born favorite son.” From other inscriptions, it was learned that Belshazzar and Nabonidas were co-regents. Nabonidas traveled while Belshazzar stayed home to run the kingdom. Now that we know that Belshazzar and Nabonidas were co-regents, it makes sense that Belshazzar would say that Daniel would be the third ruler. What a marvelous nugget of truth tucked away in the Word of God!

(‘Belshazzar’s Feast’ by Rembrandt, about 1635)

Image result for rembrandt belshazzar

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Is the Bible historically accurate? Here are some of the posts I have done in the past on the subject: 1. The Babylonian Chronicleof Nebuchadnezzars Siege of Jerusalem2. Hezekiah’s Siloam Tunnel Inscription. 3. Taylor Prism (Sennacherib Hexagonal Prism)4. Biblical Cities Attested Archaeologically. 5. The Discovery of the Hittites6.Shishak Smiting His Captives7. Moabite Stone8Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III9A Verification of places in Gospel of John and Book of Acts., 9B Discovery of Ebla Tablets10. Cyrus Cylinder11. Puru “The lot of Yahali” 9th Century B.C.E.12. The Uzziah Tablet Inscription13. The Pilate Inscription14. Caiaphas Ossuary14 B Pontius Pilate Part 214c. Three greatest American Archaeologists moved to accept Bible’s accuracy through archaeology.

 The Bible and Archaeology – Is the Bible from God? (Kyle Butt)

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During the 1990′s I actually made it a practice to write famous atheists and scientists that were mentioned by Adrian Rogers and Francis Schaeffer and challenge them with the evidence for the Bible’s historicity and the claims of the gospel. Usually I would send them a cassette tape of Adrian Rogers’ messages “6 reasons I know the Bible is True,” “The Final Judgement,” “Who is Jesus?” and the message by Bill Elliff, “How to get a pure heart.”  I would also send them printed material from the works of Francis Schaeffer and a personal apologetic letter from me addressing some of the issues in their work. My second cassette tape that I sent to both Antony Flew and George Wald was Adrian Rogers’ sermon on evolution and here below you can watch that very sermon on You Tube.   Carl Sagan also took time to correspond with me about a year before he died. 

(Francis Schaeffer pictured below)

Image result for francis schaeffer

Adrian Rogers pictured below

I have posted on Adrian Rogers’ messages on Evolution before but here is a complete message on it.

Evolution: Fact of Fiction? By Adrian Rogers

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Featured artist is Mel Ramos 

Image result for Mel Ramos pop art

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Mel Ramos is a legend in Pop Art. In 1954, he begins to study at the Sacramento Junior College and at the Art Studio of California State University.

image

Mel Ramos is a legend in Pop Art. In 1954, he begins to study at the Sacramento Junior College and at the Art Studio of California State University. By 1958 he had already taken a teaching position at Elk Grove High School and California State University. Firstly Ramos painted famous comic book figures, such as Batman and Superman, who embody a new genre in mass culture. These comic books served as an initial template for his work in the early sixties.

In 1963 Ramos took part in the exhibition “Pop Goes East” with his work of that time at the Contemporary Art Museum in Houston and in 1964 he opened his first solo exhibition in a New York gallery. Ramos became established as a leading representative in Pop Art, alongside well known artists such as Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein.

In the mid sixties Ramos was occupied with the artistic representation of Pin Up girls and the depiction of adverts which used sensual femininity. What should be understood as a parody of the marketing strategy of the advertising industry that used feminine sexual attraction to influence consumer behaviour, later became a central theme of Ramos’ work. From then on cola bottles, cigarette packets and cheese pieces with sprawling Pin Up girls dominated his work.
The exhibition shows an extensive cross section of his graphic reproductions as well as some paintings and sculptures, including some of the most famous works of Pop Art.

The exhibition will be accompanied by a documentary by N-TV Art.

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Image result for Mel Ramos pop art

The important Pop Artist Mel Ramos had dedicated his largest European retrospective to the World Cultural Heritage Site at the Völklingen Ironworks from 18th June to 8th January, 2012. It is arriving to the World Cultural Heritage Site at the Völklingen Ironworks directly from the Albertina in Vienna, before its return to the USA.

Alongside the 75th birthday of the Californian artist, the exhibition also marks the occasion of 50 years of the Pop Art movement. This representative cross-section of Ramos’s life’s work embraces paintings, conceptual sketches and sculptures.

Creative phases in the show are represented by major works: early paintings that take leave of Abstract Expressionism, the presentation of comic heroes and Wonder Women of the 1960s and of course his Commercial Pin-ups, for which, at the end of the 1960s, Ramos became garnered great renown. In the oil-painted satirical pastiches of brand advertising, pin-up girls nestle up to gigantic coke bottles, cigarette packets and cheese cubes.

The exhibition at the World Cultural Heritage Site at the Völklingen Ironworks is exhibiting the series A Salute to Art History, in which he imbued nude paintings by classical masters with the sex appeal of pop culture including views of the Californian landscape that no one but Ramos would refer to. In addition recent works such as the series Galatea and elements from his excursion into the world of sculpture feature in Mel Ramos’ retrospective at the World Cultural Heritage Site at the Völklingen Ironworks.

Mel Ramos is an American Pop artist best known for his female nudes painted alongside brand logos. Ramos’ pointed coupling of women with familiar products serves as a commentary on the ways in which modern culture has cast the female body as interchangeable with beauty and consumerism. Like Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol, Ramos found imagery from comic books inspirational for his highly graphic style and grew up drawing the cartoons and characters from their pages. Born on July 24, 1935 in Sacramento, CA, Ramos studied art at Sacramento State College under the tutelage of his mentor and friend, Wayne Thiebaud, and where he earned both his BA and MA degrees. The painter and printmaker’s work is part of the collections at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, and the Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles, among others. He currently lives and works in Oakland, CA and Spain.

Image result for Mel Ramos pop art

POSTCARD Mel Ramos Artist Man of Steel Pop Art 1962 Artwork Superman

Mel Ramos

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Wonder Woman by Mel Ramos

Image result for Mel Ramos pop art

Mel Ramos

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mel Ramos
Mel Ramos 2007.JPG

Mel Ramos 2007
Born 24 July 1935 (age 79)
Sacramento, California
Nationality United States
Education Sacramento State College, M.A., 1958[1]
Known for Painting, Drawing, figurative painter
Movement Pop art
Awards National Endowment for the Arts – Visual Artist’s Fellowship Grant, 1986[1]

Mel Ramos (born July 24, 1935) is a U.S. figurative painter, specializing most often in paintings of female nudes, whose work incorporates elements of realist and abstract art. Born in Sacramento, California, to a first generation Portuguese-Azorean immigrant family, he gained his popularity as part of the Pop Art movement of the 1960s. Ramos is “best known for his paintings of superheroes and voluptuous female nudes emerging from cornstalks or Chiquita bananas, popping up from candy wrappers or lounging in martini glasses”.[2] He is also a retired university art professor.

Education[edit]

Ramos attended Sacramento Junior College and San Jose State College. One of his earliest art teachers was Wayne Thiebaud, who is considered his mentor, and who remains a friend. Ramos received his B.A. and his M.A. from Sacramento State College, finishing his education in 1958.[1]

Academic career[edit]

Ramos taught art at Elk Grove High School and Mira Loma High School in Sacramento from 1958 to 1966. After two brief college teaching assignments, he began a long career at California State University, East Bay in Hayward, California which lasted from 1966 to 1997, and where he is now Professor Emeritus. He has been Artist in Residence at Syracuse University and the University of Wisconsin.[1]

Marriage[edit]

Ramos married Leta Ramos in 1955, and she was the model for many of his early nude paintings.[1]

Art career[edit]

Mel Ramos – Exhibition in Crocker Art Museum, Sacramento, 2012

Ramos received his first important recognition in the early 1960s; since 1959 he has participated in more than 120 group shows. Along with Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol, he was one of the first artists to do paintings of images from comic books, and works of the three were exhibited together at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art in 1963.[1] Along with Claes Oldenburg, James Rosenquist, Tom Wesselman and Wayne Thiebaud, Ramos produced art works that celebrated aspects of popular cultureas represented in mass media. His paintings have been shown in major exhibitions of Pop art in the U.S. and in Europe, and reproduced in books, catalogs, and periodicals throughout the world.

In 2009, Ramos was part of the first Portuguese American bilingual art book and exhibit in California “Ashes to Life a Portuguese American Story in Art” with fellow artists Nathan Oliveira, John Mattos and Joao de Brito.

Ramos has been represented by the Louis K. Meisel Gallery since 1971. He has also been represented for many years by San Francisco’s Modernism gallery and Galerie Ernst Hilger, Austria.

A major exhibition of his work was held at the Albertina in Vienna in 2011.[3][4]

A retrospective of over 50 years of his work opened at the Crocker Art Museum in his hometown of Sacramento on June 2, 2012.[1][2] This show is “the first major exhibition of his work in his hometown”, and his first American retrospective in 35 years.[5]

Image result for mel ramos art

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Shields, Scott A.; Johnathon Keats; Diana L. Daniels (2012). Mel Ramos: 50 Years of Superheroes, Nudes, and Other Pop Delights. San Francisco: Modernism, Inc. ISBN 978-09830673-2-0.
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b Dalkey, Victoria (June 3, 2012). “Mel Ramos retrospective at Sacramento’s Crocker Art Museum”. Sacramento Bee (Sacramento). Retrieved June 3, 2012.
  3. Jump up^ “MEL RAMOS: GIRLS, CANDIES & COMICS”. Albertina, Vienna. 2011. Retrieved June 3, 2012.
  4. Jump up^ Letze, Otto; Klaus Honnef; illustrated by Mel Ramos (2010). Mel Ramos: 50 Years of Pop Art. Berlin: Hatje Cantz. ISBN 9783775725316.
  5. Jump up^ “Crocker Art Museum presents first hometown survey for internationally acclaimed artist Mel Ramos”. ArtDaily. June 4, 2012. Retrieved June 3, 2012.

External links[edit]

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FRANCIS SCHAEFFER ANALYZES ART AND CULTURE PART 152 John Hospers Part H, this post includes portion of 6-2-94 letter from Hospers to me blasting Christian Evangelicalism, (Featured artist is David Salle )

Here is a link to an interesting by John Hospers on his presidential race in 1972.

I sent a cassette tape of Adrian Rogers on Evolution to John Hospers in May of 1994 which was the 10th anniversary of Francis Schaeffer’s passing and I promptly received a typed two page response from Dr. John Hospers. Dr. Hospers had both read my letter and all the inserts plus listened to the whole sermon and had some very angry responses. If you would like to hear the sermon from Adrian Rogers and read the transcript then refer to my earlier post at this link.  Over the last few weeks I have posted  portions of Dr. Hospers’ letter and portions of the cassette tape that he listened to back in 1994, but today I want  to look at some other comments made on that cassette tape that John Hospers listened to and I will also post a few comments that Dr. Hospers made in that 2 page letter.

 

Image result for john hospers

Birth of Objectivism – John Hospers on Ayn Rand (excerpt)

I started off the cassette tape that I sent to Dr. Hospers with this song below:

Kansas – Dust in the Wind (Official Video)

Uploaded on Nov 7, 2009

Pre-Order Miracles Out of Nowhere now at http://www.miraclesoutofnowhere.com

About the film:
In 1973, six guys in a local band from America’s heartland began a journey that surpassed even their own wildest expectations, by achieving worldwide superstardom… watch the story unfold as the incredible story of the band KANSAS is told for the first time in the DVD Miracles Out of Nowhere.

Here is a portion of Hospers’ June 2, 1994 letter to me that refers to the song DUST IN THE WIND specially to his message that WE ARE JUST DUST IN THE WIND ultimately:

Then follows one of the countless non sequiturs in your missive: IF LIFE HAS MEANING BECAUSE OF RELATIONSHIPS, DOES LIFE HAVE ETERNAL MEANING ONLY IF WE HAVE ETERNAL RELATIONSHIPS?

First, does life have meaning only because of relationships? with whom? are animals included? books? anyway, why should life be MEANINGFUL only because of relationships? A very doubtful premise.

Second, nothing follows from this about ETERNAL RELATIONSHIPS, as any elementary student of logic knows. Why should relationships be eternal? Our lives can have profound meaning thru various activities and relationships; why do they have to be eternal? Why is it so uncomfortable for you to realize that all things pass?  They are none the less real and noble because they are temporary. In another couple of thousand years. the earth will undergo another ice age; in another 6 billion years the sun will be extinguished and life on earth no longer possible. That’s just a fact; can’t you face facts? why do you have to spin fancies to feed your wishes, and make things other than they are? Can’t you take reality straight? The child demands the universe to be as he wishes it; I would think we would get over that delusion by the time we become adults.

I sent Dr. John Hospers a cassette tape that started off with this song  DUST IN THE WIND by Kerry Livgren of the group KANSAS which was a hit song in 1978 when it rose to #6 on the charts because so many people connected with the message of the song. It included these words, “All we do, crumbles to the ground though we refuse to see, Dust in the Wind, All we are is dust in the wind, Don’t hang on, Nothing lasts forever but the Earth and Sky, It slips away, And all your money won’t another minute buy.”

Kerry Livgren himself said that he wrote the song because he saw where man was without a personal God in the picture. Solomon pointed out in the Book of Ecclesiastes that those who believe that God doesn’t exist must accept three things. FIRST, death is the end and SECOND, chance and time are the only guiding forces in this life.  FINALLY, power reigns in this life and the scales are never balanced. The Christian can  face death and also confront the world knowing that it is not determined by chance and time alone and finally there is a judge who will balance the scales.

Both Kerry Livgren and the bass player Dave Hope of Kansas became Christians eventually. Kerry Livgren first tried Eastern Religions and Dave Hope had to come out of a heavy drug addiction. I was shocked and elated to see their personal testimony on The 700 Club in 1981 and that same  interview can be seen on You Tube today. Livgren lives in Topeka, Kansas today where he teaches “Diggers,” a Sunday school class at Topeka Bible ChurchDAVE HOPE is the head of Worship, Evangelism and Outreach at Immanuel Anglican Church in Destin, Florida.

Kerry Livgren of the rock group KANSAS and writer of the song DUST IN THE WIND

Kansas in the 1970s, from left: Kerry Livgren, Phil Ehart, Rich Williams, Robby Steinhardt, Steve Walsh and Dave Hope.

The answer to find meaning in life is found in putting your faith and trust in Jesus Christ. The Bible is true from cover to cover and can be trusted.

Thank you again for your time and I know how busy you are.

Everette Hatcher, everettehatcher@gmail.com, http://www.thedailyhatch.org, cell ph 501-920-5733, Box 23416, LittleRock, AR 72221, United States

Is the Bible historically accurate? Here are some of the posts I have done in the past on the subject and they can be googled: 1. The Babylonian Chronicleof Nebuchadnezzars Siege of Jerusalem2. Hezekiah’s Siloam Tunnel Inscription. 3. Taylor Prism (Sennacherib Hexagonal Prism)4. Biblical Cities Attested Archaeologically. 5. The Discovery of the Hittites6.Shishak Smiting His Captives7. Moabite Stone8Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III9A Verification of places in Gospel of John and Book of Acts., 9B Discovery of Ebla Tablets10. Cyrus Cylinder11. Puru “The lot of Yahali” 9th Century B.C.E.12. The Uzziah Tablet Inscription13. The Pilate Inscription14. Caiaphas Ossuary14 B Pontius Pilate Part 214c. Three greatest American Archaeologists moved to accept Bible’s accuracy through archaeology.

You can hear DAVE HOPE and Kerry Livgren’s stories from this youtube link:

(part 1 ten minutes)

(part 2 ten minutes)

Kansas – Dust in the Wind (Official Video)

Uploaded on Nov 7, 2009

Pre-Order Miracles Out of Nowhere now at http://www.miraclesoutofnowhere.com

About the film:
In 1973, six guys in a local band from America’s heartland began a journey that surpassed even their own wildest expectations, by achieving worldwide superstardom… watch the story unfold as the incredible story of the band KANSAS is told for the first time in the DVD Miracles Out of Nowhere.

How can I know the Bible is the Word of God? by Adrian Rogers

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Is the Bible historically accurate? Here are some of the posts I have done in the past on the subject: 1. The Babylonian Chronicleof Nebuchadnezzars Siege of Jerusalem2. Hezekiah’s Siloam Tunnel Inscription. 3. Taylor Prism (Sennacherib Hexagonal Prism)4. Biblical Cities Attested Archaeologically. 5. The Discovery of the Hittites6.Shishak Smiting His Captives7. Moabite Stone8Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III9A Verification of places in Gospel of John and Book of Acts., 9B Discovery of Ebla Tablets10. Cyrus Cylinder11. Puru “The lot of Yahali” 9th Century B.C.E.12. The Uzziah Tablet Inscription13. The Pilate Inscription14. Caiaphas Ossuary14 B Pontius Pilate Part 214c. Three greatest American Archaeologists moved to accept Bible’s accuracy through archaeology.

 The Bible and Archaeology – Is the Bible from God? (Kyle Butt)

______________________

During the 1990′s I actually made it a practice to write famous atheists and scientists that were mentioned by Adrian Rogers and Francis Schaeffer and challenge them with the evidence for the Bible’s historicity and the claims of the gospel. Usually I would send them a cassette tape of Adrian Rogers’ messages “6 reasons I know the Bible is True,” “The Final Judgement,” “Who is Jesus?” and the message by Bill Elliff, “How to get a pure heart.”  I would also send them printed material from the works of Francis Schaeffer and a personal apologetic letter from me addressing some of the issues in their work. My second cassette tape that I sent to both Antony Flew and George Wald was Adrian Rogers’ sermon on evolution and here below you can watch that very sermon on You Tube.   Carl Sagan also took time to correspond with me about a year before he died. 

(Francis Schaeffer pictured below)

Image result for francis schaeffer

Adrian Rogers pictured below

I have posted on Adrian Rogers’ messages on Evolution before but here is a complete message on it.

Evolution: Fact of Fiction? By Adrian Rogers

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Featured artist is David Salle

Pharrell Williams Talks With David Salle & KAWS | Ep. 2 Part 1/3 ARTST TLK | Reserve Channel

Published on Nov 29, 2012

Pharrell Williams sits down with famous artists David Salle, the man who redefined neoexpressionism, and KAWS, who entered the art game as a street artist, but is now making waves as a sculptor and limited edition toy and clothing designer. Pharrell gets the artists to open up about their beginnings and how their style defines them.

ARTST TLK w/ Pharrell Williams
A new take on the talk show format hosted by award winning producer, artist, designer, and businessman Pharrell Williams. Each episode will feature two special guests at different career stages to discuss their work, motivations, inspirations, and philosophies.


Rights and Reproduction

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David Salle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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David Salle
Born 1952
Norman, Oklahoma
Nationality United States American
Field Painting, Printmaking, Set Design, Photography, Sculpture, Film
Training California Institute of the Arts, Valencia, California – BFA (1973), MFA (1975)
Movement Contemporary art, Postmodernism, Neo-expressionism
Awards Rome Prize (2000), Guggenheim Fellowship (1986)

David Salle (born 1952) is an American painter, printmaker, and stage designer who helped define postmodern sensibility by combining figuration with a varied pictorial language of multi-imagery.

Salle was born in Norman, Oklahoma. He earned a BFA and MFA from the California Institute of the Arts, Valencia, California where he studied with John Baldessari.[1] Salle’s work first came to public attention in New York in the early 1980s.

His paintings and prints comprise what appear to be randomly juxtaposed images, or images placed on top of one other with deliberately ham-fisted techniques. At a 2005 lecture, Salle stated:

When I came to New York in the 70s, it was common not to expect to be able to live from your art. I had very little idea about galleries or the business side of the art world. It all seemed pretty distant. When people started paying attention to my work, it seemed so unlikely that somehow it wasn’t so remarkable. I made my work for a small audience of friends, other artists mostly, and that has not really changed. At the same time, having shows is a way of seeing if the work resonates with anyone else. Having that response, something coming back to you from the way the work is received in the world, can be important for your development as an artist. But you have to take it with healthy skepticism… I still spend most days in my studio, alone, and whatever happens flows from that.[2]

David Salle also turned his hand to set and costume design, and to directing mainstream cinema [1]. In 1986, Salle received a Guggenheim Fellowship for theater design, and in 1995 he directed the feature film, Search and Destroy, starring Griffin Dunne and Christopher Walken [2]. He is a longtime collaborator with the choreographer Karole Armitage as he designs sets and costumes for many of her ballets [3].

Salle is also a prolific writer on art. His essays and reviews have appeared in Artforum, Art in America, Modern Painters, The Paris Review, Interview, as well as numerous exhibition catalogs and anthologies. He currently writes a column on art for Town & Country Magazine. David Salle currently lives and works in Brooklyn, New York.

Major exhibitions of his work have taken place at the Whitney Museum of American Art[3] in New York, the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam, Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, Castello di Rivoli (Torino, Italy), and the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao. In March 2009 a group of fifteen paintings were shown at the Kestnergesellschaft Museum in Hannover, Germany. That same year Salle’s work was also featured in an exhibition titled The Pictures Generation curated by Douglas Eklund at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York [4], in which his work was shown amongst a number of his contemporaries including Richard Prince, Sherrie Levine, Cindy Sherman, Nancy Dwyer [5], Robert Longo, Thomas Lawson, Charles Clough and Michael Zwack.

Salle’s work can be found in the permanent collections of numerous art museums, including the Museum of Modern Art, New York; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles; Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA); Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York; Tate Modern, London; and the National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, among others.

References

  1. Jump up ^ Smith, Roberta, “Tweaking Tradition, Even in Its Temple”, review of John Baldessari show, The New York Times, October 21, 2010 (October 22, 2010 p. C21 NY ed.). Retrieved 2010-10-22.
  2. Jump up ^ Voices of Experience: David Salle, ART + AUCTION, September 2005, retrieved 2008-04-17
  3. Jump up ^ Smith, Roberta, “How David Salle Mixes High Art and Trash”, review of David Salle mid-career retrospective, The New York Times, January 23, 1987. Retrieved 2011-1-16.

External links

David Salle Writings

Additional information on David Salle including artworks, text panels, articles and full biography

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RESPONDING TO HARRY KROTO’S BRILLIANT RENOWNED ACADEMICS!! Christian de Duve, Nobel Prize-winning Belgian cytologist and biochemist, “There is a complete disassociation between the dogma and belief and the way we scientists approach the search for truth.” (Post includes portion of my 5-15-94 letter to him)(Featured artist is Lisa Blas)

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On November 21, 2014 I received a letter from Nobel Laureate Harry Kroto and it said:

…Please click on this URL http://vimeo.com/26991975

and you will hear what far smarter people than I have to say on this matter. I agree with them.

Harry Kroto

I have attempted to respond to all of Dr. Kroto’s friends arguments and I have posted my responses one per week for over a year now. Here are some of my earlier posts:

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Origin, Evolution, and the Future of Life on Earth

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Ultimate Reality of Christian de Duve

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The Origin, Evolution & Future of Life (H1150) – Full Video

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Christian de Duve

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Christian de Duve
Christian de Duve.tif

de Duve lecturing on the origin of the eukaryotic cell in October 2012
Born Christian René Marie Joseph de Duve
2 October 1917
Thames Ditton, Surrey, Great Britain
Died 4 May 2013 (aged 95)
Grez-Doiceau, Belgium
Residence Belgium
Citizenship Belgian
Nationality Belgium
Fields
Institutions
Alma mater
  • Onze-Lieve-Vrouwecollege
  • Catholic University of Leuven
Known for Cell organelles
Notable awards
Spouse Janine Herman (m. 1943; d. 2008)
Children
  • Two sons, two daughters:
  • Thierry de Duve
  • Alain de Duve
  • Anne de Duve
  • Françoise de Duve

Dutch Queen Beatrix meets 5 Nobel Prize winners: Paul Berg, Christian de Duve, Steven Weinberg, Manfred Eigen, Nicolaas Bloembergen (1983)

Christian René Marie Joseph, Viscount de Duve (2 October 1917 – 4 May 2013) was a Nobel Prize-winning Belgian cytologist and biochemist.[2][3] He made serendipitous discoveries of two cell organelles, peroxisome and lysosome, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974 with Albert Claude and George E. Palade (“for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell”).[4] In addition to peroxisome and lysosome, he invented the scientific names such as autophagy, endocytosis, and exocytosis in a single occasion.[5][6][7][8][9]

A son of Belgian refugees during the First World War, de Duve was born in Thames Ditton, Surrey, Great Britain.[10] His family returned to Belgium in 1920. He was educated by the Jesuits at Onze-Lieve-Vrouwinstituut in Antwerp, and studied medicine at the Catholic University of Leuven. Upon earning his MD in 1941, he joined research in chemistry, working on insulin and its role in diabetes mellitus. His thesis earned him the highest university degree agrégation de l’enseignement supérieur (equivalent to PhD) in 1945. With his work on the purification of penicillin, he obtained an MSc degree in 1946. He went for further training under (later Nobel Prize winners) Hugo Theorell at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, and Carl and Gerti Cori at the Washington University in St. Louis. He joined the faculty of medicine at Leuven in 1947. In 1960 he was invited to the Rockfeller Institute (now Rockefeller University). With mutual arrangement with Leuven, he became professor in both universities from 1962, dividing his time between Leuven and New York. He became emeritus professor of Leuven university in 1985, and of Rockefeller in 1988.

De Duve was decorated with Viscount in 1989 by King Baudouin of Belgium. He was also a recipient of Francqui Prize, Gairdner Foundation International Award, Heineken Prize, and E. B. Wilson Medal. In 1974 he founded the International Institute of Cellular and Molecular Pathology in Brussels, eventually renamed the de Duve Institute in 2005. He was the founding President of the L’Oréal-UNESCO Awards for Women in Science.[11]

He died on 4 May (Saturday) 2013 by self-induced euthanasia in the presence of all of his children.[12]

Early life and education[edit]

De Duve was born of a shopkeeper Alphonse de Duve and wife Madeleine Pungs in the village of Thames Ditton, near London. His parents fled Belgium at the outbreak of the First World War. After the war in 1920, at age three, he and his family returned to Belgium. He was a precocious boy, always the best student (primus perpetuus as he recalled) in school, except for one year when he was pronounced “out of competition” to give chance to other students.[2] He was educated by the Jesuits at Onze-Lieve-Vrouwinstituut in Antwerp, before studying at the Catholic University of Leuven in 1934.[13] He wanted to specialize in endocrinology and joined the laboratory of the Belgian physiologist Joseph P. Bouckaert. During his last year at medical school in 1940, the Germans invaded Belgium. He was drafted to the Belgian army, and posted in southern France as medical officer. There, he was almost immediately taken as prisoner of war by Germans. But fortunate of his ability to speak fluent German and Flemish, he outwitted his captors and escaped back to Belgium. (The adventure he later described as “more comical than heroic”.)[14] He immediately continued his medical course, and obtained his MD in 1941 from Leuven. His primary research was on insulin and its role in glucose metabolism. He made an initial discovery that a commercial preparation of insulin was contaminated with another pancreatic hormone, the insulin antagonist glucagon. However, laboratory supplies at Leuven were in shortage, he therefore enrolled in a programme to earn a degree in chemistry at the Cancer Institute. His research on insulin was summed up in a 400-page book titled Glucose, Insuline et Diabète (Glucose, Insulin and Diabetes) published in 1945, simultaneously in Brussels and Paris. The book was condensed into a technical dissertation which earned him the most advanced degree at the university level agrégation de l’enseignement supérieur (an equivalent of a doctorate – he called it “a sort of glorified Ph.D.”) in 1945.[14] His thesis was followed by a number of scientific publications.[15] He subsequently obtained MSc in chemistry in 1946, for which he worked on the purification of penicillin.[16][17] To enhance his skill in biochemistry, he trained in the laboratory of Hugo Theorell (who later won The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1955) at the Nobel Medical Institute in Stockholm for 18 months during 1946-1947. In 1947 he received a financial assistance as Rockefeller Foundation fellow and worked for six months with Carl and Gerti Cori‘s at Washington University in St. Louis (the husband and wife were joint winners of The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1947).[18]

Career and research[edit]

In March 1947 de Duve joined the faculty of the medical school of the Catholic University of Leuven teaching physiological chemistry. In 1951 he became full professor. In 1960 Detlev Bronk, the then president of the Rockfeller Institute (what is now Rockefeller University) of New York City, met him at Brussels and offered him professorship and a laboratory. The rector of Leuven, afraid of entirely losing de Duve, made a compromise over dinner that de Duve would still be under part-time appointment with a relief from teaching and conducting examinations. The rector and Bronk made an agreement which would intilally last for five years. The official implementation was in 1962, and de Duve simultaneously headed the research laboratories at Leuven and at Rockefeller University, dividing his time between New York and Leuven.[19] In 1969 the Leuven university was split into two separate universities. He joined the French-speaking side of Université catholique de Louvain. He took emeritus status at Université catholique de Louvain in 1985 and at Rockefeller in 1988, though he continued to conduct research. Among other subjects, he studied the distribution of enzymes in rat liver cells using rate-zonal centrifugation. His work on cell fractionation provided an insight into the function of cell structures. He specialized in subcellular biochemistry and cell biology and discovered new cell organelles.[20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]

Personal life[edit]

De Duve was brought up as a Roman Catholic. In his later years he tended towards agnosticism, if not strict atheism.[67][68] However, de Duve also thought that “Most biologists, today, tend to see life and mind as cosmic imperatives, written into the very fabric of the universe, rather than as extraordinarily improbable products of chance.[69] “It would be an exaggeration to say I’m not afraid of death,” he explicitly said to a Belgian newspaper Le Soir just a month before his death, “but I’m not afraid of what comes after, because I’m not a believer.”[70][71] He strongly supported biological evolution as a fact, and dismissive of creation science and intelligent design, as explicitly stated in his last book, Genetics of Original Sin: The Impact of Natural Selection on the Future of Humanity. He was among the seventy-eight Nobel laureates in science to endorse the effort to repeal Louisiana Science Education Act of 2008.[72]

De Duve married Janine Herman on 30 September 1943. Together they had had two sons, Thierry and Alain, and two daughters, Anne and Françoise. Janine died in 2008, aged 86.[16]

Death[edit]

De Duve died on 4 May 2013, at his home in Nethen, Belgium, at the age of 95. He decided to end his life by legal euthanasia, performed by two doctors before his four children. He had been long suffering from cancer and atrial fibrillation, and his health problems were exacerbated by a recent fall in his home. He is survived by two sons and two daughters; two brothers, Pierre and Daniel; seven grandchildren; and two great-grandchildren.[73][74][75]

De Duve was cremated as he had willed, and his ashes were distributed among family members and friends.[3]

Awards and honours[edit]

De Duve won the Francqui Prize for Biological and Medical Sciences in 1960, and the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1974. King Baudouin of Belgium honoured him to Viscount in 1989.[16] He was the recipient of the Canada Gairdner International Award in 1967, and the Dr H.P. Heineken Prize for Biochemistry and Biophysics in 1973 from the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was elected a foreign associate of the US National Academy of Sciences in 1975. He won the Harden Medal of the Biochemical Society of Great Britain in 1978; the Theobald Smith Award from the Albany Medical College in 1981; the Jimenez Diaz Award in 1985; the Innovators of Biochemistry Award from Medical College of Virginia in 1986; and the E. B. Wilson Medal from the American Society for Cell Biology in 1989.[76] He was also a member of the Royal Academies of Medicine and the Royal Academy of Sciences, Arts, and of Literature of Belgium; the Pontifical Academy of Sciences of the Vatican; the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; the French National Academy of Medicine; the Academy of Sciences of Paris; the Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina; the American Philosophical Society. He was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 1988.[1] In addition, he received honorary doctorates from eighteen universities around the world.[18]

Legacy[edit]

De Duve founded a multidisciplinary biomedical research institute at Université catholique de Louvain in 1974, called the International Institute of Cellular and Molecular Pathology (ICP), and later renamed “de Duve Institute.”[77] He remained its president until 1991. On his 80th birthday in 1997 it was renamed the Christian de Duve Institute of Cellular Pathology. In 2005 it was further contracted to simply the de Duve Institute.[78]

De Duve was one of the founding members of the Belgian Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, established on 15 September 1951.[79]

De Duve is remembered as an inventor of important scientific terminology. He coined the word lysosome in 1955, peroxisome in 1966, and autophagy, endocytosis, and exocytosis in one instance at the Ciba Foundation Symposium on Lysosomes held in London during 12–14 February 1963, while he, “was in a word-coining mood.”[21][80]

De Duve’s life, including his work resulting in a Nobel Prize, and his passion for biology is the subject of a documentary film Portrait of a Nobel Prize: Christian de Duve (Portrait de Nobel : Christian de Duve), directed by Aurélie Wijnants. It was first aired on Eurochannel in 2012.[81]

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In  the third video below in the 144th clip in this series are his words and  my response is below them. 

50 Renowned Academics Speaking About God (Part 1)

Another 50 Renowned Academics Speaking About God (Part 2

A Further 50 Renowned Academics Speaking About God (Part 3)

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Quote from Christian de Duve in the film series “A Further 50 Renowned Academics Speaking About God (Part 3)” and my response below ( Original interview was in 2005 and was conducted by Harry Kroto at the annual Lindau meeting):

Of course, I fully agree with you and I think with most of my fellow scientists. There is a complete disassociation between the dogma and belief and the way we scientists approach the search for truth.   And so obviously as a scientist and being brought up as a Catholic I could not safely continue accepting the teaching of the church. 

Let me make two observations here.

FIRST, I think a person needs to take time examine the historical accuracy of the Bible. If the Bible is true then history and historical records should have something to say about that.

Here are some of the posts I have done in the past on the subject and if you like you could just google these subjects: 1. The Babylonian Chronicleof Nebuchadnezzars Siege of Jerusalem2. Hezekiah’s Siloam Tunnel Inscription. 3. Taylor Prism (Sennacherib Hexagonal Prism)4. Biblical Cities Attested Archaeologically. 5. The Discovery of the Hittites6.Shishak Smiting His Captives7. Moabite Stone8Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III9A Verification of places in Gospel of John and Book of Acts., 9B Discovery of Ebla Tablets10. Cyrus Cylinder11. Puru “The lot of Yahali” 9th Century B.C.E.12. The Uzziah Tablet Inscription13. The Pilate Inscription14. Caiaphas Ossuary14 B Pontius Pilate Part 214c. Three greatest American Archaeologists moved to accept Bible’s accuracy through archaeology.,

SECOND, if there is no lasting meaning to life then CHANCE RULES. Let me discuss that a little more below.

Christian de Duve was very critical of Creationism!!!

Chrisian de Duve was a very sharp critic of creationism even though he grew up in a family that who were committed Catholics. In the Wikipedia article cited above we read these words:

“Most biologists, today, tend to see life and mind as cosmic imperatives, written into the very fabric of the universe, rather than as extraordinarily improbable products of chance.[69] “It would be an exaggeration to say I’m not afraid of death,” he explicitly said to a Belgian newspaper Le Soir just a month before his death, “but I’m not afraid of what comes after, because I’m not a believer.”[70][71] He strongly supported biological evolution as a fact, and dismissive of creation science and intelligent design, as explicitly stated in his last book, Genetics of Original Sin: The Impact of Natural Selection on the Future of Humanity. He was among the seventy-eight Nobel laureates in science to endorse the effort to repeal Louisiana Science Education Act of 2008.[72]

I do want to salute him for at least taking a careful look and seeing that there were clearly two different paths we can take philosophically. We can either realize that the answer to find meaning in life is found in putting your faith and trust in Jesus Christ and the Bible is true from cover to cover and can be trusted. Or we have to say that it is all by CHANCE. Below are the words of Christian de Duve: 

“The answer of modern molecular biology to this much-debated question is categorical: chance, and chance alone, did it all, from primeval soup to man, with only natural selection to sift its effects. This affirmation now rests on overwhelming factual evidence.”

A Guided Tour Of The Living Cell, Volume Two, Page 357
Scientific American Library, 1984

Portion of my 5-15-94 letter to Christian de Duve

On May 15, 1994 on the 10th anniversary of the passing of Francis Schaeffer I attempted to send a letter to almost every living Nobel Prize winner and I believe  Dr.Christian de Duve  was probably among that group and here is a portion of that letter below:

I have enclosed a cassette tape by Adrian Rogers and it includes  a story about  Charles Darwin‘s journey from  the position of theistic evolution to agnosticism. Here are the four bridges that Adrian Rogers says evolutionists can’t cross in the CD  “Four Bridges that the Evolutionist Cannot Cross.” 1. The Origin of Life and the law of biogenesis. 2. The Fixity of the Species. 3.The Second Law of Thermodynamics. 4. The Non-Physical Properties Found in Creation.  

 

Adrian Rogers is pictured below and Francis Schaeffer above.

In the first 3 minutes of the cassette tape is the hit song “Dust in the Wind.” Below I have given you some key points  Francis Schaeffer makes about the experiment that Solomon undertakes in the book of Ecclesiastes to find satisfaction by  looking into  learning (1:16-18), laughter, ladies, luxuries,  and liquor (2:1-3, 8, 10, 11), and labor (2:4-6, 18-20).

Schaeffer noted that Solomon took a look at the meaning of life on the basis of human life standing alone between birth and death “under the sun.” This phrase UNDER THE SUN appears over and over in Ecclesiastes. The Christian Scholar Ravi Zacharias noted, “The key to understanding the Book of Ecclesiastes is the term UNDER THE SUN — What that literally means is you lock God out of a closed system and you are left with only this world of Time plus Chance plus matter.”

Here the first 7 verses of Ecclesiastes followed by Schaeffer’s commentary on it:

The words of the Preacher, the son of David, king in Jerusalem. Vanity of vanities, says the Preacher, vanity of vanities! All is vanity. What does man gain by all the toil at which he toils under the sun? A generation goes, and a generation comes, but the earth remains forever. The sun rises, and the sun goes down, and hastens to the place where it rises. The wind blows to the south and goes around to the north; around and around goes the wind, and on its circuits the wind returns. All streams run to the sea, but the sea is not full; to the place where the streams flow, there they flow again.  

Solomon is showing a high degree of comprehension of evaporation and the results of it.  Seeing also in reality nothing changes. There is change but always in a set framework and that is cycle. You can relate this to the concepts of modern man. Ecclesiastes is the only pessimistic book in the Bible and that is because of the place where Solomon limits himself. He limits himself to the question of human life, life under the sun between birth and death and the answers this would give.

Solomon doesn’t place man outside of the cycle. Man doesn’t escape the cycle. Man is in the cycle. Birth and death and youth and old age.

There is no doubt in my mind that Solomon had the same experience in his life that I had as a younger man (at the age of 18 in 1930). I remember standing by the sea and the moon arose and it was copper and beauty. Then the moon did not look like a flat dish but a globe or a sphere since it was close to the horizon. One could feel the global shape of the earth too. Then it occurred to me that I could contemplate the interplay of the spheres and I was exalted because I thought I can look upon them with all their power, might, and size, but they could contempt nothing. Then came upon me a horror of great darkness because it suddenly occurred to me that although I could contemplate them and they could contemplate nothing yet they would continue to turn in ongoing cycles when I saw no more forever and I was crushed.

Watching the film HOW SHOULD WE THEN LIVE? in 1979 impacted my life greatly

Francis Schaeffer in the film WHATEVER HAPPENED TO THE HUMAN RACE?

Francis and Edith Schaeffer

 

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Let me show you some inescapable conclusions if you choose to live without God in the picture. Schaeffer noted that Solomon came to these same conclusions when he looked at life “under the sun.”

  1. Death is the great equalizer (Eccl 3:20, “All go to the same place; all come from dust, and to dust all return.”)
  2. Chance and time have determined the past, and they will determine the future.  (Ecclesiastes 9:11-13 “I have seen something else under the sun:  The race is not to the swift
    or the battle to the strong, nor does food come to the wise or wealth to the brilliant  or favor to the learned; but time and chance happen to them all.  Moreover, no one knows when their hour will come: As fish are caught in a cruel net, or birds are taken in a snare, so people are trapped by evil times  that fall unexpectedly upon them.”)
  3. Power reigns in this life, and the scales are not balanced(Eccl 4:1; “Again I looked and saw all the oppression that was taking place under the sun: I saw the tears of the oppressed—
    and they have no comforter; power was on the side of their oppressors—  and they have no comforter.” 7:15 “In this meaningless life of mine I have seen both of these: the righteous perishing in their righteousness,  and the wicked living long in their wickedness. ).
  4. Nothing in life gives true satisfaction without God including knowledge (1:16-18), ladies and liquor (2:1-3, 8, 10, 11), and great building projects (2:4-6, 18-20).
  5. There is no ultimate lasting meaning in life. (1:2)

By the way, the final chapter of Ecclesiastes finishes with Solomon emphasizing that serving God is the only proper response of man. Solomon looks above the sun and brings God back into the picture in the final chapter of the book in Ecclesiastes 12:13-14, “ Now all has been heard; here is the conclusion of the matter: Fear God and keep his commandments, for this is the whole duty of man.  For God will bring every deed into judgment, including every hidden thing, whether it is good or evil.”

The answer to find meaning in life is found in putting your faith and trust in Jesus Christ. The Bible is true from cover to cover and can be trusted. In 1978 I heard the song “Dust in the Wind” by Kansas when it rose to #6 on the charts. That song told me that Kerry Livgren the writer of that song and a member of Kansas had come to the same conclusion that Solomon had and that “all was meaningless UNDER THE SUN,” and looking ABOVE THE SUN was the only option.  I remember mentioning to my friends at church that we may soon see some members of Kansas become Christians because their search for the meaning of life had obviously come up empty even though they had risen from being an unknown band to the top of the music business and had all the wealth and fame that came with that.

Livgren wrote, “All we do, crumbles to the ground though we refuse to see, Dust in the Wind, All we are is dust in the wind, Don’t hang on, Nothing lasts forever but the Earth and Sky, It slips away, And all your money won’t another minute buy.”

Both Kerry Livgren and Dave Hope of Kansas became Christians eventually. Kerry Livgren first tried Eastern Religions and Dave Hope had to come out of a heavy drug addiction. I was shocked and elated to see their personal testimony on The 700 Club in 1981.  Livgren lives in Topeka, Kansas today where he teaches “Diggers,” a Sunday school class at Topeka Bible Church. Hope is the head of Worship, Evangelism and Outreach at Immanuel Anglican Church in Destin, Florida.

Evergreen Art Lecture Series – Lisa Blas

Featured artist today is Lisa Blas

 

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 Regarding Territories and Bodies / Lisa Blas Installation view Salve Regina Art Gallery Catholic University of America Washington, DC 2009

Regarding Territories and Bodies / Lisa Blas
Installation view
Salve Regina Art Gallery
Catholic University of America
Washington, DC
2009

LISA BLAS

BRUSSELS, BELGIUM | BY JANUARY 31, 2011

Most people who know me understand that I can be rather impatient when it comes to waiting. The anticipation of visiting friend and colleague  Lisa Blas in her new home and studio in Brussels, Belgium certainly challenged this not so virtuous quality of mine. I planned the trip around visits with friends and relatives in nearby Antwerp and The Hague. The triangulation of these three cities of family and friends seemed a perfect reason to make a post-holiday season jaunt across the pond from Washington D.C.

Lisa is a multi-media artist and former Washingtonian who taught at The Corcoran College of Art and Design for many years.  She moved to Belgium in January 2010 to join her fiancé who is an art historian.  Since moving to Belgium, Lisa has taught at Tourcoing, France as a visiting artist and currently is an artist-in-residence in Ors, France.

After getting slightly lost on that rainy afternoon, I finally arrived one hour late to Lisa’s art deco building on the west side of Brussels. Feet sore with a new camera in hand (after having my original equipment stolen the day before in an Antwerp elevator) I made my way up the winding staircase and emerged into her light filled apartment — walls lined with books, plants and art. I was greeted with a much needed glass of water and a comfy chair. After showing me around her place, we shortly left her apartment and walked up to another floor to one of the smallest studios I have ever been in — measuring not more than eight feet square. It previously had been a storage space and was recently emptied and converted into a private studio for Lisa. A large window and a balcony helped to make the space seem bigger than its jewel box size. And it was jewel like. Her new collage work looked like constellations on the wall as it reflected back onto a thin mirror hanging exactly opposite from it. Shards of tiny cut colored geometric shapes deliberately placed on each page created abstract compositions dancing over tiles of paper. A playground lay below and faint voices of children playing could be heard. For a moment I felt mesmerized.

Lisa’s previous work that I was familiar with was based on a journey she began in 2003 throughout the United States where she examined archives from the mid-nineteenth to early twentieth century  “that point to the American sensibility in all its complexities and nuances.” This research became the source of a solo show titled “Meet Me At the Mason Dixon” in 2008.  She had paintings, photographs and installation that were specific to the lands she traversed and the social history they embodied.

She states: “Traveling engenders activities of documentation and collection. It is akin to plein air observation that is later brought back to the studio for assembly. Such travels have convinced me of the relevance of the nineteenth century for our present-day experience. When I set to work with materials, I am reminded of Walter Benjamin’s idea: ‘For every image of the past that is not recognized by the present as one of its own concerns threatens to disappear irretrievably’ ”.

Lisa recently travelled to India and Brazil, but most significantly this past spring to Los Angeles, where she attended her father’s funeral. It is this experience of her father passing that has inspired her recent collage work that lines the walls of her intimate studio as well as the large table in her dining room. She talks about how these little triangular shards (in the collages) originate from a photography project five years earlier.

At that time, Lisa began collecting Hallmark sympathy cards, folded them into airplane like shapes and photographed them as ephemeral, sculptural objects. These images began as a study of the form and language of mass culture, especially as they relate to expressions of grief—perhaps the most difficult emotion to articulate.  Since her father’s death, these images have now taken on another level of complexity and meaning. In the collages, she begins by looking for specific colored paper and card stock that arrives in the mail. She then cuts this material into varying shapes, echoing the Hallmark cards and literally composes them onto music composition paper.

She discussed three exhibitions she had recently seen of Felix Gonzalez-Torres, Fred Sandback and Henri Matisse that have fueled her current practice. Elaborating more on the Matisse exhibition in Chicago she visited last year called “Matisse: Radical Invention 1913 -1917” Lisa reflects, “As the exhibition focused on the time period of World War I (another coincidence), his experimentation with new forms of picture construction, and their unfinished quality, had a great impact on me. This interstitial, and perhaps restless period in his life as a painter seems to echo our contemporary moment in many ways. In speaking about his painting The Moroccans, Matisse reportedly said ‘…that everything that did not contribute to the balance and rhythm of [this work], had to be eliminated…as you would prune a tree’.”

I imagine Lisa quietly working at her table and in her yellow studio cutting delicate shapes to create these soundless compositions that resonate with so much personal meaning. The transformation she has made from focusing on travel that is physical and external, to a journey that is internal and now manifest in a form of a highly controlled cultural abstraction is a process of pruning I will continue to follow.

A solo exhibition of her work will be at Gettysburg College in Pennsylvania opening late August 2011 to coincide with the Sesquicentennial Anniversary of the Civil War. This exhibit is being curated by Shannon Egan.

You can see Lisa’s work in other upcoming group shows here in the U.S. at the Maryland Art Place in Baltimore, and this summer at Addison Ripley Fine Art in Washington D.C.

For more information visit her website at www.lisablas.com

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