FRANCIS SCHAEFFER ANALYZES ART AND CULTURE PART 193″Film series HOW SHOULD WE THEN LIVE? PART 4, THE REFORMATION” Featured artist is  Richard Wilson (sculptor)

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How Shall We Then Live?—Francis Schaeffer

Episode Five: The Reformation
The Reformation was actually a mighty revival during which hundreds of thousands of people were ushered into the Kingdom by the power of the Holy Spirit. Nothing less than a mighty act of God could free half of Europe from its bondage to the dogmas, rituals and superstitions of popery.

The Revival (or Reformation) was a combination of the preaching of the Gospel and the power of the Spirit (I Thess. 1:5). The Reformers could put the Gospel into the ears of people but only God could plant it into the heart (I Cor. 3:6).

There are many exciting stories during this Revival. Entire cities and even nations were converted in a manner of days. People turned to the Scriptures and set up churches that preached the Gospel of free grace. It was a time of miracles, signs and wonders.

The Reformation focused on certain Gospel truths that have always accompanied true revivals of religion. One explanation why we do not see widespread revival today is that most people have forgotten these truths and are drifting back to Rome. What are these Truths?

I. Scripture alone should be our final authority in all matters of faith and practice.

II. Grace alone is the only basis of salvation.

III. Faith alone is the only means to receive and to keep salvation.

IV. Christ alone is the Way to the Father.

May God raise up mighty preachers today who shall preach the Word even though it is “out of season.”

HowShouldWeThenLive Episode 4

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Featured artist is Richard Wilson

Turning the Place Over by Richard Wilson

Published on Nov 22, 2007

The most daring piece of public art ever commissioned in the UK, Turning the Place Over is artist Richard Wilson’s most radical intervention into architecture to date, turning a building in Liverpool’s city centre literally inside out. One of Wilson’s very rare temporary works, Turning the Place Over colonises Cross Keys House, Moorfields. It runs in daylight hours, triggered by a light sensor.

Turning the Place Over consists of an 8 metres diameter ovoid cut from the façade of a building in Liverpool city centre and made to oscillate in three dimensions. The revolving façade rests on a specially designed giant rotator, usually used in the shipping and nuclear industries, and acts as a huge opening and closing ‘window’, offering recurrent glimpses of the interior during its constant cycle during daylight hours.

check out http://www.biennial.com for more…

Interview with Richard Wilson

Published on Mar 7, 2008

An interview with Richard Wilson, the artist behing Turning the Place Over.

Understanding contemporary art

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Richard Wilson’s work is highlighted at the 14:00  minute mark in the above film.

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Richard Wilson (sculptor)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Richard Wilson
Turning the place over.jpg

Turning the place over
Born 24 May 1953 (age 60)
Islington, London, England
Field Sculpture, Installation art
Training London College of Printing,
Hornsey College of Art and
Reading University

Richard Wilson (born 24 May 1953) is a British sculptor, installation artist and musician.

Born in Islington, London, he studied at the London College of Printing, Hornsey College of Art and Reading University. He was the DAAD resident in Berlin in 1992, Maeda Visiting Artist at the Architectural Association in 1998 and nominated for the Turner Prize in both 1988 (when Tony Cragg won) and 1989 (when Richard Long won).

Wilson’s first solo show was 11 Pieces, at the Coracle Press Gallery in London in 1976. Since then he has had at least 50 solo exhibitions around the world.

He formed the Bow Gamelan Ensemble in 1983 with Anne Bean and Paul Burwell.

Wilson’s work is characterised by architectural concerns with volume, illusionary spaces and auditory perception. His most famous work 20:50, a room of specific proportions, part-filled with highly reflective used sump oil creating an illusion of the room turned upside down was first exhibited at Matt’s Gallery, London in 1987, became one of the signature pieces of the Saatchi Gallery. It is considered to be a defining work in the genre of site-specific installation art.[1] The same year the temporary (May–June) installation One Piece at a Time filled the south tower of the Tyne Bridge at Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

In the 1990s and 21st century, Wilson has continued to work on a large scale to fulfil his ambitions to “tweak or undo or change the interiors of space… in that way unsettle or break peoples preconceptions of space, what they think space might be”, including an installation near London’s Millennium Dome called A Slice of Reality in 2000. It consisted of a portion (15%) of a ship being sliced off from the rest and mounted on the river bed. In 2007, Wilson installed Turning the Place Over in a building in Liverpool’s city centre. Described by Liverpool Biennial organisers as his “most radical intervention into architecture to date”, Wilson cut an 8-metre diameter disc from the walls and windows of the building, and attached it to a motor which literally turned this section of the building inside out, in a cycle lasting just over two minutes. It was switched off in 2011. In 2009, Wilson’s architectural intervention, Square the Block, was installed on the northwest exterior of LSE’s New Academic Building at the corner of Kingsway and Sardinia Street. Commissioned by London School of Economics and curated by the Contemporary Art Society, Square the Block is a spectacular outdoor sculpture that both mimics and subtly subverts the existing façade of the building. In 2012 the installation Hang On A Minute Lads, I’ve Got a Great Idea recreated the closing scene of the film The Italian Job on the roof of the De La Warr Pavilion, Bexhill-on-Sea.

Wilson was commissioned to create Slipstream, to be installed in the rebuilt Terminal 2 building at Heathrow airport during 2013.[2]

He is Visiting Research Professor at the University of East London‘s School of Architecture and the Visual Arts,.[3] In November 2010, he was awarded an Honorary Doctorate by the university.[4]

Notes

  1. Jump up ^ installation (2004) The Oxford Dictionary of Art. Ed. Ian Chilvers. Oxford University Press.
  2. Jump up ^ “Heathrow Launches “Slipstream” by Richard Wilson”.
  3. Jump up ^ Richard Wilson: Staff Profile [1] University of East London November
  4. Jump up ^ “East London the place to be”, say ground-breaking artists [2] University of East London November 25, 2010.

External links

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RESPONDING TO HARRY KROTO’S BRILLIANT RENOWNED ACADEMICS!! Part 149B Sir Bertrand Russell

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 Image result for bertrand russell

 

On November 21, 2014 I received a letter from Nobel Laureate Harry Kroto and it said:

…Please click on this URL http://vimeo.com/26991975

and you will hear what far smarter people than I have to say on this matter. I agree with them.

Harry Kroto

Image result for harry kroto

I have attempted to respond to all of Dr. Kroto’s friends arguments and I have posted my responses one per week for over a year now. Here are some of my earlier posts:

Arif Ahmed, Sir David AttenboroughMark Balaguer, Horace Barlow, Michael BatePatricia ChurchlandAaron CiechanoverNoam Chomsky,Alan DershowitzHubert Dreyfus, Bart Ehrman, Stephan FeuchtwangDavid Friend,  Riccardo GiacconiIvar Giaever , Roy GlauberRebecca GoldsteinDavid J. Gross,  Brian Greene, Susan GreenfieldStephen F Gudeman,  Alan Guth, Jonathan HaidtTheodor W. Hänsch, Brian Harrison,  Hermann HauserRoald Hoffmann,  Bruce HoodHerbert Huppert,  Gareth Stedman Jones, Steve JonesShelly KaganMichio Kaku,  Stuart Kauffman,  Lawrence KraussHarry Kroto, George LakoffElizabeth Loftus,  Alan MacfarlanePeter MillicanMarvin MinskyLeonard Mlodinow,  Yujin NagasawaAlva NoeDouglas Osheroff,  Jonathan Parry,  Saul PerlmutterHerman Philipse,  Carolyn PorcoRobert M. PriceLisa RandallLord Martin Rees,  Oliver Sacks, John SearleMarcus du SautoySimon SchafferJ. L. Schellenberg,   Lee Silver Peter Singer,  Walter Sinnott-ArmstrongRonald de Sousa, Victor StengerBarry Supple,   Leonard Susskind, Raymond TallisNeil deGrasse Tyson,  .Alexander Vilenkin, Sir John WalkerFrank WilczekSteven Weinberg, and  Lewis Wolpert,

Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell transparent bg.png
Born Bertrand Arthur William Russell
18 May 1872
TrellechMonmouthshire,[1]United Kingdom
Died 2 February 1970 (aged 97)
PenrhyndeudraethCaernarfonshire, Wales, United Kingdom
Residence United Kingdom
Nationality British
Alma mater Trinity College, Cambridge
(BA, 1893)
Spouse(s) Alys Pearsall Smith (m. 1894–1921)
Dora Black (m. 1921–1935)
Marjorie “Patricia” Spence (m. 1936–1952[2])
Edith Finch (m. 1952–1970; his death)
Awards De Morgan Medal (1932)
Sylvester Medal (1934)
Nobel Prize in Literature (1950)
Kalinga Prize (1957)
Jerusalem Prize (1963)
Era 20th-century philosophy
Region Western philosophy
School Analytic philosophy
Linguistic turn
Logicism
Utilitarianism
Institutions Trinity College, CambridgeLondon School of Economics
Main interests
Notable ideas
Signature
Bertrand Russell signature.svg

In  the first video below in the 14th clip in this series are his words and I will be responding to them in the next few weeks since Sir Bertrand Russell is probably the most quoted skeptic of our time, unless it was someone like Carl Sagan or Antony Flew.  

50 Renowned Academics Speaking About God (Part 1)

Another 50 Renowned Academics Speaking About God (Part 2)

A Further 50 Renowned Academics Speaking About God (Part 3)

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Quote from Bertrand Russell:

Q: Why are you not a Christian?

Russell: Because I see no evidence whatever for any of the Christian dogmas. I’ve examined all the stock arguments in favor of the existence of God, and none of them seem to me to be logically valid.

Q: Do you think there’s a practical reason for having a religious belief, for many people?

Russell: Well, there can’t be a practical reason for believing what isn’t true. That’s quite… at least, I rule it out as impossible. Either the thing is true, or it isn’t. If it is true, you should believe it, and if it isn’t, you shouldn’t. And if you can’t find out whether it’s true or whether it isn’t, you should suspend judgment. But you can’t… it seems to me a fundamental dishonesty and a fundamental treachery to intellectual integrity to hold a belief because you think it’s useful, and not because you think it’s true.Image result for bertrand russell

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Why I Am Not a Christian by Bertrand Russell

Published on Mar 10, 2012

Bertrand Russell first delivered this lecture on March 6, 1927 to the National Secular Society, South London Branch, at Battersea Town Hall.

What Is a Christian? 0:16
The Existence of God 4:16
The First-cause Argument 5:27
The Natural-law Argument 7:42
The Argument from Design 12:08
The Moral Arguments for Deity 15:18
The Argument for the Remedying of Injustice 18:06
The Character of Christ 20:28
Defects in Christ’s Teaching 23:22
The Moral Problem 25:43
The Emotional Factor 30:45
How the Churches Have Retarded Progress 33:48
Fear, the Foundation of Religion 35:41
What We Must Do 37:10

Full text available at http://reasonbroadcast.blogspot.com/2…

A Review Of “Why I Am Not A Christian” By Bertrand Russell

Without a doubt, Bertrand Russell stands as one of the most formidable minds of the modern era. Through his efforts with Alfred North Whitehead in “Principia Mathematica”, Russell further elaborated the relationship between mathematics and deductive logic. Russell’s endeavors, however, were not confined to complex philosophical treatises having little influence outside of academic circles. Russell’s work spanned the intellectual spectrum, ranging from works on the history of philosophy to international relations and political theory. Russell even produced newspaper articles for mass consumption. But despite his prolific intellectual output, Russell did not apply his mathematician’s logic and objectivity to much of his non-scientific thought, especially in the area of religion as embodied by his work “Why I Am Not A Christian”.

Instead of addressing a single topic throughout the entire work, “Why I Am Not A Christian” is a collection of articles and essays addressing Russell’s position on religious matters in general and issues regarding Christianity in particular. Proverbs 23:7 says, “For as he thinketh in his heart, so he is.” Many times influential voices speaking in the opinion-molding institutions of academia and media contend that one’s views on religion do not necessarily impact other areas of existence such as the political or the sociological. Scripture teaches that this popular opinion is incorrect. However, the Bible is not readily accepted by those arguing for the mentioned opinion. Even though the work argues against the traditional positions of Christianity, the power of “Why I Am Not A Christian” resides in how it links one’s views regarding religion with one’s beliefs about society and the world despite the author’s attempt to argue otherwise.

Russell’s religious beliefs (or lack thereof) found their basis in his position that the theistic proofs are not as conclusive as believers make them out to be. When asked what he would say if confronted by the Creator at his death, Russell said he would respond by saying, “God! Why did you make evidence of your existence so insufficient?”

In “Why I Am Not A Christian”, Russell proceeds to critique each of these arguments. None of them escape his scathing scrutiny. Of the argument from the First Cause, Russell remarks that, if everything must have a cause, then God cannot be the uncaused cause by those following in the intellectual lineage of Aquinas. Russell claims that this argument actually results in an endless digression of creators begetting creators much like those mythological cosmologies where the Earth rests atop an elephant resting atop a tortoise etc. etc (7).

From the outset, Russell argues from faulty notions. According to Norman Geisler in “Introduction To Philosophy: A Christian Perspective”, in a thoroughly naturalistic context something cannot come from nothing. But by its definition, a noncontingent being does not require a cause since its existence is complete in itself (289). Only finite contingent beings require a cause.

The next proofs tackled by Russell are the arguments for the existence of God from the evidence of creation. Russell argues that, in the light of Einsteinian relativity, the Newtonian system of natural law is not as binding upon the universe as originally thought. Therefore, these scientific principles cannot be used to argue for the existence of a rational creator. However, one could turn the tables on Russell and point out that the revelations of Einsteinian physics actually provide a better testimony to the existence of God than even the previous Newtonian model.

According to Russell, natural law is nothing more than statistical averages resulting from the laws of chance (Russell, 8). John Warwick Montgomery in “Faith Founded On Fact” rebuts Russell’s position by pointing out that the Einsteinian and quantum paradigms actually allow for miracles while maintaining that an ordered universe exists. In those systems attempting to account for the totality of the physical universe, it is God who keeps the universe from instantaneously dissolving into the chaos of individual atoms flying off into their own paths and who can rearrange the normal operations of reality when doing so suits His greater glory such as turning water into wine and resurrecting the dead (Montgomery, 43).

Besides drawing faulty conclusions regarding the validity of the theistic proofs, Russell errs as to their purpose as well. Russell is correct in pointing out that these arguments do leave room for some doubt. Yet this can be said about any other linguistically synthetic proposition about the world as well.

If one wants to get really nit-picky about the matter, one could doubt whether Bertrand Russell himself even existed since the Analysts were not above doubting the veracity of historical knowledge. As much as it might irritate the so-called “scientific mind”, one cannot exist without exercising some degree and kind of faith.

The theistic proofs can serve as a guide pointing towards faith or as a mechanism to help rationally clarify it. They do not properly serve as a replacement for it. Norman Geisler points out that one ought not to believe in God because of the theistic proofs. Rather, the theistic proofs provide one with a basis to reasonably assert that God exists (Geisler, 269).

Having taken on the first person of the triune Godhead, Russell turns his sites onto the second, the Lord Jesus Christ. To his perverse credit in a perverse sort way, Russell does not hind behind the phony religiosity of the liberal and the modernist which states, “Jesus was a good teacher, but…”

Russell openly wonders whether or not Christ even existed. And even if He did, Russell asserts, Jesus is far from being the greatest among human teachers as asserted by the likes of the Unitarians and the New Age movement. At best, according to Russell’s scorecard, Jesus comes in at a distant third behind Socrates and Buddha (16). According to Russell, Christ’s greatest flaw was His belief in the reality of Hell and His condemnation of those who would not heed the Messiah’s call. Socrates provides a superior moral example since Socrates did not verbally castigate his detractors (Russell, 17).

Russell’s disdain for those believing in the reality of Hell exposes his own bias rather than prove his dedication to the ideas of truth that he invokes elsewhere to undermine the claims of religious faith. In appraising the idea of Hell, Russell does not give much consideration to the realm of eternal damnation, instead dismissing the concept as a cruel idea (18). But if Hell is real, is not Christ doing the proper thing in warning how such a terrible fate might be avoided? Employing Russell’s line of reasoning, it becomes cruel to chastise someone standing under a tall tree with a piece of sheet metal during a thunderstorm since such an exhortation also warns of the dire consequences likely to result from such foolish behavior.

But while Russell questions the historicity of Jesus Christ, he readily accepts that of Buddha even though Christ is perhaps the best documented figure of ancient history. The first accounts of Buddha appear nearly 500 years after the death of that particular religious figure. Those regarding Jesus appear within the first several decades following the Crucifixion.

Allegedly having removed God from His thrown as sovereign of the universe, Russell proceeds to lay out what he does believe primarily in the chapter titled “What I Believe”. Replacing religion as the tool by which man approaches the world, Russell would have man utilize science to determine meaning, reducing the totality of reality to that of mere physics (50). To Russell, even thought is nothing more than the chemical components and electrical impulses arising from the brain’s physical composition.

Yet despite believing the material world to be ultimate, Russell saw no problem with making pronouncements regarding the areas of life transcending the material base such as ethics and social organization. Russell boldly states in italicized print for all to read, “The good life is one inspired by love and guided by knowledge (56).” However, elsewhere in the very same chapter, Russell says, “…nature in itself is neutral, neither good nor bad (55).”

If humanity is nothing more than the sum of the physical composition of the species, it is then inappropriate to elaborate a theory of morality. Morality poured into such a naturalistic crucible becomes nothing more than individual personal preferences, which do seem to serve as Russell’s source of moral reasoning. According to Russell, traditional morality is based upon cruelty and ignorance. However, according to John Frame in “Apologetics To The Glory Of God”, to invoke the values of love and knowledge (even when done so to undermine traditional conceptions of virtue) is to inadvertently defend the divinely established order of creation traditional moral values rests upon in the first place since such values are only desirable if a divinely created hierarchy exists (93-102).

Ultimately, one cannot craft a system of ethics solely based on science legitimately defined as science. At best, science can only assess and clarify the situations to which moral principles must be applied. To say that science is the source of moral values is to argue for a scientism or a naturalism as loaded with as many conceptual presuppositions as any theistic creed.

One can base one’s ethical beliefs on the record of Scripture, which II Timothy 3:16 says is given by inspiration of God and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for corrections, and for instruction in righteousness. Or, one can operate under man’s own unaided reason, which is finite, corruptible, and known to change every five to ten years subject to FDA approval. History reveals which has the far better track record.

Unlike many Christians who do not take their worldview outside the church sanctuary or seminary classroom, Bertrand Russell was not one content to keep his philosophy and ideology confined to the level of an academic exercise. In terms of political activism, this was manifested by his vocal opposition to the nuclear diplomacy engaged in by both the United States and the Soviet Union during the tensest days of the Cold War.

However, the application of Russell’s worldview did not always lead him to pursue admirable yet perhaps naive goals such as world peace. In fact, Presbyterian minister D.James Kennedy suggests in “Character & Destiny: A Nation In Search Of Its Soul” that Russell may have formulated his philosophical position regarding religious matters as a justification for his erotic proclivities, the lanky intellectual having actually had numerous adulterous relationships including philanderous escapades with the daughters of friends and colleagues (173). In fact, Russell social views derived from his foundational assumptions sparked considerable controversy. After all, it was not his “Principia Mathematica” that cost him a professorship at the City College of New York but rather his views regarding marriage and personal morality.

Seeing man soley as the product of natural processes and merely as a highly evolved animal, Russell’s views regarding human intimacy and procreation reflect this sentiment. According to Russell, much of traditional morality — especially that dealing with sexual ethics — is based upon superstition. In fact, Russell believes that it would be beneficial for society and family life if the traditional understanding of monogamous, life-long, God-ordained marriage was openly violated. In these matters, Russell sounds much like a contemporary Planned Parenthood operative or public school sex educator. For example, Russell argues for no-fault divorce, unhampered sexual promiscuity provided children do not result from such illicit unions, and for temporary trial marriages not unlike the phenomena of cohabitation (Russell, 168-178).

Despite his attempts to expand human freedom and happiness in regards to these matters, Russell’s proposals are in reality prescriptions for heartache and disaster. The segment of society sustaining the highest number of casualties in the sexual revolution are the young that Russell had hoped to liberate. According to syndicated columnist Cal Thomas in “The Death Of Ethics In America”, by the age of twenty-one 81% of unmarried males and 60% of unmarried females have had sexual intercourse. However, such carnal stimulation is not necessarily the fulfilling personal growth opportunity Russell claimed it would be.

Venereal diseases rank as the number one form of communicable illness in the United States. And the varieties of this pestilence prevalent today do not always react as well to penicillin as those ravaging the morally deviant of Professor Russell’s day (Thomas, 92). Those engaging in Dr. Russell’s trial marriages — what use to be referred to as living in sin — fare little better. Those participating in such arrangements on average go on to experience higher levels of marital discord and incidents of divorce.

God did not establish the regulations regarding human intimacy in order to rain on everybody’s parade. These rules were promulgated in order to bring about the maximum degree of individual well-being and personal happiness. Matthew 19:5 says, “For this cause a man shall leave his father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife; and the two shall become one flesh. Hebrews 13:4 adds, “Marriage is honorable in all and the bed undefiled: but whoremongers and adulterers God will judge.”

To his credit and the shame of the church, Russell does note how women have over the course of history often endured oppressive marriages many times under the sanction and justification of misunderstood interpretations regarding marital submission. However, any cruelty justified under this command is a misinterpretation of the passage’s true intent. In Ephesians 5:25, just two verses away from the famous Scripture misused as an excuse for all manner of masculine cruelty, the Bible clearly reads, “Husbands, love your wives even as Christ loved the church.” This love is to be a sacrificial and gentle love; not the decree of a tyrant even though the husband is the king of the house. Studies indicate that, in reality, marriage is far safer for women than the live-in arrangements advocated by Russell under the euphemism of temporary marriage.

Having dismissed the traditional family and religion (both organized and otherwise) as impediments to humanity’s progress, Russell puts his hope for the betterment of mankind in the state. Rather than punish individuals committing sins so heinous that they infringe upon the well-being of society, the state is to manipulate human behavior in order to bring about desired outcomes beneficial to the greater community. In fact, according to Russell, sin defined as an action committed by an individual in defiance of the universal moral order as established by an omnipotent creator does not exist. Sin is merely that which is disliked by those controlling education (159).

Even those committing the most heinous deeds are not beyond the pale of psychological reprogramming or pity much like that lavished upon a wayward dog that cannot help scratching up the furniture. To bring about his scientific utopia, the state would be granted expansive powers in even those most private aspects of existence. For example, Russell’s state would go so far as to decree that children must be confiscated from their parents and raised by trained statist experts (Russell, 163).

Russell also suffers from the same paradox afflicting Marx and other socialists in that Russell desires to shrink the power of the state while at the same time dramatically increasing it. While wanting to put economic power into the hands of workers through a system of guilds and syndicates, Russell also sought to establish a world state having a monopoly on the use of force as well as establish guaranteed incomes and the human breeding restrictions mentioned earlier.

The issues raised by Russell’s political opinions still possess relevance today with much of contemporary civic discourse an ongoing debate regarding the very kinds of policies advocated by Russell and his leftwing associates. F.A. Hayek noted in “The Road To Serfdom” that, while liberals might have naive but benevolent intentions behind their social engineering proposals, these ultimately require more bloodthirsty totalitarians or others of a similar vain lacking concern for innate human freedoms and constitutional liberties. Even Russell admits that much of human liberty is the result of the interplay between church and state (185). What then would result should the influence be nullified as Russell proposes?

Reflecting upon Russell’s proposal of state-run childcare, it is highly doubtful whether or not such a program could be implemented without a great deal of bloodshed or a massive multi-generational conspiracy such as Hillary Clinton’s it takes a village mentality and the United Nation’s Convention on the Rights of The Child. Programs and policy outlooks such as these seek to alter the fundamental nature of the family primarily through bureaucratic stealth and covert legislative manipulation. Realizing that the proclivities towards marriage and family ran so deeply in the human psyche, even the Soviets had to back off their plank to so openly undermine the oldest of human institutions as part of their diabolical agenda.

And while the wars plaguing mankind are deplorable, the geopolitical landscape allowing them to arise is still preferable to the global tyranny and persecution that would result from a planetary regime that would impose its iron will on any portion of the world refusing to heed its edicts and decrees. At least under the current world order, a small percentage of humanity is able to enjoy some measure of freedom until the Lord’s Second Coming.

Contrary to what even the National Rifle Association claims, America’s Founding Fathers did not draft the Second Amendment to protect skeet shooting and squirrel hunting. Instead, this constitutional provision established a sense of liberty by creating tension between freemen and the operatives of the state by implying violence could result should government authorities over step the confines of their legitimate powers. Something similar is true with a system of nation-states competing with one another, none of which can tyrannize all of mankind at one time.

By reading “Why I Am Not A Christian”, one is reminded that the current culture war besieging America did not begin with either the inaugurations of Bill Clinton or Barack Obama. It is in fact decades and even centuries old. While setting out an agenda and its ideological justification, Russell’s “Why I Am Not A Christian” also provides a glimpse into the cultural disputes of another era.

The final chapter of the book consists of an appendix detailing the court case that ultimately prevented Russell from obtaining a professorship of mathematical and scientific philosophy. Whether or not Russell’s critics should have acted so vehemently is open to debate as (to utilize a phrase just employed) there is some virtue to settling things through “open debate” with each side detailing their merits and revealing the weaknesses in the arguments of their opponents. However, history has shown that the concerns raised by those opposed to Russell’s appointment were based in legitimate fears.

Though Russell cannot bear sole guilt as much of that must also go to his colleagues sharing in his worldview of loose sex and paternalistic government, this philosophy has gained such prominence in social institutions such as education, entertainment, and even religion. Regard for the family and human life has deteriorated to such a degree that is has become regular to hear in news reports of former mailmen mowing down with machine guns their fellow employees (the act itself now referred to as “going postal”) or of prom queens killing their newborns between dances. The world has never been perfect since the expulsion from Eden, but seldom in history has there been times where such outright evil is openly justified by those in authority such as certain psychologists, elected officials, and media personalities.

Bertrand Russell’s “Why I Am Not A Christian” will not stand as a classic regarding what is explicitly written upon the pages. For the highest rational principle appealed to is that the world should enshrine the thoughts and preferences of Bertrand Russell simply because they are the thoughts and utterances of Bertrand Russell. However, the message it propounds between the lines of each man serving as his own god ranks among the central apologetic challenges of this or any other era. The clear style and detectable fallacies found within the pages of Russell’s “Why I Am Not A Christian” will prepare Christians to take on more sophisticated versions of these arguments wherever they might appear.

By Frederick Meekins

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Image result for francis schaeffer

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Francis Schaeffer noted in the book THE GOD WHO IS THERE:
Firstly, these are space-time
proofs in written form, and consequently
capable of careful consideration. Then,
secondly, these proofs are of such a
nature as to give good· and sufficient
evidence that Christ is the Messiah as
prophesied in the Old Testament, and
also that he is the Son of God. So that,
thirdly, we are not asked to believe until
we have faced the question as to whether
this is true on the basis of the space-time evidence. 
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Schaeffer then points to the historical accuracy of the Bible:

The Bible and Archaeology – Is the Bible from God? (Kyle Butt 42 min)

You want some evidence that indicates that the Bible is true? Here is a good place to start and that is taking a closer look at the archaeology of the Old Testament times. Is the Bible historically accurate? Here are some of the posts I have done in the past on the subject: 1. The Babylonian Chronicleof Nebuchadnezzars Siege of Jerusalem2. Hezekiah’s Siloam Tunnel Inscription. 3. Taylor Prism (Sennacherib Hexagonal Prism)4. Biblical Cities Attested Archaeologically. 5. The Discovery of the Hittites6.Shishak Smiting His Captives7. Moabite Stone8Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III9A Verification of places in Gospel of John and Book of Acts., 9B Discovery of Ebla Tablets10. Cyrus Cylinder11. Puru “The lot of Yahali” 9th Century B.C.E.12. The Uzziah Tablet Inscription13. The Pilate Inscription14. Caiaphas Ossuary14 B Pontius Pilate Part 214c. Three greatest American Archaeologists moved to accept Bible’s accuracy through archaeology.

 

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On November 21, 2014 I received a letter from Nobel Laureate Harry Kroto and it said: …Please click on this URL http://vimeo.com/26991975 and you will hear what far smarter people than I have to say on this matter. I agree with them. Harry Kroto _________________ Below you have picture of Dr. Harry Kroto:   Gareth Stedman […]

WOODY WEDNESDAY John Piippo makes the case that Bertrand Russell would have loved Woody Allen because they both were atheists who don’t deny the ramifications of atheism!!!

Top 10 Woody Allen Movies __________ John Piippo makes the case that Bertrand Russell would have loved Woody Allen because they both were  atheists who don’t deny the ramifications of atheism!!! Monday, August 06, 2012 (More On) Woody Allen’s Atheism As I wrote in a previous post, I like Woody Allen. I have long admired his […]

John Piippo makes the case that Bertrand Russell would have loved Woody Allen because they both were two atheists who don’t deny the ramifications of atheism!!!

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Bertrand Russell v. Frederick Copleston debate transcript (Part 4)

THE MORAL ARGUMENT     BERTRAND RUSSELL But aren’t you now saying in effect, I mean by God whatever is good or the sum total of what is good — the system of what is good, and, therefore, when a young man loves anything that is good he is loving God. Is that what you’re […]

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Great debate Fr. Frederick C. Copleston vs Bertrand Russell – Part 1 Uploaded by riversonthemoon on Jul 15, 2009 BBC Radio Third Programme Recording January 28, 1948. BBC Recording number T7324W. This is an excerpt from the full broadcast from cassette tape A303/5 Open University Course, Problems of Philosophy Units 7-8. Older than 50 years, […]

Bertrand Russell v. Frederick Copleston debate transcript and audio (Part 2)

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Bertrand Russell v. Frederick Copleston debate transcript and audio (Part 1)

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Bertrand Russell v. Frederick Copleston debate transcript (Part 4)

THE MORAL ARGUMENT     BERTRAND RUSSELL But aren’t you now saying in effect, I mean by God whatever is good or the sum total of what is good — the system of what is good, and, therefore, when a young man loves anything that is good he is loving God. Is that what you’re […]

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MUSIC MONDAY The Hollies!!!!!! Part 2

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I am thinking about moving MUSIC MONDAYS  to a monthly feature on http://www.thedailyhatch.org. My passion has been in recent years to emphasize the works of Francis Schaeffer in my apologetic efforts and most of those posts are either on Tuesdays or Thursdays. I have already done so many ahead that MUSIC MONDAYS will remain weekly for now, but at some point I will be making them weekly.

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Graham Nash

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Graham Nash
OBE
Graham Nash 13600-098.jpg

Nash performing in 2014
Background information
Birth name Graham William Nash
Born 2 February 1942 (age 75)
BlackpoolLancashire, England, UK
Origin Salford, Lancashire, England
Genres
Occupation(s)
  • Musician
  • singer
  • songwriter
  • activist
Instruments
  • Vocals
  • guitar
  • keyboards
Years active 1958–present
Labels
Associated acts The Hollies
Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young
Crosby & Nash
David Gilmour
Jackson Browne
Website www.grahamnash.com

Graham William NashOBE (born 2 February 1942) is a British-American singer-songwriter and musician. Nash is known for his light tenor voice and for his songwriting contributions as a member of the English pop/rock group the Hollies and the folk-rock supergroup Crosby, Stills & Nash. Nash became an American citizen on 14 August 1978 and holds dual citizenship of the United Kingdom and United States.

Nash is a photography collector and a published photographer. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of Crosby, Stills & Nash in 1997 and as a member of The Hollies in 2010.[1][2]

Nash was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in the 2010 Birthday Honours List for services to music and to charity.[3]

Nash holds four honorary doctorates, including one from New York Institute of Technology,[4] one in Music from the University of Salford in 2011.[5] and his latest Doctorate in Fine Arts from Lesley University in Cambridge, Massachusetts.[6]

Early life and early music career

Graham William Nash was born in 1942 in BlackpoolLancashire, England, his mother having been evacuated there from the Nash’s home town of Salford, Lancashire, because of the Second World War. The family subsequently returned to Salford, where Nash grew up. In the early 1960s he co-founded The Hollies, one of the UK’s most successful popgroups, with school friend Allan Clarke. Credited on the first album as “Group Leader”, he occasionally took the lead vocals. Nash was featured vocally on “Just One Look” in 1964, and sang his first lead vocal on the original Hollies song “To You My Love” on the band’s second album In The Hollies Style (1964). He then progressed to often singing featured bridge vocals on Hollies recordings; “So Lonely”, “I’ve Been Wrong”, “Pay You Back With Interest”. Also by 1966 Nash was providing a few solo lead vocals on Hollies albums, and then from 1967 also on B-sides to singles, notably “On a Carousel” and “Carrie Anne“.[7]

Nash encouraged the Hollies to write their own songs, initially with Clarke, then with Clarke and guitarist Tony Hicks. From 1964 to mid-1966 they wrote under the alias L. Ransford. Their own names were credited on songs from “Stop Stop Stop” from October 1966 onward.

In 1965, Nash with Allan Clarke & guitarist, Tony Hicks, formed Gralto Music Ltd, a publishing company which handled their own songs and later signed the young Reg Dwight (a.k.a. ‘Elton John‘ – who played piano and organ on Hollies 1969 and 1970 recordings).

Songwriting, activism, Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young (CSNY), Crosby & Nash, and solo career

Nash performing in 2011

Nash was pivotal in the forging of a sound and lyrics, often writing the verses on Clarke, Hicks & Nash songs. However, Nash also composed songs by himself under the ‘team banner’ (like Lennon & McCartney), for example, ‘Fifi the Flea’ (1966), ‘Clown’ (1966), ‘Stop Right There’, ‘Everything is Sunshine’ (1967). The Butterfly album included several of his songs that had less group participation and exhibited more of a singer-songwriter approach. He was disappointed when this new style did not register with their audience, especially “King Midas in Reverse” (Nash and producer Ron Richards clashed over this song because Richards believed it was ‘too complex’ to work as a hit single).

Nash initially met both David Crosby and Stephen Stills in 1966 during a Hollies US tour. On a subsequent visit to the US in 1968, he was more formally introduced to Crosby by mutual friend Cass Elliott in Laurel Canyon, Los Angeles. Nash left the Hollies to form a new group with Crosby and Stills. A trio at first, Crosby, Stills & Nash later became a quartet with Neil Young: Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young (CSNY).

With both configurations, Nash went on to even greater worldwide success, penning many of CSN’s most-commercial hit singles such as “Marrakesh Express” (which had been rejected by the Hollies), “Our House“, “Teach Your Children” (also rejected by the Hollies), “Just a Song Before I Go” and “Wasted on the Way“. Nash, nicknamed “Willy” by his band mates, has been described as the glue that keeps their often fragile alliances together.

Nash became politically active after moving to California, as reflected in Nash’s songs “Military Madness” and “Chicago“. His song “Immigration Man“, Crosby & Nash‘s biggest hit as a duo, arose from a tiff he had with a US Customs official while trying to enter the country.

In 1972, during CSNY’s first hiatus, Nash teamed with Crosby, forming a successful duo. They have worked in this configuration on and off ever since, yielding four studio albums and a few live and compilation albums.

In 1979, Nash co-founded Musicians United for Safe Energy which is against the expansion of nuclear power. MUSE put on the educational fundraising No Nukes events. In 2007 the group recorded a music video of a new version of the Buffalo Springfield song “For What It’s Worth“.[8][9]

Nash briefly rejoined the Hollies in 1983 (to mark their 20th anniversary) to record two albums, What Goes Around and Reunion. In 1993, Nash again reunited with the Hollies to record a new version of “Peggy Sue Got Married” that featured lead vocal by Buddy Holly (taken from an alternate version of the song given to Nash by Holly’s widow Maria Eleana Holly)—this Buddy Holly & the Hollies recording opened the Not Fade Away tribute album to Holly by various artists.

David Crosby and Nash playing Occupy Wall Street, November 2011

In 2005, Nash collaborated with Norwegian musicians A-ha on the songs “Over the Treetops” (penned by Paul Waaktaar-Savoy) and “Cosy Prisons” (penned by Magne Furuholmen) for the Analogue recording. In 2006, Nash worked with David Gilmour and David Crosby on the title track of David Gilmour’s third solo album, On an Island. In March 2006, the album was released and quickly reached No. 1 on the UK charts. Nash and Crosby subsequently toured the UK with Gilmour, singing backup on “On an Island”, “The Blue”, “Shine On You Crazy Diamond“, and “Find the Cost of Freedom“.

Nash playing at the LBJ Presidential Library in 2014

In addition to his political songs Nash has written many songs on other themes he cares about such as of nature and ecology—beginning with the Hollies’ “Signs That Will Never Change” (first recorded by the Everly Brothers in 1966)—later CSNY’s “Clear Blue Skies”, plus anti-nuclear-waste-dumping (“Barrel of Pain”), anti-war (“Soldiers of Peace”) and social issues (“Prison Song”).

Nash appeared on the season 7 finale of American Idol singing “Teach Your Children” with Brooke White.

In 2010, Nash was inducted a second time to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, this time as a member of the Hollies. He received an OBE “for services to music and charitable activities”, becoming an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the Diplomatic and Overseas Division of the Queen’s Birthday Honours List on 12 June 2010. Nash received the title of George Eastman Honorary Scholar at the George Eastman House on 22 January 2011, in Rochester, New York.[1][2]

Nash contributed a cover of “Raining in My Heart” to the 2011 tribute album Rave on Buddy Holly.

On 22 January 2016, Nash announced the forthcoming release on 15 April 2016 of his new studio album entitled This Path Tonight (his first collection of new songs in fourteen years) and shared the title track from it through MOJO magazine’s website.[10] On 4 February 2016, Rolling Stone magazine unveiled a new song from the new album, the reflective “Encore,” the tender tune that wraps up Nash’s new album.[11] Upon the upcoming release of his new studio album in April 2016, Nash planned a solo tour from 25 March 2016 at Bluesfest in Byron Bay, Australia, continuing United States on April 22, 2016 at Saban TheatreBeverly Hills, California, to visit Europe starting from the UK on May 21, 2016 at the Albert Hall, Manchester and ending 14 June 2016 at the Alte Oper Hall, Frankfurt, Germany.

He was still touring in the fall of 2017, performing in New Jersey and New York in September.[12]

Photography career

Interested in photography as a child, Nash began to collect photographs in the early 1970s. Having acquired more than a thousand prints by 1976, Nash hired Graham Howe as his photography curator. In 1978 through 1984 a touring exhibition of selections from the Graham Nash Collection toured to more than a dozen museums worldwide. Nash decided to sell his 2,000 print collection through Sotheby’s auction house in 1990 where it set an auction record for the highest grossing sale of a single private collection of photography.[13]

In 2010 21st Editions published a monograph titled “Love, Graham Nash” which includes facsimiles of his lyrics paired with signed photographs by Graham Nash and printed by Nash Editions.

Early digital fine art printing

In the late 1980s Nash began to experiment with digital images of his photography on Macintosh computers with the assistance of R. Mac Holbert who at that time was the tour manager for Crosby, Stills and Nash as well as handling computer/technical matters for the band. Nash ran into the problem common with all personal computers running graphics software during that period: he could create very sophisticated detailed images on the computer, but there was no output device (computer printer) capable of reproducing what he saw on the computer screen. Nash and Holbert initially experimented with early commercial printers that were then becoming available and printed many images on the large format Fujix inkjet printers at UCLA’s JetGraphix digital output centre. When Fuji decided to stop supporting the printers, John Bilotta, who was running JetGraphix, recommended that Nash and Holbert look into the Iris printer, a new large format continuous-tone inkjet printer built for prepress proofing by IRIS Graphics, Inc.[14] Through IRIS Graphics national sales rep Steve Boulter, Nash also met programmer David Coons, a colour engineer for Disney, who was already using the IRIS printer there to print images from Disney’s new digital animation system.

Coons worked off hours at Disney to produce large images of 16 of Nash’s photographic portraits on arches watercolour paper using Disney’s in-house model 3024 IRIS printer for a 24 April 1990 show at Simon Lowinsky gallery.[15] Since most of the original negatives and prints had been lost in shipment to a book publisher, Coons had to scan contact sheets and enhance the images so they could be printed in large format. He used software he had written to output the photographic images to the IRIS printer, a machine designed to work with proprietary prepress computer systems.[16]

In July 1990 Graham Nash purchased an IRIS Graphics 3047 inkjet printer for $126,000 and set it up in a small carriage house in Manhattan Beach, California near Los Angeles. David Coons and Steve Boulter used it to print an even larger November 1990 show of Nash’s work for Parco Stores in Tokyo. The show entitled Sunlight on Silver was a series of 35 celebrity portraits by Nash which were 3 feet by 4 feet in an edition of 50 prints per image, a total of 1,750 images.[17][18] Subsequently, Nash exhibited his photographs at the Museum of Photographic Arts in San Diego and elsewhere.[19]

Nash Editions

In 1991, Nash agreed to fund Mac Holbert to start a fine art digital based printing company using the IRIS Graphics 3047 printer sitting in Nash’s Manhattan Beach, California carriage house. Holbert retired as road manager for Crosby, Stills and Nash so that he could run the company. It opened its doors on 1 July 1991 with the name of Nash Editions Ltd.[15] Early employees included David Coons, John Bilotta and a serigraphic print maker named Jack Duganne. They worked to further adapt the IRIS printer to fine art printing, experimenting with ink sets to try to overcome the fast-fading nature of IRIS prints, and even going as far as sawing off part of the print heads so they could be moved back to clear thicker printing paper stocks (voiding the $126,000 machine’s warranty).[20] Nash and Holbert decided to call their fine art prints “digigraphs” although Jack Duganne coined the name “Giclée” for these type of prints.[21] The company is still in operation and currently uses Epson based large format printers.

In 2005, Nash donated the original IRIS Graphics 3047 printer and Nash Editions ephemera to the National Museum of American History, a Smithsonian Institution.

Personal life

Nash was married to his first wife, Rose Eccles from 1964 until 1966. He was then married to Susan Sennett for 38 years until 2016 when he divorced and moved to New York.[22]

Nash released an autobiographical memoir in September 2013 entitled Wild Tales: A Rock & Roll Life, published by Crown Publishing.[23] Photographs that he took during his career are on display as an art collection at the San Francisco Art Exchange.[24] In interviews pertaining to both the memoir and art exhibit he mentions the impact of Joni Mitchell, with whom he lived for two years in his early time in California. Nash also had a short-term relationship with Rita Coolidge, as had Stephen Stills.[23][24][25]

Nash endorsed Bernie Sanders for the 2016 United States presidential election.

Discography

See also discographies for Crosby Stills Nash & YoungThe Hollies and Crosby & Nash.

Studio albums

Date of release Title Peak Billboard chart position RIAA certification[26] Label
28 May 1971 Songs for Beginners 15 Gold Atlantic Records
2 January 1974 Wild Tales 34 Atlantic
15 February 1980 Earth & Sky 117 EMI Records
27 March 1986 Innocent Eyes 136 Atlantic
30 April 2002 Songs for Survivors Artemis Records
15 April 2016 This Path Tonight 93 Blue Castle Records

Box set

Date of release Title Peak Billboard chart position RIAA certification[26] Label
3 February 2009 Reflections Rhino Records

References

  1. Jump up to:a b “The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum”. Rockhall.com. Archived from the original on 17 January 2010. Retrieved 20 October2011.
  2. Jump up to:a b “Rock and Roll Hall of Fame: Inductees”. Rockhall.com. Archived from the original on 23 December 2009. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  3. Jump up^ “No. 59446”The London Gazette (Supplement). 12 June 2010. p. 24.
  4. Jump up^ http://www.grahamnash.com/content/bio
  5. Jump up^ “University of Salford Manchester – “Son of Salford” Graham Nash receives honorary degree”. Salford.ac.uk. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
  6. Jump up^ editor. “Graham Nash awarded honorary Doctorate in Fine Arts”. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
  7. Jump up^ “Prolific songwriter Graham Nash still finds his voice with a new generation of fans”Daily Telegraph. February 1, 2017.
  8. Jump up^ “”For What It’s Worth,” No Nukes Reunite After Thirty Years”. Nukefree.org. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  9. Jump up^ “Musicians Act to Stop New Atomic Reactors”. Nirs.org. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  10. Jump up^ “Graham Nash Previews New Album, This Path Tonight (Graham Nash shares the title track of his forthcoming album, This Path Tonight, in an exclusive stream for MOJO readers.) (by MOJO Staff)”MOJO. 22 January 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  11. Jump up^ “Hear Graham Nash’s Reflective New Song “Encore” (Tender tune is the final track on This Path Tonight, singer-songwriter’s first solo album in 14 years) (by Andy Greene)”Rolling Stone. 4 February 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  12. Jump up^ Intimate evening with Graham NashNew Jersey Herald, June 29, 2017, retrieved September 19, 2017
  13. Jump up^ Beth Gates-Warren, editor, Photographs from the Collection of Graham Nash, Sotheby’s, New York, 25 April 1990
  14. Jump up^ “Nash Editions: Fine Art Printing on the Digital Frontier, by Garrett White”. Digitaljournalist.org. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  15. Jump up to:a b “Digital Fine-Art Printing Comes of Age (Adapted from Chapter 1 of Harald Johnson’s book, Mastering Digital Printing, Second Edition, Thomson Course Technology PTR, 2005, ISBN 1-59200-431-8.)”. stansherer.com. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  16. Jump up^ Harald Johnson, “Mastering Digital Printing”, Thompson Course Technology, 2002, ISBN 1-929685-65-3
  17. Jump up^ “Nash Editions: Fine Art Printing on the Digital Frontier, by Garrett White”. digitaljournalist.org. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  18. Jump up^ Masayoshi Yamada, Graham Nash Photographs: Sunlight on Silver, Parco Co. Ltd, Tokyo, 1990
  19. Jump up^ Garrat White, Eye to Eye: Photographs by Graham Nash, Steidl, 2004 ISBN 3-88243-960-2
  20. Jump up^ “The Center for Photographic Art, Interview, Mac Holbert, September 2004”. photography.org. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  21. Jump up^ ”’Mastering Digital Printing”’ By Harald Johnson, Page 11. Books.google.com. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  22. Jump up^ “Graham Nash Talks Life After Divorce, CSNY’s Future”Rolling Stone, 30th August 2016.
  23. Jump up to:a b Italie, Hillel (20 September 2013). “Graham Nash: Rock star’s memoir recalls the early days of his career”Edmonton Journal and the Associated PressEdmontonCanada. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
  24. Jump up to:a b Aidin, Vaziri (20 September 2013). “Folk rocker Graham Nash strums ‘charmed life’ tune”San Francisco Chronicle online (SF Gate). San Francisco: Hearst Newspapers. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
  25. Jump up^ James, Endrst (16 September 2013). “Graham Nash recalls big dreams and ‘Wild Tales'”USA Today. Gannet. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
  26. Jump up to:a b “Recording Industry Association of America”. RIAA. Archived from the original on 2 September 2008. Retrieved 20 October 2011.

Bibliography

  • Eye to Eye: Photographs by Graham Nash by Nash and Garrett White (2004)
  • Off the Record: Songwriters on Songwriting (2002)
  • Love, Graham Nash (2 vols. [1] 2009)
  • Wild Tales: A Rock & Roll Life by Graham Nash (17 September 2013)

External links

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FRANCIS SCHAEFFER ANALYZES ART AND CULTURE PART 192 “Film series HOW SHOULD WE THEN LIVE? PART 3, The Renaissance” Featured artist is Wassily Kandinsky

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How Shall We Then Live?—Francis Schaeffer

Episode Three: The Renaissance
Key Terms

  1. “Cultural transformation” always begins with the thinkers (philosophers and theologians). They develop ideas which influence the artists who depict the new ideas. These ideas are then picked by the politicians, lawyers, doctors, and wealthy businessmen. It then passes on to the educators who influence the students. The students return home and influence the common people. Cultures are thus usually transformed from the top down. The only exception was the Reformation which in many situations went from the bottom (i.e. the common man) to the top.
  2. “Syncretism” is the attempt to combine different worldviews into one system. Many have tried to combine Christianity with pagan worldviews in order to make Christianity “relevant” or “modern.”
  3. Examples:
  • Parmenides + Heraclitus = Plato
  • Gnosticism + Christianity = Arianism and Modalism
  • Plato + Christianity = Augustine
  • Aristotle + Christianity = Aquinas
  • Leibnez + Hume = Kant
  • Kant + Christianity = Barth
  • Existentialism + Christianity = Kierkegarrd
  • Marxism + Christianity = Liberation Theology
  • Neo-Kantianism + Christianity = Dooyeweerdianism
  • Greek humanism + Christianity = Molinism
  • Process philosophy + Christianity = “Open View of God”

D. The flow of philosophic ideas has a certain pattern. This pattern can be traced in the
history of ideas.

  • Plato: mind
  • matter
  • Aristotle: essence
  • form
  • Aquinas: grace
  • nature
  • Roman sacred
  • Catholicism secular
  • Rousseau: freedom
  • nature
  • Kant; noumenal
  • phenomenal
  • Barth faith
  • facts
  • modern: non-rational
  • rational
  • religion
  • politics
  • religion
  • science

 

HowShouldWeThenLive Episode 4

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Image result for Wassily Kandinsky

Featured artist today is Wassily Kandinsky

Composition VIII, 1923 

Image result for Wassily Kandinsky

Image result for Wassily Kandinsky

Composition VII (1913)

Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky[a] (/kænˈdɪnski/; 16 December [O.S. 4 December] 1866 – 13 December 1944) was a Russian painter and art theorist.

He is credited with painting one of the first recognised purely abstract works.[1] Born in Moscow, Kandinsky spent his childhood in Odessa, where he graduated at Grekov Odessa Art school. He enrolled at the University of Moscow, studying law and economics. Successful in his profession—he was offered a professorship (chair of Roman Law) at the University of Dorpat—Kandinsky began painting studies (life-drawing, sketching and anatomy) at the age of 30.

In 1896, Kandinsky settled in Munich, studying first at Anton Ažbe‘s private school and then at the Academy of Fine Arts. He returned to Moscow in 1914, after the outbreak of World War I. Kandinsky was unsympathetic to the official theories on art in Communist Moscow, and returned to Germany in 1920. There, he taught at the Bauhaus school of art and architecture from 1922 until the Nazis closed it in 1933. He then moved to France, where he lived for the rest of his life, becoming a French citizen in 1939 and producing some of his most prominent art. He died at Neuilly-sur-Seine in 1944.

Artistic periods[edit]

Kandinsky’s creation of abstract work followed a long period of development and maturation of intense thought based on his artistic experiences. He called this devotion to inner beauty, fervor of spirit, and spiritual desire inner necessity; it was a central aspect of his art.

Youth and inspiration (1866–1896)[edit]

Colorful abstract painting with buildings and a church in the background

Early-period work, Munich-Schwabing with the Church of St. Ursula (1908)

Kandinsky was born in Moscow, the son of Lidia Ticheeva and Vasily Silvestrovich Kandinsky, a tea merchant.[2][3] His family comprised German aristocrats, and from his maternal side he also had Tatar origins, to which he ascribed the “slight Mongolian trait in his features”.[4] Kandinsky learned from a variety of sources while in Moscow. He studied many fields while in school, including law and economics. Later in life, he would recall being fascinated and stimulated by colour as a child. His fascination with colour symbolism and psychology continued as he grew. In 1889, he was part of an ethnographic research group which travelled to the Vologda region north of Moscow. In Looks on the Past, he relates that the houses and churches were decorated with such shimmering colours that upon entering them, he felt that he was moving into a painting. This experience, and his study of the region’s folk art (particularly the use of bright colours on a dark background), was reflected in much of his early work. A few years later he first likened painting to composing music in the manner for which he would become noted, writing, “Colour is the keyboard, the eyes are the hammers, the soul is the piano with many strings. The artist is the hand which plays, touching one key or another, to cause vibrations in the soul”.[5] Kandinsky was also the uncle of Russian-French philosopher Alexandre Kojève (1902-1968).

In 1896, at the age of 30, Kandinsky gave up a promising career teaching law and economics to enroll in the Munich Academy where his teachers would eventually include Franz von Stuck.[6] He was not immediately granted admission, and began learning art on his own. That same year, before leaving Moscow, he saw an exhibit of paintings by Monet. He was particularly taken with the impressionistic style of Haystacks; this, to him, had a powerful sense of colour almost independent of the objects themselves. Later, he would write about this experience:

That it was a haystack the catalogue informed me. I could not recognize it. This non-recognition was painful to me. I considered that the painter had no right to paint indistinctly. I dully felt that the object of the painting was missing. And I noticed with surprise and confusion that the picture not only gripped me, but impressed itself ineradicably on my memory. Painting took on a fairy-tale power and splendour.[7]

— Wassily Kandinsky

Kandinsky was similarly influenced during this period by Richard Wagner‘s Lohengrin which, he felt, pushed the limits of music and melody beyond standard lyricism.[citation needed]He was also spiritually influenced by Madame Blavatsky (1831–1891), the best-known exponent of theosophy. Theosophical theory postulates that creation is a geometrical progression, beginning with a single point. The creative aspect of the form is expressed by a descending series of circles, triangles and squares. Kandinsky’s book Concerning the Spiritual In Art (1910) and Point and Line to Plane (1926) echoed this theosophical tenet. Illustrations by John Varley in Thought Forms (1901) influenced him visually.[8]

Metamorphosis[edit]

In the summer of 1902, Kandinsky invited Gabriele Münter to join him at his summer painting classes just south of Munich in the Alps. She accepted, and their relationship became more personal than professional. Art school, usually considered difficult, was easy for Kandinsky. It was during this time that he began to emerge as an art theorist as well as a painter. The number of his existing paintings increased in the beginning of the 20th century; much remains of the landscapes and towns he painted, using broad swaths of colour and recognizable forms. For the most part, however, Kandinsky’s paintings did not feature any human figures; an exception is Sunday, Old Russia (1904), in which Kandinsky recreates a highly colourful (and fanciful) view of peasants and nobles in front of the walls of a town. Riding Couple(1907) depicts a man on horseback, holding a woman with tenderness and care as they ride past a Russian town with luminous walls across a river. The horse is muted while the leaves in the trees, the town, and the reflections in the river glisten with spots of colour and brightness. This work demonstrates the influence of pointillism in the way the depth of field is collapsed into a flat, luminescent surface. Fauvism is also apparent in these early works. Colours are used to express Kandinsky’s experience of subject matter, not to describe objective nature.

Perhaps the most important of his paintings from the first decade of the 1900s was The Blue Rider (1903), which shows a small cloaked figure on a speeding horse rushing through a rocky meadow. The rider’s cloak is medium blue, which casts a darker-blue shadow. In the foreground are more amorphous blue shadows, the counterparts of the fall trees in the background. The blue rider in the painting is prominent (but not clearly defined), and the horse has an unnatural gait (which Kandinsky must have known). Some art historians believe[citation needed] that a second figure (perhaps a child) is being held by the rider, although this may be another shadow from the solitary rider. This intentional disjunction, allowing viewers to participate in the creation of the artwork, became an increasingly conscious technique used by Kandinsky in subsequent years; it culminated in the abstract works of the 1911–1914 period. In The Blue Rider, Kandinsky shows the rider more as a series of colours than in specific detail. This painting is not exceptional in that regard when compared with contemporary painters, but it shows the direction Kandinsky would take only a few years later.

From 1906 to 1908 Kandinsky spent a great deal of time travelling across Europe (he was an associate of the Blue Rose symbolist group of Moscow), until he settled in the small Bavarian town of Murnau. In 1908 he bought a copy of Thought-Forms by Annie Besant and Charles Webster Leadbeater. In 1909 he joined the Theosophical Society. The Blue Mountain (1908–1909) was painted at this time, demonstrating his trend toward abstraction. A mountain of blue is flanked by two broad trees, one yellow and one red. A procession, with three riders and several others, crosses at the bottom. The faces, clothing, and saddles of the riders are each a single color, and neither they nor the walking figures display any real detail. The flat planes and the contours also are indicative of Fauvist influence. The broad use of color in The Blue Mountain illustrates Kandinsky’s inclination toward an art in which color is presented independently of form, and which each color is given equal attention. The composition is more planar; the painting is divided into four sections: the sky, the red tree, the yellow tree and the blue mountain with the three riders.

Blue Rider Period (1911–1914)[edit]

Wassily Kandinsky, Improvisation 27 (Garden of Love II), 1912, oil on canvas, 47 3/8 x 55 1/4 in. (120.3 x 140.3 cm), The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Exhibited at the 1913 Armory Show.

Kandinsky’s paintings from this period are large, expressive coloured masses evaluated independently from forms and lines; these serve no longer to delimit them, but overlap freely to form paintings of extraordinary force. Music was important to the birth of abstract art, since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Kandinsky sometimes used musical terms to identify his works; he called his most spontaneous paintings “improvisations” and described more elaborate works as “compositions.”

In addition to painting, Kandinsky was an art theorist; his influence on the history of Western art stems perhaps more from his theoretical works than from his paintings. He helped found the Neue Künstlervereinigung München (Munich New Artists’ Association), becoming its president in 1909. However, the group could not integrate the radical approach of Kandinsky (and others) with conventional artistic concepts and the group dissolved in late 1911. Kandinsky then formed a new group, the Blue Rider (Der Blaue Reiter) with like-minded artists such as August MackeFranz MarcAlbert Bloch, and Gabriele Münter. The group released an almanac (The Blue Rider Almanac) and held two exhibits. More of each were planned, but the outbreak of World War I in 1914 ended these plans and sent Kandinsky back to Russia via Switzerland and Sweden.

His writing in The Blue Rider Almanac and the treatise “On the Spiritual In Art” (which was released in 1910) were both a defence and promotion of abstract art and an affirmation that all forms of art were equally capable of reaching a level of spirituality. He believed that colour could be used in a painting as something autonomous, apart from the visual description of an object or other form.

These ideas had an almost-immediate international impact, particularly in the English-speaking world.[9] As early as 1912, On the Spiritual In Art was reviewed by Michael Sadleir in the London-based Art News.[10] Interest in Kandinsky grew apace when Sadleir published an English translation of On the Spiritual In Art in 1914. Extracts from the book were published that year in Percy Wyndham Lewis‘s periodical Blast, and Alfred Orage‘s weekly cultural newspaper The New Age. Kandinsky had received some notice earlier in Britain, however; in 1910, he participated in the Allied Artists’ Exhibition (organised by Frank Rutter) at London’s Royal Albert Hall. This resulted in his work being singled out for praise in a review of that show by the artist Spencer Frederick Gore in The Art News.[11]

Sadleir’s interest in Kandinsky also led to Kandinsky’s first works entering a British art collection; Sadleir’s father, Michael Sadler, acquired several woodprints and the abstract painting Fragment for Composition VII in 1913 following a visit by father and son to meet Kandinsky in Munich that year. These works were displayed in Leeds, either in the University or the premises of the Leeds Arts Club, between 1913 and 1923.[12]

Return to Russia (1914–1921)[edit]

The sun melts all of Moscow down to a single spot that, like a mad tuba, starts all of the heart and all of the soul vibrating. But no, this uniformity of red is not the most beautiful hour. It is only the final chord of a symphony that takes every colour to the zenith of life that, like the fortissimo of a great orchestra, is both compelled and allowed by Moscow to ring out.

— Wassily Kandinsky[13]

From 1918 to 1921, Kandinsky dealt with the cultural politics of Russia and collaborated in art education and museum reform. He painted little during this period, but devoted his time to artistic teaching, with a program based on form and colour analysis; he also helped organize the Institute of Artistic Culture in Moscow. In 1916 he met Nina Andreievskaya (she died in 1980), whom he married the following year. His spiritual, expressionistic view of art was ultimately rejected by the radical members of the Institute as too individualistic and bourgeois. In 1921, Kandinsky was invited to go to Germany to attend the Bauhaus of Weimar by its founder, architect Walter Gropius.

Bauhaus (1922–1933)[edit]

Kandinsky taught the basic design class for beginners and the course on advanced theory at the Bauhaus; he also conducted painting classes and a workshop in which he augmented his colour theory with new elements of form psychology. The development of his works on forms study, particularly on points and line forms, led to the publication of his second theoretical book (Point and Line to Plane) in 1926. His examinations of the effects of forces on straight lines, leading to the contrasting tones of curved and angled lines, coincided with the research of Gestalt psychologists, whose work was also discussed at the Bauhaus.[14] Geometrical elements took on increasing importance in both his teaching and painting—particularly the circle, half-circle, the angle, straight lines and curves. This period was intensely productive. This freedom is characterised in his works by the treatment of planes rich in colours and gradations—as in Yellow – red – blue (1925), where Kandinsky illustrates his distance from the constructivism and suprematism movements influential at the time.

The two-meter-wide Yellow – red – blue (1925) of several main forms: a vertical yellow rectangle, an inclined red cross and a large dark blue circle; a multitude of straight (or sinuous) black lines, circular arcs, monochromatic circles and scattered, coloured checkerboards contribute to its delicate complexity. This simple visual identification of forms and the main coloured masses present on the canvas is only a first approach to the inner reality of the work, whose appreciation necessitates deeper observation—not only of forms and colours involved in the painting but their relationship, their absolute and relative positions on the canvas and their harmony.

Kandinsky was one of Die Blaue Vier (Blue Four), formed in 1923 with KleeFeininger and von Jawlensky, which lectured and exhibited in the United States in 1924. Due to right-wing hostility, the Bauhaus left Weimar and settled in Dessau in 1925. Following a Nazi smear campaign the Bauhaus left Dessau in 1932 for Berlin, until its dissolution in July 1933. Kandinsky then left Germany, settling in Paris.

Great Synthesis (1934–1944)[edit]

Living in an apartment in Paris, Kandinsky created his work in a living-room studio. Biomorphic forms with supple, non-geometric outlines appear in his paintings—forms which suggest microscopic organisms but express the artist’s inner life. Kandinsky used original colour compositions, evoking Slavic popular art. He also occasionally mixed sand with paint to give a granular, rustic texture to his paintings.

This period corresponds to a synthesis of Kandinsky’s previous work in which he used all elements, enriching them. In 1936 and 1939 he painted his two last major compositions, the type of elaborate canvases he had not produced for many years. Composition IX has highly contrasted, powerful diagonals whose central form gives the impression of an embryo in the womb. Small squares of colours and coloured bands stand out against the black background of Composition X as star fragments (or filaments), while enigmatic hieroglyphs with pastel tones cover a large maroon mass which seems to float in the upper-left corner of the canvas. In Kandinsky’s work some characteristics are obvious, while certain touches are more discreet and veiled; they reveal themselves only progressively to those who deepen their connection with his work.[15] He intended his forms (which he subtly harmonized and placed) to resonate with the observer’s soul.

Kandinsky’s conception of art[edit]

The artist as prophet[edit]

Large, colorful abstract painting

Composition VII—according to Kandinsky, the most complex piece he ever painted (1913)

Writing that “music is the ultimate teacher,”[16] Kandinsky embarked upon the first seven of his ten Compositions. The first three survive only in black-and-white photographs taken by fellow artist and friend Gabriele Münter. While studies, sketches, and improvisations exist (particularly of Composition II), a Nazi raid on the Bauhaus in the 1930s resulted in the confiscation of Kandinsky’s first three Compositions. They were displayed in the State-sponsored exhibit “Degenerate Art“, and then destroyed (along with works by Paul KleeFranz Marc and other modern artists).

Fascinated by Christian eschatology and the perception of a coming New Age,[17] a common theme among Kandinsky’s first seven Compositions is the apocalypse (the end of the world as we know it). Writing of the “artist as prophet” in his book, Concerning the Spiritual In Art, Kandinsky created paintings in the years immediately preceding World War I showing a coming cataclysm which would alter individual and social reality. Having a fervent belief in Orthodox Christianity,[18] Kandinsky drew upon the biblical stories of Noah’s ArkJonah and the whale, Christ’s resurrection, the four horsemen of the Apocalypse in the book of Revelation, Russian folktales and the common mythological experiences of death and rebirth. Never attempting to picture any one of these stories as a narrative, he used their veiled imagery as symbols of the archetypes of death–rebirth and destruction–creation he felt were imminent in the pre-World War I world.

As he stated in Concerning the Spiritual In Art (see below), Kandinsky felt that an authentic artist creating art from “an internal necessity” inhabits the tip of an upward-moving pyramid. This progressing pyramid is penetrating and proceeding into the future. What was odd or inconceivable yesterday is commonplace today; what is avant garde today (and understood only by the few) is common knowledge tomorrow. The modern artist–prophet stands alone at the apex of the pyramid, making new discoveries and ushering in tomorrow’s reality. Kandinsky was aware of recent scientific developments and the advances of modern artists who had contributed to radically new ways of seeing and experiencing the world.

Composition IV and later paintings are primarily concerned with evoking a spiritual resonance in viewer and artist. As in his painting of the apocalypse by water (Composition VI), Kandinsky puts the viewer in the situation of experiencing these epic myths by translating them into contemporary terms (with a sense of desperation, flurry, urgency, and confusion). This spiritual communion of viewer-painting-artist/prophet may be described within the limits of words and images.

Artistic and spiritual theorist[edit]

Rectangular, multicolored abstract painting

Composition VI (1913)

As the Der Blaue Reiter Almanac essays and theorizing with composer Arnold Schoenberg indicate, Kandinsky also expressed the communion between artist and viewer as being available to both the senses and the mind (synesthesia). Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that (for example), yellow is the colour of middle C on a brassy trumpet; black is the colour of closure, and the end of things; and that combinations of colours produce vibrational frequencies, akin to chords played on a piano. Kandinsky also developed a theory of geometric figures and their relationships—claiming, for example, that the circle is the most peaceful shape and represents the human soul. These theories are explained in Point and Line to Plane (see below).

Kandinsky’s legendary stage design for a performance of Mussorgsky‘s “Pictures at an Exhibition” illustrates his synaesthetic concept of a universal correspondence of forms, colors and musical sounds.[19] In 1928 in the theater of Dessau Wassily Kandinsky realized the stage production of “Pictures at an Exhibition”. In 2015 the original designs of the stage elements were animated with modern video technology and synchronized with the music according to the preparatory notes of Kandinsky and the director’s script of Felix Klee.

During the studies Kandinsky made in preparation for Composition IV, he became exhausted while working on a painting and went for a walk. While he was out, Gabriele Münter tidied his studio and inadvertently turned his canvas on its side. Upon returning and seeing the canvas (but not yet recognizing it) Kandinsky fell to his knees and wept, saying it was the most beautiful painting he had ever seen. He had been liberated from attachment to an object. As when he first viewed Monet’s Haystacks, the experience would change his life.[citation needed]

In another episode with Münter during the Bavarian abstract expressionist years, Kandinsky was working on his Composition VI. From nearly six months of study and preparation, he had intended the work to evoke a flood, baptism, destruction, and rebirth simultaneously. After outlining the work on a mural-sized wood panel, he became blocked and could not go on. Münter told him that he was trapped in his intellect and not reaching the true subject of the picture. She suggested he simply repeat the word uberflut (“deluge” or “flood”) and focus on its sound rather than its meaning. Repeating this word like a mantra, Kandinsky painted and completed the monumental work in a three-day span.[citation needed]

Theoretical writings on art[edit]

Kandinsky’s analyses on forms and colours result not from simple, arbitrary idea-associations but from the painter’s inner experience. He spent years creating abstract, sensorially rich paintings, working with form and colour, tirelessly observing his own paintings and those of other artists, noting their effects on his sense of colour.[20] This subjective experience is something that anyone can do—not scientific, objective observations but inner, subjective ones, what French philosopher Michel Henry calls “absolute subjectivity” or the “absolute phenomenological life“.[21]

Concerning the spiritual in art[edit]

Published in 1912, Kandinsky’s text, Du Spirituel dans l’art, defines three types of painting; impressionsimprovisations and compositions. While impressions are based on an external reality that serves as a starting point, improvisations and compositions depict images emergent from the unconscious, though composition is developed from a more formal point of view.[22] Kandinsky compares the spiritual life of humanity to a pyramid—the artist has a mission to lead others to the pinnacle with his work. The point of the pyramid is those few, great artists. It is a spiritual pyramid, advancing and ascending slowly even if it sometimes appears immobile. During decadent periods, the soul sinks to the bottom of the pyramid; humanity searches only for external success, ignoring spiritual forces.[23]

Colours on the painter’s palette evoke a double effect: a purely physical effect on the eye which is charmed by the beauty of colours, similar to the joyful impression when we eat a delicacy. This effect can be much deeper, however, causing a vibration of the soul or an “inner resonance”—a spiritual effect in which the colour touches the soul itself.[24]

“Inner necessity” is, for Kandinsky, the principle of art and the foundation of forms and the harmony of colours. He defines it as the principle of efficient contact of the form with the human soul.[25] Every form is the delimitation of a surface by another one; it possesses an inner content, the effect it produces on one who looks at it attentively.[26] This inner necessity is the right of the artist to unlimited freedom, but this freedom becomes licence if it is not founded on such a necessity.[27] Art is born from the inner necessity of the artist in an enigmatic, mystical way through which it acquires an autonomous life; it becomes an independent subject, animated by a spiritual breath.[28]

The obvious properties we can see when we look at an isolated colour and let it act alone, on one side is the warmth or coldness of the colour tone, and on the other side is the clarity or obscurity of that tone.[29]Warmth is a tendency towards yellow, and coldness a tendency towards blue; yellow and blue form the first great, dynamic contrast.[30] Yellow has an eccentric movement and blue a concentric movement; a yellow surface seems to move closer to us, while a blue surface seems to move away.[31] Yellow is a typically terrestrial colour, whose violence can be painful and aggressive.[32] Blue is a celestial colour, evoking a deep calm.[33] The combination of blue and yellow yields total immobility and calm, which is green.[34]

Clarity is a tendency towards white, and obscurity is a tendency towards black. White and black form the second great contrast, which is static.[31] White is a deep, absolute silence, full of possibility.[35] Black is nothingness without possibility, an eternal silence without hope, and corresponds with death. Any other colour resonates strongly on its neighbors.[36] The mixing of white with black leads to gray, which possesses no active force and whose tonality is near that of green. Gray corresponds to immobility without hope; it tends to despair when it becomes dark, regaining little hope when it lightens.[37]

Red is a warm colour, lively and agitated; it is forceful, a movement in itself.[37] Mixed with black it becomes brown, a hard colour.[38] Mixed with yellow, it gains in warmth and becomes orange, which imparts an irradiating movement on its surroundings.[39] When red is mixed with blue it moves away from man to become purple, which is a cool red.[40] Red and green form the third great contrast, and orange and purple the fourth.[41]

Point and Line to Plane[edit]

Points, 1920, 110.3 × 91.8 cm, Ohara Museum of Art

In his writings, Kandinsky analyzed the geometrical elements which make up every painting—the point and the line. He called the physical support and the material surface on which the artist draws or paints the basic plane, or BP.[42] He did not analyze them objectively, but from the point of view of their inner effect on the observer.[43]

A point is a small bit of colour put by the artist on the canvas. It is neither a geometric point nor a mathematical abstraction; it is extension, form and colour. This form can be a square, a triangle, a circle, a star or something more complex. The point is the most concise form but, according to its placement on the basic plane, it will take a different tonality. It can be isolated or resonate with other points or lines.[44]

A line is the product of a force which has been applied in a given direction: the force exerted on the pencil or paintbrush by the artist. The produced linear forms may be of several types: a straight line, which results from a unique force applied in a single direction; an angular line, resulting from the alternation of two forces in different directions, or a curved (or wave-like) line, produced by the effect of two forces acting simultaneously. A plane may be obtained by condensation (from a line rotated around one of its ends).[45]

The subjective effect produced by a line depends on its orientation: a horizontal line corresponds with the ground on which man rests and moves; it possesses a dark and cold affective tonality similar to black or blue. A vertical line corresponds with height, and offers no support; it possesses a luminous, warm tonality close to white and yellow. A diagonal possesses a more-or-less warm (or cold) tonality, according to its inclination toward the horizontal or the vertical.[46]

A force which deploys itself, without obstacle, as the one which produces a straight line corresponds with lyricism; several forces which confront (or annoy) each other form a drama.[47] The angle formed by the angular line also has an inner sonority which is warm and close to yellow for an acute angle (a triangle), cold and similar to blue for an obtuse angle (a circle), and similar to red for a right angle (a square).[48]

The basic plane is, in general, rectangular or square. therefore, it is composed of horizontal and vertical lines which delimit it and define it as an autonomous entity which supports the painting, communicating its affective tonality. This tonality is determined by the relative importance of horizontal and vertical lines: the horizontals giving a calm, cold tonality to the basic plane while the verticals impart a calm, warm tonality.[49] The artist intuits the inner effect of the canvas format and dimensions, which he chooses according to the tonality he wants to give to his work. Kandinsky considered the basic plane a living being, which the artist “fertilizes” and feels “breathing”.[50]

Each part of the basic plane possesses an affective colouration; this influences the tonality of the pictorial elements which will be drawn on it, and contributes to the richness of the composition resulting from their juxtaposition on the canvas. The above of the basic plane corresponds with looseness and to lightness, while the below evokes condensation and heaviness. The painter’s job is to listen and know these effects to produce paintings which are not just the effect of a random process, but the fruit of authentic work and the result of an effort towards inner beauty.[51]

This book contains many photographic examples and drawing from Kandinsky’s works which offer the demonstration of its theoretical observations, and which allow the reader to reproduce in him the inner obviousness provided that he takes the time to look at those pictures with care, that he let them acting on its own sensibility and that he let vibrating the sensible and spiritual strings of his soul.[52]

Miscellaneous information[edit]

Art market[edit]

In 2012, Christie’s auctioned Kandinsky’s Studie für Improvisation 8 (Study for Improvisation 8), a 1909 view of a man wielding a broadsword in a rainbow-hued village, for $23 million. The painting had been on loan to the Kunstmuseum Winterthur, Switzerland, since 1960 and was sold to a European collector by the Volkart Foundation, the charitable arm of the Swiss commodities trading firm Volkart Brothers. Before this sale, the artist’s last record was set in 1990 when Sotheby’s sold his Fugue (1914) for $20.9 million.[53] On November 16, 2016 Christie’s auctioned Kandinsky’s Rigide et courbé (rigid and bent), a large 1935 abstract painting, for $23.3 million, a new record for Kandinsky.[54][55] Solomon R. Guggenheim originally purchased the painting directly from the artist in 1936, but it was not exhibited after 1949, and was then sold at auction to a private collector in 1964 by the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum.[55]

In popular culture[edit]

The 1990 play Six Degrees of Separation refers to a “double-sided Kandinsky” painting.[56] No such painting is known to exist; in the 1993 film version of the play, the double-sided painting is portrayed as having Kandinsky’s 1913 painting Black Lines on one side and his 1926 painting Several Circles on the other side.[57]

The 1999 film Double Jeopardy makes numerous references to Kandinsky, and a piece of his, “Sketch”, figures prominently in the plotline. The protagonist, Elizabeth Parsons (Ashley Judd), utilizes the registry entry for the work to track down her husband under his new alias. Two variations of the almanac cover of “Blue Rider” are also featured in the film.[58]

In 2014, Google commemorated Kandinsky’s 148th birthday by featuring a Google Doodle based on his abstract paintings.[59][60]

A picture-book biography entitled The Noisy Paint Box: The Colors and Sounds of Kandinsky’s Abstract Art was published in 2014. Its illustrations by Mary GrandPre earned it a 2015 Caldecott Honor.

His grandson was musicology professor and writer Aleksey Ivanovich Kandinsky (1918–2000), whose career was both focused on and centered in Russia.[61][62]

Exhibitions[edit]

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum held a major retrospective of Kandinsky’s work from 2009-2010, called Kandinsky.[63] In 2017, a selection of Kandinsky’s work is on view at the Guggenheim’s current exhibition, Visionaries: Creating a Modern Guggenheim.[64]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Note: Several sections of this article have been translated from its French version: Theoretical writings on artThe Bauhaus and The great synthesis artistic periods. For complete detailed references in French, see the original version at fr:Vassily Kandinsky

Books by Kandinsky[edit]

  • Wassily Kandinsky, M. T. Sadler (Translator), Adrian Glew (Editor). Concerning the Spiritual in Art. (New York: MFA Publications and London: Tate Publishing, 2001). 192pp. ISBN 0-87846-702-5
  • Wassily Kandinsky, M. T Sadler (Translator). Concerning the Spiritual in Art. Dover Publ. (Paperback). 80 pp. ISBN 0-486-23411-8. or: Lightning Source Inc Publ. (Paperback). ISBN 1-4191-1377-1
  • Wassily Kandinsky. Klänge. Verlag R. Piper & Co., Munich
  • Wassily Kandinsky. Point and Line to Plane. Dover Publications, New York. ISBN 0-486-23808-3
  • Wassily Kandinsky. Kandinsky, Complete Writings on Art. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80570-7

References in English[edit]

  • John E Bowlt and Rose-Carol Washton Long. The Life of Vasilii Kandinsky in Russian art: a study of “On the spiritual in art” by Wassily Kandinsky. (Newtonville, MA.: Oriental Research Partners, 1984). ISBN 0-89250-131-6
  • Magdalena Dabrowski. Kandinsky Compositions. (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2002). ISBN 0-87070-405-2
  • Hajo Düchting. Wassily Kandinsky 1866–1944: A Revolution in Painting. (Taschen, 2000). ISBN 3-8228-5982-6
  • Hajo Düchting and O’Neill. The Avant-Garde in Russia.
  • Will Grohmann. Wassily Kandinsky. Life and Work. (New York: Harry N Abrams Inc., 1958).
  • Thomas M. Messer. Vasily Kandinsky. (New York: Harry N Abrams Inc, 1997). (Illustrated). ISBN 0-8109-1228-7.
  • Margarita Tupitsyn, Against Kandinsky (Munich: Museum Villa Stuck, 2006).
  • Michel HenrySeeing the Invisible. On Kandinsky (Continuum, 2009). ISBN 1-84706-447-7
  • Julian Lloyd Webber, “Seeing red, looking blue, feeling green”Daily Telegraph 6 July 2006.
  • Sabine Flach, “Through the Looking Gass”, in: Intellectual Birdhouse (London: Koenig Books, 2012). ISBN 978-3-86335-118-2

References in French[edit]

External links[edit]

Writing by Kandinsky
External video
 Kandinsky, Improvisation 28 (second version), 1912, Smarthistory
Paintings by Kandinsky

Helen Mirren on Vasily Kandinsky

 

Image result for francis schaeffer

Francis Schaeffer in the episode, “The Age of Fragmentation,” Episode 8 of HOW SHOULD WE THEN  LIVE? noted:

Monet, Renoir, Camille Pissarro, SisleyDegas were following nature as it has been called in their painting they were impressionists.They painted only what their eyes brought them. But was there reality behind the light waves reaching their eyes? After 1885 Monet carried this to its conclusion and reality tended to become a dream. With impressionism the door was open for art to become the vehicle for modern thought. As reality became a dream, impressionism began to fall apart. These men Cezanne, Van Gogh, Gauguin, Seurat, all great post Impressionists felt the problem, felt the loss of meaning. They set out to solve the problem, to find the way back to reality, to the absolute behind the individual things, behind the particulars, ultimately they failed.
I am not saying that these painters were always consciously painting their philosophy of life, but rather in their work as a whole their worldview was often reflected. Cezanne reduced nature to what he considered its basic geometric forms. In this he was searching for an universal which would tie all kinds of individual things in nature together, but this gave a broken fragmented appearance to his pictures.
File:Paul Cézanne 047.jpg
Les Grandes Baigneuses, 1898–1905: the triumph of Poussinesque stability and geometric balance.
________________________________
In his bathers there is much freshness, much vitality. An absolute wonder in the balance of the picture as a whole, but he portrayed not only nature but also man himself in fragmented form. 
I want to stress that I am not minimizing these men as men. To read van Gogh’s letters is to weep for the pain of this sensitive man. Nor do I minimize theirtalent as painters. Their work often has great beauty indeed. But their art did become the vehicle of modern man’s view of fractured truth and light. As philosophy had moved from unity to fragmentation so did painting. In 1912 Wassily Kandinsky
wrote an article saying that in so far as the old harmony, that is an unity of knowledge have been lost, that only two possibilities remained: extreme abstraction or extreme naturalism, both he said were equal.
File:Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg
With this painting modern art was born. Picasso painted it in 1907 and called it Les Demoiselles d’Avignon. It unites Cezzanne’s fragmentation with Gauguin’s concept of the noble savage using the form of the African mask which was popular with Parisian art circle of that time. In great art technique is united with worldview and the technique of fragmentation works well with the worldview of modern man. A view of a fragmented world and a fragmented man and a complete break with the art of the Renaissance which was founded on man’s humanist hopes.
Here man is made to be less than man. Humanity is lost. Speaking of a part of Picasso’s private collection of his own works David Douglas Duncan says “Of course, not one of these pictures  was actually a portrait, but his prophecy of a ruined world.”

101 Western painters you should know

A list of the Best Painters of all-time in Western Painting, the 101 most important painters of the history of western painting, from 13th century to 21st century

by G. Fernández – theartwolf.com
Although this list stems from a deep study of the painters, their contribution to Western painting, and their influence on later artists; we are aware that objectivity does not exist in Art, so we understand that most readers will not agree 100% with this list. In any case, theartwolf.com assures that this list is only intended as a tribute to painting and the painters who have made it an unforgettable Art

1. PABLO PICASSO (1881-1973) – Picasso is to Art History a giant earthquake with eternal aftermaths. With the possible exception of Michelangelo (who focused his greatest efforts in sculpture and architecture), no other artist had such ambitions at the time of placing his oeuvre in the history of art. Picasso created the avant-garde. Picasso destroyed the avant-garde. He looked back at the masters and surpassed them all. He faced the whole history of art and single-handedly redefined the tortuous relationship between work and spectator

2. GIOTTO DI BONDONE (c.1267-1337) – It has been said that Giotto was the first real painter, like Adam was the first man. We agree with the first part. Giotto continued the Byzantine style of Cimabue and other predecessors, but he earned the right to be included in gold letters in the history of painting when he added a quality unknown to date: emotion

3. LEONARDO DA VINCI (1452-1519) – For better or for worse, Leonardo will be forever known as the author of the most famous painting of all time, the “Gioconda” or “Mona Lisa”. But he is more, much more. His humanist, almost scientific gaze, entered the art of the quattrocento and revoluted it with his sfumetto that nobody was ever able to imitate

4. PAUL CÉZANNE (1839-1906) – “Cezanne is the father of us all.” This famous quote has been attributed to both Picasso and Matisse, and certainly it does not matter who actually said it, because in either case would be appropriate. While he exhibited with the Impressionist painters, Cézanne left behind the whole group and developed a style of painting never seen so far, which opened the door for the arrival of Cubism and the rest of the vanguards of the twentieth century

5. REMBRANDT VAN RIJN (1606-1669) – The fascinating use of the light and shadows in Rembrandt’s works seem to reflect his own life, moving from fame to oblivion. Rembrandt is the great master of Dutch painting, and, along with Velázquez, the main figure of 17th century European Painting. He is, in addition, the great master of the self-portrait of all time, an artist who had never show mercy at the time of depicting himself

6. DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ (1599-1660) – Along with Rembrandt, one of the summits of Baroque painting. But unlike the Dutch artist, the Sevillan painter spent most of his life in the comfortable but rigid courtesan society. Nevertheless, Velázquez was an innovator, a “painter of atmospheres” two centuries before Turner and the Impressionists, which it is shown in his colossal ‘royal paintings’ (“Meninas”, “The Forge of Vulcan”), but also in his small and memorable sketches of the Villa Medici.

7. WASSILY KANDINSKY (1866-1944) – Although the title of “father of abstraction” has been assigned to several artists, from Picasso to Turner, few painters could claim it with as much justice as Kandinsky. Many artists have succeeded in painting emotion, but very few have changed the way we understand art. Wassily Kandinsky is one of them.

8. CLAUDE MONET (1840-1926) – The importance of Monet in the history of art is sometimes “underrated”, as Art lovers tend to see only the overwhelming beauty that emanates from his canvases, ignoring the complex technique and composition of the work (a “defect” somehow caused by Monet himself, when he declared that “I do not understand why everyone discusses my art and pretends to understand, as if it were necessary to understand, when it is simply necessary to love”). However, Monet’s experiments, including studies on the changes in an object caused by daylight at different times of the day; and the almost abstract quality of his “water lilies”, are clearly a prologue to the art of the twentieth century.

9. CARAVAGGIO (1571-1610) – The tough and violent Caravaggio is considered the father of Baroque painting, with his spectacular use of lights and shadows. Caravaggio’s chiaroscuro became so famous that many painters started to copy his paintings, creating the ‘Caravaggisti’ style.

10. JOSEPH MALLORD WILLIAM TURNER (1775-1851) – Turner is the best landscape painter of Western painting. Whereas he had been at his beginnings an academic painter, Turner was slowly but unstoppably evolving towards a free, atmospheric style, sometimes even outlining the abstraction, which was misunderstood and rejected by the same critics who had admired him for decades

11. JAN VAN EYCK (1390-1441) – Van Eyck is the colossal pillar on which rests the whole Flemish paintings from later centuries, the genius of accuracy, thoroughness and perspective, well above any other artist of his time, either Flemish or Italian.

12. ALBRECHT DÜRER (1471-1528) – The real Leonardo da Vinci of Northern European Rennaisance was Albrecht Dürer, a restless and innovative genious, master of drawing and color. He is one of the first artists to represent nature without artifice, either in his painted landscapes or in his drawings of plants and animals

13. JACKSON POLLOCK (1912-1956) – The major figure of American Abstract Expressionism, Pollock created his best works, his famous drips, between 1947 and 1950. After those fascinating years, comparable to Picasso’s blue period or van Gogh’s final months in Auvers, he abandoned the drip, and his latest works are often bold, unexciting works.

14. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI (1475-1564) – Some readers will be quite surprised to see the man who is, along with Picasso, the greatest artistic genius of all time, out of the “top ten” of this list, but the fact is that even Michelangelo defined himself as “sculptor”, and even his painted masterpiece (the frescoes in the Sistine Chapel) are often defined as ‘painted sculptures’. Nevertheless, that unforgettable masterpiece is enough to guarantee him a place of honor in the history of painting

15. PAUL GAUGUIN (1848-1903) – One of the most fascinating figures in the history of painting, his works moved from Impressionism (soon abandoned) to a colorful and vigorous symbolism, as can be seen in his ‘Polynesian paintings’. Matisse and Fauvism could not be understood without the works of Paul Gauguin

16. FRANCISCO DE GOYA (1746-1828) – Goya is an enigma. In the whole History of Art few figures are as complex as the artist born in Fuendetodos, Spain. Enterprising and indefinable, a painter with no rival in all his life, Goya was the painter of the Court and the painter of the people. He was a religious painter and a mystical painter. He was the author of the beauty and eroticism of the ‘Maja desnuda’ and the creator of the explicit horror of ‘The Third of May, 1808’. He was an oil painter, a fresco painter, a sketcher and an engraver. And he never stopped his metamorphosis

17. VINCENT VAN GOGH (1853-1890) – Few names in the history of painting are now as famous as Van Gogh, despite the complete neglect he suffered in life. His works, strong and personal, are one of the greatest influences in the twentieth century painting, especially in German Expressionism

18. ÉDOUARD MANET (1832-1883) – Manet was the origin of Impressionism, a revolutionary in a time of great artistic revolutions. His (at the time) quite polemical “Olympia” or “Déjeuner sur l’Herbe” opened the way for the great figures of Impressionism

19. MARK ROTHKO (1903-1970) – The influence of Rothko in the history of painting is yet to be quantified, because the truth is that almost 40 years after his death the influence of Rothko’s large, dazzling and emotional masses of color continues to increase in many painters of the 21st century

20. HENRI MATISSE (1869-1954) – Art critics tend to regard Matisse as the greatest exponent of twentieth century painting, only surpassed by Picasso. This is an exaggeration, although the almost pure use of color in some of his works strongly influenced many of the following avant-gardes

21. RAPHAEL (1483-1520) – Equally loved and hated in different eras, no one can doubt that Raphael is one of the greatest geniuses of the Renaissance, with an excellent technique in terms of drawing and color

22. JEAN-MICHEL BASQUIAT (1960-1988) – Basquiat is undoubtedly the most important and famous member of the “graffiti movement” that appeared in the New York scene in the early’80s, an artistic movement whose enormous influence on later painting is still to be measured

23. EDVARD MUNCH (1863-1944) – Modernist in his context, Munch could be also considered the first expressionist painter in history. Works like “The Scream” are vital to understanding the twentieth century painting.

24. TITIAN (c.1476-1576) – After the premature death of Giorgione, Titian became the leading figure of Venetian painting of his time. His use of color and his taste for mythological themes defined the main features of 16th century Venetian Art. His influence on later artists -Rubens, Velázquez…- is extremely important

25. PIET MONDRIAN (1872 -1944) – Along with Kandinsky and Malevich, Mondrian is the leading figure of early abstract painting. After emigrating to New York, Mondrian filled his abstract paintings with a fascinating emotional quality, as we can se in his series of “boogie-woogies” created in the mid-40s

26. PIERO DELLA FRANCESCA (1416-1492) – Despite being one of the most important figures of the quattrocento, the Art of Piero della Francesca has been described as “cold”, “hieratic” or even “impersonal”. But with the apparition of Berenson and the great historians of his era, like Michel Hérubel -who defended the “metaphysical dimension” of the paintings by Piero-, his precise and detailed Art finally occupied the place that it deserves in the Art history

27. PETER PAUL RUBENS (1577-1640) – Rubens was one of the most prolific painters of all time, thanks in part to the collaboration of his study. Very famous in life, he traveled around Europe to meet orders from very wealthy and important clients. His female nudes are still amazing in our days

28. ANDY WARHOL (1928-1987) – Brilliant and controversial, Warhol is the leading figure of pop-art and one of the icons of contemporary art. His silkscreen series depicting icons of the mass-media (as a reinterpretation of Monet’s series of Water lilies or the Rouen Cathedral) are one of the milestones of contemporary Art, with a huge influence in the Art of our days

29. JOAN MIRÓ (1893-1983) – Like most geniuses, Miro is an unclassificable artist. His interest in the world of the unconscious, those hidden in the depths of the mind, link him with Surrealism, but with a personal style, sometimes closer to Fauvism and Expressionism. His most important works are those from the series of “Constellations”, created in the early 40s

30. TOMMASO MASACCIO (1401-1428) – Masaccio was one of the first old masters to use the laws of scientific perspective in his works . One of the greatest innovative painters of the Early Renaissance

31. MARC CHAGALL (1887-1985) – Artist of dreams and fantasies, Chagall was for all his life an immigrant fascinated by the lights and colors of the places he visited. Few names from the School of Paris of the early twentieth century have contributed so much -and with such variety of ideas- to change modern Art as this man “impressed by the light,” as he defined himself

31. GUSTAVE COURBET (1819-1877) – Leading figure of realism, and a clear precedent for the impressionists, Courbet was one of the greatest revolutionaries, both as an artist and as a social-activist, of the history of painting. Like Rembrandt and other predecessors, Courbet did not seek to create beauty, but believed that beauty is achieved when and artist represents the purest reality without artifice

33. NICOLAS POUSSIN (1594-1665) – The greatest among the great French Baroque painters, Poussin had a vital influence on French painting for many centuries. His use of color is unique among all the painters of his era

34. WILLEM DE KOONING (1904-1997) – After Pollock, the leading figure of abstract expressionism, though one of his greatest contributions was not to feel limited by the abstraction, often resorting to a heartbreaking figurative painting (his series of “Women” are the best example) with a major influence on later artists such as Francis Bacon or Lucian Freud

35. PAUL KLEE (1879-1940) – In a period of artistic revolutions and innovations, few artists were as crucial as Paul Klee. His studies of color, widely taught at the Bauhaus, are unique among all the artists of his time

36. FRANCIS BACON (1909-1992) – Maximum exponent, along with Lucian Freud, of the so-called “School of London”, Bacon’s style was totally against all canons of painting, not only in those terms related to beauty, but also against the dominance of the Abstract Expressionism of his time

37. GUSTAV KLIMT (1862-1918) – Half way between modernism and symbolism appears the figure of Gustav Klimt, who was also devoted to the industrial arts. His nearly abstract landscapes also make him a forerunner of geometric abstraction

38. EUGÈNE DELACROIX (1798-1863) – Eugène Delacroix is the French romanticism painter “par excellence” and one of the most important names in the European painting of the first half of the 19th century. His famous “Liberty leading the People”also demonstrates the capacity of Painting to become the symbol of an era.

39. PAOLO UCCELLO (1397-1475) – “Solitary, eccentric, melancholic and poor”. Giorgio Vasari described with these four words one of the most audacious geniuses of the early Florentine Renaissance, Paolo Uccello.

40. WILLIAM BLAKE (1757-1827) – Revolutionary and mystic, painter and poet, Blake is one of the most fascinating artists of any era. His watercolors, prints and temperas are filled with a wild imagination (almost crazyness), unique among the artists of his era

41. KAZIMIR MALEVICH (1878-1935) – Creator of Suprematism, Malevich will forever be one of the most controversial figures of the history of art among the general public, divided between those who consider him an essential renewal and those who consider that his works based on polygons of pure colors do not deserve to be considered Art

42. ANDREA MANTEGNA (1431-1506) – One of the greatest exponents of the Quattrocento, interested in the human figure, which he often represented under extreme perspectives (“The Dead Christ”)

43. JAN VERMEER (1632-1675) – Vermeer was the leading figure of the Delft School, and for sure one of the greatest landscape painters of all time. Works such as “View of the Delft” are considered almost “impressionist” due to the liveliness of his brushwork. He was also a skilled portraitist

44. EL GRECO (1541-1614) – One of the most original and fascinating artists of his era, with a very personal technique that was admired, three centuries later, by the impressionist painters

45. CASPAR DAVID FRIEDRICH (1774-1840) – Leading figure of German Romantic painting, Friedrich is still identified as the painter of landscapes of loneliness and distress, with human figures facing the terrible magnificence of nature.

46. WINSLOW HOMER (1836-1910) – The main figure of American painting of his era, Homer was a breath of fresh air for the American artistic scene, which was “stuck” in academic painting and the more romantic Hudson River School. Homer’s loose and lively brushstroke is almost impressionistic .

47. MARCEL DUCHAMP (1887-1968) – One of the major figures of Dadaism and a prototype of “total artist”, Duchamp is one of the most important and controversial figures of his era. His contribution to painting is just a small part of his huge contribution to the art world.

48. GIORGIONE (1478-1510) – Like so many other painters who died at young age, Giorgione (1477-1510) makes us wonder what place would his exquisite painting occupy in the history of Art if he had enjoyed a long existence, just like his direct artistic heir – Titian.

49. FRIDA KAHLO (1907-1954) – In recent years, Frida’s increasing fame seems to have obscured her importance in Latin American art. On September 17th, 1925, Kahlo was almost killed in a terrible bus accident. She did not died, but the violent crash had terrible sequels, breaking her spinal column, pelvis, and right leg.. After this accident, Kahlo’s self-portraits can be considered as quiet but terrible moans

50. HANS HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER (1497-1543) – After Dürer, Holbein is the greatest of the German painters of his time. The fascinating portrait of “The Ambassadors” is still considered one of the most enigmatic paintings of art history

51. EDGAR DEGAS (1834-1917) – Though Degas was not a “pure” impressionist painter, his works shared the ideals of that artistic movement. Degas paintings of young dancers or ballerinas are icons of late 19th century painting

52. FRA ANGELICO (1387-1455) – One of the great colorists from the early Renaissance. Initially trained as an illuminator, he is the author of masterpieces such as “The Annunciation” in the Prado Museum.

53. GEORGES SEURAT (1859-1891) – Georges Seurat is one of the most important post-impressionist painters, and he is considered the creator of the “pointillism”, a style of painting in which small distinct points of primary colors create the impression of a wide selection of secondary and intermediate colors.

54. JEAN-ANTOINE WATTEAU (1684-1721) – Watteau is today considered one of the pioneers of rococo. Unfortunately, he died at the height of his powers, as it is evidenced in the great portrait of “Gilles” painted in the year of his death

55. SALVADOR DALÍ (1904-1989) – “I am Surrealism!” shouted Dalí when he was expelled from the surrealist movement by André Breton. Although the quote sounds presumptuous (which was not unusual in Dalí), the fact is that Dalí’s paintings are now the most famous images of all the surrealist movement.

56. MAX ERNST (1891-1976) – Halfway between Surrealism and Dadaism appears Max Ernst, important in both movements. Ernst was a brave artistic explorer thanks in part to the support of his wife and patron, Peggy Guggenheim

57. TINTORETTO (1518-1594) – Tintoretto is the most flamboyant of all Venetian masters (not the best, such honour can only be reclaimed by Titian or Giorgione) and his remarkable oeuvre not only closed the Venetian splendour till the apparition of Canaletto and his contemporaries, but also makes him the last of the Cinquecento masters.

58. JASPER JOHNS (born 1930) – The last living legend of the early Pop Art, although he has never considered himself a “pop artist”. His most famous works are the series of “Flags” and “Targets“.

59. SANDRO BOTTICELLI (1445-1510) – “If Botticelli were alive now he would be working for Vogue”, said actor Peter Ustinov. As well as Raphael, Botticelli had been equally loved or hated in different eras, but his use of color is one of the most fascinating among all old masters.

60. DAVID HOCKNEY (born 1937) – David Hockney is one of the living myths of the Pop Art. Born in Great Britain, he moved to California, where he immediately felt identified with the light, the culture and the urban landscape of the ‘Golden State’

61. UMBERTO BOCCIONI (1882-1916) – The maximum figure of Italian Futurism, fascinated by the world of the machine, and the movement as a symbol of contemporary times.

62. JOACHIM PATINIR (1480-1524) – Much less technically gifted than other Flemish painters like Memling or van der Weyden, his contribution to the history of art is vital for the incorporation of landscape as a major element in the painting.

63. DUCCIO DA BUONINSEGNA (c.1255/60 – 1318/19) – While in Florence Giotto di Bondone was changing the history of painting, Duccio of Buoninsegna provided a breath of fresh air to the important Sienese School.

64. ROGER VAN DER WEYDEN (1399-1464) – After Van Eyck, the leading exponent of Flemish painting in the fifteenth century; a master of perspective and composition.

65. JOHN CONSTABLE (1776-1837) – John Constable (1776-1837) is, along with Turner, the great figure of English romanticism. But unlike his contemporary, he never left England, and he devoted all his time to represent the life and landscapes of his beloved England.

66. JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID (1748-1825) – David is the summit of neoclassicism, a grandiloquent artist whose compositions seem to reflect his own hectic and revolutionary life.

67. ARSHILLE GORKY (1905-1948) – Armenian-born American painter, Gorky was a surrealist painter and also one of the leaders of abstract expressionism. He was called “the Ingres of the unconscious”.

68. HIERONYMUS BOSCH (1450-1516) – An extremely religious man, all works by Bosch are basically moralizing, didactic. The artist sees in the society of his time the triumph of sin, the depravation, and all the things that have caused the fall of the human being from its angelical character; and he wants to warn his contemporaries about the terrible consequences of his impure acts.

69. PIETER BRUEGEL THE ELDER (1528-1569) – Many scholars and art critics claim to have found important similarities between the works by Hyeronimus Bosch and those by Brueghel, but the truth is that the differences between both of them are abysmal. Whereas Bosch’s fantasies are born of a deep deception and preoccupation for the human being, with a clearly moralizing message; works by Bruegel are full of irony, and even filled with a love for the rural life, which seems to anticipate the Dutch landscape paintings from the next century.

70. SIMONE MARTINI (1284-1344) – One of the great painters of the Trecento, he was a step further and helped to expand its progress, which culminated in the “International Style”.

71. Frederic Edwin Church (1826-1900) – Church represents the culmination of the Hudson River School: he had Cole’s love for the landscape, Asher Brown Durand’s romantic lyricism, and Albert Bierstadt’s grandiloquence, but he was braver and technically more gifted than anyone of them. Church is without any doubt one of the greatest landscape painters of all time, perhaps only surpassed by Turner and some impressionists and postimpressionists like Monet or Cézanne.

72. EDWARD HOPPER (1882-1967) – Hopper is widely known as the painter of urban loneliness. His most famous work, the fabulous “Nighthawks” (1942) has become the symbol of the solitude of the contemporary metropolis, and it is one of the icons of the 20th century Art.

73. LUCIO FONTANA (1899-1968) – Father of the “White Manifesto”, in which he stated that “Matter, colour and sound in motion are the phenomena whose simultaneous development makes up the new art”. His “Concepts Spatiales” are already icons of the art of the second half of the twentieth century.

74. FRANZ MARC (1880-1916) – After Kandinsky, the great figure of the Expressionist group “The Blue Rider” and one of the most important expressionist painters ever. He died at the height of his artistic powers, when his use of color was even anticipating the later abstraction.

75. PIERRE-AUGUSTE RENOIR (1841-1919) – One of the key figures of Impressionism, he soon left the movement to pursue a more personal, academic painting.

76. JAMES MCNEILL WHISTLER (1834-1903) – Along with Winslow Homer, the great figure of American painting of his time. Whistler was an excellent portraitist, which is shown in the fabulous portrait of his mother, considered one of the great masterpieces of American painting of all time.

77. THEODORE GÉRICAULT (1791-1824) – Key figure in romanticism, revolutionary in his life and works despite his bourgeois origins. In his masterpiece, “The raft of the Medusa”, Gericault creates a painting that we can define as “politically incorrect”, as it depicts the miseries of a large group of castaways abandoned after the shipwreck of a French naval frigate.

78. WILLIAM HOGARTH (1697-1764) – A list of the great portrait painters of all time should never miss the name of William Hogarth, whose studies and sketches could even qualify as “pre-impressionist”.

79. CAMILLE COROT (1796-1875) – One of the great figures of French realism in the 19th century and certainly one of the major influences for the impressionist painters like Monet or Renoir, thanks to his love for “plen-air” painting, emphasizing the use of light.

80. GEORGES BRAQUE (1882-1963) – Along with Picasso and Juan Gris, the main figure of Cubism, the most important of the avant-gardes of the 20th century Art.

81. HANS MEMLING (1435-1494) – Perhaps the most complete and “well-balanced” of all fifteenth century Flemish painters, although he was not as innovative as Van Eyck or van der Weyden.

82. GERHARD RICHTER (born 1932) – One of the most important artists of recent decades, Richter is known either for his fierce and colorful abstractions or his serene landscapes and scenes with candles.

83. AMEDEO MODIGLIANI (1884-1920) – One of the most original portraitists of the history of painting, considered as a “cursed” painter because of his wild life and early death.

84. GEORGES DE LA TOUR (1593-1652) – The influence of Caravaggio is evident in De la Tour, whose use of light and shadows is unique among the painters of the Baroque era.

85. GENTILESCHI, ARTEMISIA (1597-1654) – One of the most gifted artists of the early baroque era, she was the first female painter to become a member of the Accademia di Arte del Disegno in Florence.

86. JEAN FRANÇOIS MILLET (1814-1875) – One of the main figures of the Barbizon School, author of one of the most emotive paintings of the 19th century: The “Angelus“.

87. FRANCISCO DE ZURBARÁN (1598-1664) – The closest to Caravaggio of all Spanish Baroque painters, his latest works show a mastery of chiaroscuro without parallel among any other painter of his time.

88. CIMABUE (c.1240-1302) – Although in some of his works Cimabue already represented a visible evolution of the rigid Byzantine art, his greatest contribution to painting was to discover a young talented artist named Giotto (see number 2), who changed forever the Western painting.

89. JAMES ENSOR (1860-1949) – Violent painter whose strong, almost “unfinished” works make him a precursor of Expressionism

90. RENÉ MAGRITTE (1898-1967) – One of the leading figures of surrealism, his apparently simple works are the result of a complex reflection about reality and the world of dreams

91. EL LISSITZKY (1890-1941) – One of the main exponents of Russian avant-garde painting. Influenced by Malevich, he also excelled in graphic design.

92. EGON SCHIELE (1890-1918) – Another “died too young” artist, his strong and ruthless portraits influenced the works of later artists, like Lucian freud or Francis Bacon.

93. DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI (1828-1882) – Perhaps the key figure in the pre-Raphaelite movement, Rossetti left the poetry to focus on classic painting with a style that influenced the symbolism.

94. FRANS HALS (c.1580-1666) – One of the most important portraitists ever, his lively brushwork influenced early impressionism.

95. CLAUDE LORRAIN (1600-1682) – His works were a vital influence on many landscape painters for many centuries, both in Europe (Corot, Courbet) and in America (Hudson River School).

96. ROY LICHTENSTEIN (1923-1977) – Along with Andy Warhol, the most famous figure of the American Pop-Art. His works are often related to the style of the comics, though Lichtenstein rejected that idea.

97. GEORGIA O’KEEFE (1887-1986) – A leading figure in the 20th century American Art, O’Keefe single-handedly redefined the Western American painting.

98. GUSTAVE MOREAU (1826-1898) – One of the key figures of symbolism, introverted and mysterious in life, but very free and colorful in his works.

99. GIORGIO DE CHIRICO (1888-1978) – Considered the father of metaphysical painting and a major influence on the Surrealist movement.

100. FERNAND LÉGER (1881-1955) – At first a cubist, Leger was increasingly attracted to the world of machinery and movement, creating works such as “The Discs” (1918).

101. JEAN-AUGUSTE-DOMINIQUE INGRES (1780-1867) – Ingres was the most prominent disciple of the most famous neoclassicist painter, Jacques Louis David, so he should not be considered an innovator. He was, however, a master of classic portrait.

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Pablo Picasso

Pablo Picasso in 1962

Portrait of Giotto, by Paolo Uccello

Portrait of Giotto, by Paolo Uccello

Self-portrait of Leonardo da Vinci

Self-portrait of Leonardo da Vinci

Self-portrait of Paul Cézanne

Self-portrait of Paul Cézanne

Self-portrait of Rembrandt van Rijn

Self-portrait of Rembrandt van Rijn

Wassily Kandinsky

Wassily Kandinsky

Self-portrait of Claude Monet

Self-portrait of Claude Monet

Self-portrait of William Turner

Self-portrait of William Turner

Self-portrait of Alberto Durero

Self-portrait of Alberto Durero

Self-portrait of Paul Gauguin

Self-portrait of Paul Gauguin

Self-portrait of Vincent van Gogh

Self-portrait of Vincent van Gogh

Self-portrait of Édouard Manet

Self-portrait of Édouard Manet

Self-portrait of Rafael

Self-portrait of Rafael

Self-portrait of Jean-Michel Basquiat ©Estate of Jean Michel Basquiat

Self-portrait of Jean-Michel Basquiat ©Estate of Jean Michel Basquiat

"Self-portrait in hell", by Edvard Munch

“Self-portrait in hell”, by Edvard Munch

Posible self-portrait by Piero della Francesca

Posible self-portrait by Piero della Francesca

Andy Warhol in 1977

Andy Warhol in 1977

Posible self-portrait by Tomasso Masaccio

Posible self-portrait by Tomasso Masaccio

"The desperate man", self-portrait by Gustave Courbet

“The desperate man”, self-portrait by Gustave Courbet

Self-portrait by Titian

Self-portrait by Titian

Self-portrait by Paul Klee

Self-portrait by Paul Klee

Self-portrait by Francis Bacon ©Estate of Francis Bacon

Self-portrait by Francis Bacon ©Estate of Francis Bacon

Self-portrait by Kazimir Malevich

Self-portrait by Kazimir Malevich

Greco

Posible Self-portrait by El Greco

Self-portrait by Caspar David Friedrich

Self-portrait by Caspar David Friedrich

Posible Self-portrait by Giorgione

Posible Self-portrait by Giorgione

Self-portrait by Edgar Degas

Self-portrait by Edgar Degas

self-portrait by Frida Kahlo

Self-portrait by Frida Kahlo

Salvador Dalí

Salvador Dalí

Self-portrait by Tintoretto

Self-portrait by Tintoretto

Self-portrait by Sandro Botticelli

Self-portrait by Sandro Botticelli

Self-portrait by Umberto Boccioni

Self-portrait by Umberto Boccioni

Self-portrait by John Constable

Self-portrait by John Constable

Self-portrait by Jacques-Louis David

Self-portrait by Jacques-Louis David

Self-portrait by El Bosco

Self-portrait by El Bosco

Posible Self-portrait by Pieter Brueghel

Posible Self-portrait by Pieter Brueghel

Lucio Fontana by Lothar Wolleh

Lucio Fontana by Lothar Wolleh

Portrait of Franz Marc, by August Macke

Portrait of Franz Marc, by August Macke

Self-portrait by Pierre Auguste Renoir

Self-portrait by Pierre Auguste Renoir

Self-portrait by William Hogarth

Self-portrait by William Hogarth

Gerhard Richter in 2005

Gerhard Richter in 2005

Amedeo Modigliani

Amedeo Modigliani

Jean-François Millet

Jean-François Millet

Bust of James Ensor, by Edmond de Valériola

Bust of James Ensor, by Edmond de Valériola

Self-portrait by Egon Schiele

Self-portrait by Egon Schiele

Self-portrait by Artemisia Gentileschi

Self-portrait by Artemisia Gentileschi

Fernand Léger, photo by Carl Van Vechten, 1936

Fernand Léger, photo by Carl Van Vechten, 1936

 

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WOODY WEDNESDAY Ranking Woody Allen’s 47 movies!!!! Part 19

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The Best & The Rest: Every Woody Allen Film Ranked

This week, Woody Allen‘s 2016 title (for as we all know, there’s one each year), “Cafe Society,” starring Kristen Stewart, Jesse Eisenberg, Steve Carell, Corey Stoll, Blake Lively and Anna Camp, opens after a warm reception as the opening film at the most recent Cannes Film Festival. You can read our take from Cannes here, or hang on to scroll through and see where it lands on the list below, but we thought this would be a good time to gussy up our previous sprawling two-part Allen retrospective, and because we’ve been a little harmonious around here of late and miss the sounds of sobbing and breaking crockery, to rank it.

READ MORE: The Best And The Rest: Every Stanley Kubrick Ranked

Weathering personal scandal and coming in and out of fashion like flares, Allen’s been at constant work as a director for five decades now, and “Cafe Society” marks his 47th theatrically-released feature. Which means we have a lot to get through, so let’s get straight to it, shall we? Here, ranked worst to best, are all of Woody Allen’s theatrical features —with any list this long, there’s bound to be massive disagreement, so remember, the comments section awaits your ire. Or your congratulations, on the slim chance you agree with all of it.

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Woody Allen – Manhattan – ending

Manhattan (1979) Official Trailer – Woody Allen, Diane Keaton Movie HD

 

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Manhattan”2. “Manhattan” (1979)
“Annie Hall” is his most beloved film, but it’s “Manhattan” that is undoubtedly Allen’s most visually iconic: with the indelible pairing of that lazy wail from the beginning of Gershwin‘s “Rhapsody in Blue” over black-and-white shots of the classic New York skyline, it doesn’t just encapsulate the essence of Allen, it defines the image of his beloved home city in the collective cinematic imagination. This time, in various overlapping tragicomic storylines, Isaac (Allen) pursues 17-year-old Tracy (Mariel Hemingway), while close friend Yale (Michael Murphy) cheats on his wife with Mary (Diane Keaton). Allen’s writing here is typically sharp and his musings on “Why is life worth living?” is a darling moment for the typically dour auteur. But what stands out above all else is a picture of the Big Apple, and the idea of the city itself as a force that can shape, console and rejuvenate you. “Manhattan” embodies many of the narrative tendencies that Allen would display going forward — for better or worse — and is as funny/sad as anything he’s done, but it’s also perhaps the very fondest film ever made about a person’s relationship to the place they live.

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RESPONDING TO HARRY KROTO’S BRILLIANT RENOWNED ACADEMICS!! Part 149A Sir Bertrand Russell

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Image result for bertrand russell

 

On November 21, 2014 I received a letter from Nobel Laureate Harry Kroto and it said:

…Please click on this URL http://vimeo.com/26991975

and you will hear what far smarter people than I have to say on this matter. I agree with them.

Harry Kroto

Nick Gathergood, David-Birkett, Harry-Kroto

I have attempted to respond to all of Dr. Kroto’s friends arguments and I have posted my responses one per week for over a year now. Here are some of my earlier posts:

Arif Ahmed, Sir David AttenboroughMark Balaguer, Horace Barlow, Michael BatePatricia ChurchlandAaron CiechanoverNoam Chomsky,Alan DershowitzHubert Dreyfus, Bart Ehrman, Stephan FeuchtwangDavid Friend,  Riccardo GiacconiIvar Giaever , Roy GlauberRebecca GoldsteinDavid J. Gross,  Brian Greene, Susan GreenfieldStephen F Gudeman,  Alan Guth, Jonathan HaidtTheodor W. Hänsch, Brian Harrison,  Hermann HauserRoald Hoffmann,  Bruce HoodHerbert Huppert,  Gareth Stedman Jones, Steve JonesShelly KaganMichio Kaku,  Stuart Kauffman,  Lawrence KraussHarry Kroto, George LakoffElizabeth Loftus,  Alan MacfarlanePeter MillicanMarvin MinskyLeonard Mlodinow,  Yujin NagasawaAlva NoeDouglas Osheroff,  Jonathan Parry,  Saul PerlmutterHerman Philipse,  Carolyn PorcoRobert M. PriceLisa RandallLord Martin Rees,  Oliver Sacks, John SearleMarcus du SautoySimon SchafferJ. L. Schellenberg,   Lee Silver Peter Singer,  Walter Sinnott-ArmstrongRonald de Sousa, Victor StengerBarry Supple,   Leonard Susskind, Raymond TallisNeil deGrasse Tyson,  .Alexander Vilenkin, Sir John WalkerFrank WilczekSteven Weinberg, and  Lewis Wolpert,

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl RussellOMFRS[60] (/ˈrʌsəl/; 18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist and Nobel laureate.[61][62] At various points in his life, Russell considered himself a liberal, a socialist and a pacifist, but he also admitted that he had “never been any of these things, in any profound sense”.[63] Russell was born in Monmouthshire into one of the most prominent aristocratic families in the United Kingdom.[64]

In  the first video below in the 14th clip in this series are his words and I will be responding to them in the next few weeks since Sir Bertrand Russell is probably the most quoted skeptic of our time, unless it was someone like Carl Sagan or Antony Flew.  

50 Renowned Academics Speaking About God (Part 1)

Another 50 Renowned Academics Speaking About God (Part 2)

A Further 50 Renowned Academics Speaking About God (Part 3)

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Image result for bertrand russell

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Quote from Bertrand Russell:

Q: Why are you not a Christian?

Russell: Because I see no evidence whatever for any of the Christian dogmas. I’ve examined all the stock arguments in favor of the existence of God, and none of them seem to me to be logically valid.

Q: Do you think there’s a practical reason for having a religious belief, for many people?

Russell: Well, there can’t be a practical reason for believing what isn’t true. That’s quite… at least, I rule it out as impossible. Either the thing is true, or it isn’t. If it is true, you should believe it, and if it isn’t, you shouldn’t. And if you can’t find out whether it’s true or whether it isn’t, you should suspend judgment. But you can’t… it seems to me a fundamental dishonesty and a fundamental treachery to intellectual integrity to hold a belief because you think it’s useful, and not because you think it’s true.

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Image result for francis schaeffer

Francis Schaeffer noted in his book HOW SHOULD WE THEN LIVE? (p. 182 in Vol 5 of Complete Works) in the chapter The Breakdown in Philosophy and Science:

In his lecture at Acapulco, George Wald finished with only one final value. It was the same one with which English philosopher Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) was left. For Wald and Russell and for many other modern thinkers, the final value is the biological continuity of the human race. If this is the only final value, one is left wondering why this then has importance. 

Now having traveled from the pride of man in the High Renaissance and the Enlightenment down to the present despair, we can understand where modern people are. They have no place for a personal God. But equally they have no place for man as man, or for love, or for freedom, or for significance. This brings a crucial problem. Beginning only from man himself, people affirm that man is only a machine. But those who hold this position cannot live like machines! If they could, there would have been no tensions in their intellectual position or in their lives. But even people who believe they are machines cannot live like machines, and thus they must “leap upstairs” against their reason and try to find something which gives meaning to life, even though to do so they have to deny their reason. 

Francis Schaeffer in another place worded it like this:

The universe was created by an infinite personal God and He brought it into existence by spoken word and made man in His own image. When man tries to reduce [philosophically in a materialistic point of view] himself to less than this [less than being made in the image of God] he will always fail and he will always be willing to make these impossible leaps into the area of nonreason even though they don’t give an answer simply because that isn’t what he is. He himself testifies that this infinite personal God, the God of the Old and New Testament is there. 

Instead of making a leap into the area of nonreason the better choice would be to investigate the claims that the Bible is a historically accurate book and that God created the universe and reached out to humankind with the Bible. Below is a piece of that evidence given by Francis Schaeffer concerning the accuracy of the Bible.

TRUTH AND HISTORY (chapter 5 of WHATEVER HAPPENED TO THE HUMAN RACE?)

In the previous chapter we saw that the Bible gives us the explanation for the existence of the universe and its form and for the mannishness of man. Or, to reverse this, we came to see that the universe and its form and the mannishness of man are a testimony to the truth of the Bible. In this chapter we will consider a third testimony: the Bible’s openness to verification by historical study.

Christianity involves history. To say only that is already to have said something remarkable, because it separates the Judeo-Christian world-view from almost all other religious thought. It is rooted in history.

The Bible tells us how God communicated with man in history. For example, God revealed Himself to Abraham at a point in time and at a particular geographical place. He did likewise with Moses, David, Isaiah, Daniel and so on. The implications of this are extremely important to us. Because the truth God communicated in the Bible is so tied up with the flow of human events, it is possible by historical study to confirm some of the historical details.

It is remarkable that this possibility exists. Compare the information we have from other continents of that period. We know comparatively little about what happened in Africa or South America or China or Russia or even Europe. We see beautiful remains of temples and burial places, cult figures, utensils, and so forth, but there is not much actual “history” that can be reconstructed, at least not much when compared to that which is possible in the Middle East.

When we look at the material which has been discovered from the Nile to the Euphrates that derives from the 2500-year span before Christ, we are in a completely different situation from that in regard to South America or Asia. The kings of Egypt and Assyria built thousands of monuments commemorating their victories and recounting their different exploits. Whole libraries have been discovered from places like Nuzu and Mari and most recently at Elba, which give hundreds of thousands of texts relating to the historical details of their time. It is within this geographical area that the Bible is set. So it is possible to find material which bears upon what the Bible tells us.

The Bible purports to give us information on history. Is the history accurate? The more we understand about the Middle East between 2500 B.C. and A.D. 100, the more confident we can be that the information in the Bible is reliable, even when it speaks about the simple things of time and place.

 

The site of the biblical city called Lachish is about thirty miles southwest of Jerusalem. This city is referred to on a number of occasions in the Old Testament. Imagine a busy city with high walls surrounding it, and a gate in front that is the only entrance to the city. We know so much about Lachish from archaeological studies that a reconstruction of the whole city has been made in detail. This can be seen at the British Museum in the Lachish Room in the Assyrian section.

Image result for Lachish Relief

There is also a picture made by artists in the eighth century before Christ, the Lachish Relief, which was discovered in the city of Nineveh in the ancient Assyria. In this picture we can see the Jewish inhabitants of Lachish surrendering to Sennacherib, the king of Assyria. The details in the picture and the Assyrian writing on it give the Assyrian side of what the Bible tells us in Second Kings:

2 Kings 18:13-16

New American Standard Bible (NASB)

13 Now in the fourteenth year of King Hezekiah, Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the fortified cities of Judah and seized them. 14 Then Hezekiah king of Judah sent to the king of Assyria at Lachish, saying, “I have done wrong. Withdraw from me; whatever you impose on me I will bear.” So the king of Assyria required of Hezekiah king of Judah three hundred talents of silver and thirty talents of gold. 15 Hezekiah gave him all the silver which was found in the house of the Lord, and in the treasuries of the king’s house. 16 At that time Hezekiah cut off the gold from the doors of the temple of the Lord, and from the doorposts which Hezekiah king of Judah had overlaid, and gave it to the king of Assyria.

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We should notice two things about this. First, this is a real-life situation–a real siege of a real city with real people on both sides of the war–and it happened at a particular date in history, near the turn of the eighth century B.C. Second, the two accounts of this incident in 701 B.C. (the account from the Bible and the Assyrian account from Nineveh) do not contradict, but rather confirm each other. The history of Lachish itself is not so important for us, but some of its smaller historical details.

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MUSIC MONDAY The Hollies!!!!!! Part 1

I am thinking about moving MUSIC MONDAYS  to a monthly feature on http://www.thedailyhatch.org. My passion has been recent years to emphasize the works of Francis Schaeffer in my apologetic efforts and most of those posts are either on Tuesdays or Thursdays. I have already done so many ahead that MUSIC MONDAYS will remain weekly for now, but at some point I will be making them weekly.

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The Hollies

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Hollies
The Hollies (1965).png

The Hollies in 1965.
(L-R: Eric Haydock, Allan Clarke, Graham Nash, Tony Hicks, Bobby Elliott)
Background information
Origin Manchester, England
Genres
Years active 1962–present
Labels
Associated acts
Website hollies.co.uk
Members Tony Hicks
Bobby Elliott
Ray Stiles
Ian Parker
Peter Howarth
Steve Lauri
Past members Allan Clarke
Graham Nash
Eric Haydock
Bernie Calvert
Terry Sylvester
Mikael Rickfors
Alan Coates
Steve Stroud
Denis Haines
Carl Wayne

The Hollies are an English pop/rock group, best known for their pioneering and distinctive three-part vocal harmony style. The Hollies became one of the leading British groups of the 1960s (231 weeks on the UK singles charts during the 1960s; the 9th highest of any artist of the decade) and into the mid 1970s. It was formed by Allan Clarke and Graham Nash in 1962 as a Merseybeat type music group in Manchester, although some of the band members came from towns north of there. Graham Nash left the group in 1968 to form the supergroup Crosby, Stills & Nash.

They enjoyed considerable popularity in many countries (at least 60 singles or EPs and 26 albums charting somewhere in the world spanning over five decades), although they did not achieve major US chart success until 1966 with “Bus Stop“. The Hollies had over 30 charting singles on the UK Singles Chart, and 22 on the Billboard Hot 100, with major hits on both sides of the Atlantic that included “Just One Look“, “Look Through Any Window“, “I Can’t Let Go“, “Bus Stop“, “Stop Stop Stop“, “On a Carousel“, “Carrie Anne“, “Jennifer Eccles“, and later “He Ain’t Heavy, He’s My Brother“, “Long Cool Woman in a Black Dress“, and “The Air That I Breathe“.

They are one of the few British groups of the early 1960s, along with the Rolling Stones and the Who, that have never disbanded and continue to record and perform. In recognition of their achievements, the Hollies were inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2010.[2]

Origin[edit]

The Hollies originated as a duo formed by Allan Clarke and Graham Nash, who were best friends from primary school and began performing together during the skiffle craze of the late 1950s.[3] Eventually Clarke and Nash became a vocal and guitar duo modelled on the Everly Brothers under the names “Ricky and Dane Young.”[3] Under this name, they teamed up with a local band, the Fourtones, consisting of Pete Bocking (guitar), John ‘Butch’ Mepham (bass), Keith Bates (drums), and Derek Quinn (guitar). When Quinn quit to join Freddie and the Dreamers in 1962, Clarke and Nash also quit and joined another Manchester band, the Deltas, consisting of Vic Steele on lead guitar, Eric Haydock on bass guitar, and Don Rathbone on drums, which had just lost two members (including Eric Stewart, who left to join a “professional” band, the Mindbenders).[3]

The Deltas first called themselves “The Hollies” for a December 1962 gig at the Oasis Club in Manchester.[3] It has been suggested that Eric Haydock named the group in relation to a Christmas holly garland, though in a 2009 interview, Graham Nash said that the group decided just prior to a performance to call themselves “The Hollies” because of their admiration for Buddy Holly.[4] In 2009, Nash wrote, “We called ourselves The Hollies, after Buddy and Christmas.”[5]

1963-1968[edit]

In January 1963, the Hollies performed at the Cavern Club in Liverpool, where they were seen by Parlophone assistant producer Ron Richards, who had been involved in producing the first Beatles session.[3] Richards offered them an audition with Parlophone, but Steele did not want to be a “professional” musician and left the band in February 1963.[3] For the audition, they replaced Steele with Tony Hicks, who played in a Nelson band called the Dolphins, which also featured Bobby Elliott on drums and Bernie Calvert on bass.[3] Not only were the Hollies signed by Richards, who would continue to produce the band until 1976, and once more in 1979, but a song from the audition, a cover of the Coasters‘ 1961 single “(Ain’t That) Just Like Me”, was released as their debut single in May 1963, and hit No.25 on the UK Singles Chart.

Their second single, another cover of the Coasters, this time 1957’s “Searchin'”, hit No.12. At this point, after recording only eight songs for Parlophone, Rathbone also decided to leave the band, and Hicks was able to arrange for his Dolphins bandmate Bobby Elliott to replace him as the Hollies’ new drummer in August 1963.[3] They then scored their first British Top 10 hit in early 1964 with a cover of Maurice Williams and the Zodiacs‘ “Stay”, which reached No.8 in the UK. It was lifted from the band’s Parlophone debut album, Stay with the Hollies, released on 1 January 1964, which went to No.2 on the UK album chart. A version of the album was released in the US as Here I Go Again, on the Hollies’ US label of the time, Imperial.

The Hollies became known for doing cover versions, and they followed up with “Just One Look” (February 1964, UK No.2), a song that had already had top 10 success in the US for one-hit wonder Doris Troy. The hits continued with “Here I Go Again” (May 1964, UK No.4). At this point, there was some North American interest in the group, and versions of Stay With the Hollies; with these two singles added, were issued in both Canada by Capitol Records and the US by Imperial Records, with the title changed to Here I Go Again. Like their Parlophone labelmates the Beatles, the Hollies’ albums released in North America would remain very different from their UK counterparts.

By this time, the Hollies were writing and performing a substantial amount of original material, written by the group’s songwriting team of Clarke, Nash, and Hicks, and producer Richards finally permitted the group to release its first self-penned hit “We’re Through” (Sep. 1964, UK No.7) (credited to a pseudonym, “L. Ransford”; the name of Graham Nash’s grandfather, as were all their early compositions). This was followed by two more cover versions, “Yes I Will” (Jan. 1965, UK No.9); and finally the Clint Ballard, Jr.-penned “I’m Alive” (May 1965, the band’s first UK No.1, US No.103, Canada No.11). Their second album, In the Hollies Style (1964), did not chart (in the BBC top ten album chart, although it did chart in the New Musical Express album chart, making the top ten) and none of its tracks were released in the US, although a version was released in Canada with the addition of the British singles.

Finally, the Hollies broke through in North America with an original song that they requested from Manchester’s Graham Gouldman. “Look Through Any Window” (Sept. 1965, UK No.4) broke the Hollies into the US Top 40 (No.32, Jan. 1966) and into the Canadian top 10 (No. 3, Jan. 1966), both for the first time. Their follow-up single, an original recording of George Harrison’s “If I Needed Someone” (Dec. 1965), was undercut when the Beatles decided to release their own version on Rubber Soul; it only reached No.20 in the UK, and was not released in North America. Their third album, simply called Hollies, hit No. 8 in the UK in 1965, but failed to chart in the US under the name Hear! Here!, despite its inclusion of “Look Through Any Window” and “I’m Alive”.

The Hollies then returned to the UK Top 10 with “I Can’t Let Go” (Feb. 1966, UK No.2, US No.42). Their fourth album, Would You Believe?, which included the hit, made it to No. 16 in 1966. Released in the US as Beat Group!, it also failed to crack the US top 100.

At this point, a dispute between the Hollies and their management broke out over what bass guitarist Eric Haydock contended were excessive fees being charged to the group by management. As a result, Haydock decided to take a leave of absence from the group. While he was gone, the group brought in the Beatles‘ good friend Klaus Voorman to play on a few gigs and recorded two singles with fill-ins on bass: the Burt BacharachHal David song “After the Fox” (Sep. 1966), which featured Peter Sellers on vocals, Jack Bruce on electric bass and Burt Bacharach himself on keyboards, and was the theme song from the Sellers film of the same name (which failed to chart), and “Bus Stop” (UK No.5, US No.5, June 1966), another Gouldman song, which featured Bernie Calvert, a former bandmate of Hicks and Elliott in the Dolphins, on bass. Calvert also played a tour of Yugoslavia with the band in May 1966.

“Bus Stop” gave the Hollies their first US top ten single. As a result, a US/Canadian Bus Stop album made of the single mixed with unreleased songs from earlier in the band’s career climbed to No. 75, the group’s first US album to enter the Top 100. Although Haydock ultimately proved to be correct about the fee dispute, he was sacked in early July 1966 in favour of Calvert after “Bus Stop” became a huge hit.

At the time of Haydock’s departure, Clarke, Nash and Hicks participated (along with session guitarist Jimmy Page, bass guitarist John Paul Jones and pianist Elton John) in the recording of the Everly Brothers‘ 1966 album ‘Two Yanks in England‘, which consisted largely of covers of “L. Ransford” compositions. After the Everly Brothers album, the Hollies stopped publishing original songs under a pseudonym, and from this point until Nash’s last single with the Hollies in 1968, all of their single A-sides were original compositions, except the final Nash era single ‘Listen To Me’ (1968) which was written by Tony Hazzard.

In October 1966, the group’s fifth album, For Certain Because (UK No.23, 1966), became their first album consisting entirely of original compositions by Clarke, Nash and Hicks. Released in the US as Stop! Stop! Stop! it reached No.91 there and spawned a US release-only single, “Pay You Back with Interest”, which was a modest hit, peaking at No.28. Another track, “Tell Me to My Face”, was a moderate hit by Mercury artist Keith, and would also be covered a decade later by Dan Fogelberg and Tim Weisberg on their Twin Sons of Different Mothers album.

Meanwhile, the Hollies continued to release a steady stream of international hit singles: “Stop Stop Stop” (Oct. 1966, UK No.2, US No.7) from For Certain Because, known for its distinctive banjo arrangement; “On a Carousel” (Feb. 1967; UK No.4, 1967, US No.11, Australia No.14)[6]); “Carrie Anne” (May 1967, UK No.3, US No.9, Australia No.7[7]).

In mid-February 1967, Bobby Elliott collapsed on stage due to an inflamed appendix. The Hollies were forced to continue their touring commitments without him, using Tony Mansfield, Dougie Wright and Tony Newman as a stand-ins for further live dates, and Wright, Mitch Mitchell and Clem Cattini when they began recording for their next album, Evolution, which was released on 1 June 1967, the same day as the Beatles’ Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band. It was also their first album for their new US label Epic. It reached UK No.13 and US No.43. The US version included the single “Carrie Anne”. In addition, the Searchers and Paul and Barry Ryan each had a minor UK Chart hit covering the Evolution song “Have You Ever Loved Somebody” in 1967.

Also in 1967, the Hollies participated in the Festival di San Remo with song Non prego per me, written by Italian songwriter Lucio Battisti and by Italian lyricist Mogol.[8][9][10]

Nash’s attempt to expand the band’s range with a more ambitious composition, “King Midas in Reverse“, only reached No.18 in the UK charts. The Hollies then released the ambitious, psychedelic album Butterfly, retitled for the US market as King Midas in Reverse/Dear Eloise, but it failed to chart. In response, Clarke and Nash wrote an almost “bubblegum” song “Jennifer Eccles” (named after their wives) (Mar. 1968, UK No.7, US No.40, Australia No.13[11]), which was a hit. The Hollies donated a Clarke-Nash song, “Wings”, to No One’s Gonna Change Our World, a charity album in aid of the World Wildlife Fund, in 1969.

Terry Sylvester replaces Graham Nash[edit]

In addition to his Hollies work, in 1967 Graham Nash co-wrote John Walker’s first solo hit “Annabella” – and later in 1968, Nash sang on the Scaffold‘s UK Chart topper, “Lily the Pink” (which referenced “Jennifer Eccles”). The failure of “King Midas in Reverse” had increased tension within the band, with Clarke and Hicks wanting to record more “pop” material than Nash did. Matters reached a head when the band rejected Nash’s “Marrakesh Express” and then decided to record an album made up entirely of Bob Dylan covers. Nash did take part in one Dylan cover, “Blowin’ in the Wind“, but made no secret of his disdain for the idea and repeatedly clashed with producer Ron Richards.

In August 1968 the Hollies recorded “Listen to Me” (written by Tony Hazzard) (Sept. 1968, UK No.11), which featured Nicky Hopkins on piano. That proved to be Nash’s last recording session with the Hollies, and he officially left the group after a performance in a charity concert at the London Palladium on December 8, 1968 to move to Los Angeles, where he tentatively planned to become primarily a songwriter. Nash told Disc magazine, “I can’t take touring any more. I just want to sit at home and write songs. I don’t really care what the rest of the group think.”[12] After relocating to Los Angeles, he joined with former Buffalo Springfield guitarist Stephen Stills and ex-Byrds singer & guitarist David Crosby to form one of the first supergroupsCrosby, Stills & Nash, which released “Marrakesh Express” as its debut single.

The B-side of “Listen to Me” was “Do the Best You Can”, the last original recording of a Clarke-Hicks-Nash song to appear on a Hollies record (although “Survival of the Fittest”, written by Clarke-Hicks-Nash, was re-cut with Terry Sylvester and issued as a US single in 1970).

Graham Nash was replaced in the Hollies in January 1969 by Terry Sylvester, formerly of both the Escorts, a second generation Merseybeat group who had a minor UK chart hit in 1964 with “Dizzy Miss Lizzy” and the Swinging Blue Jeans, best known for their hit singles with the HMV label; “Hippy Hippy Shake“, “Good Golly Miss Molly“, and “You’re No Good“, from 1966–1968. Sylvester also substituted for Nash as part of the group’s songwriting team, with Clarke and Hicks. As planned before Nash’s departure, the group’s next album was Hollies Sing Dylan, which reached the No.3 position on the UK chart while the US version, Words And Music by Bob Dylan, was ignored. The next album Hollies Sing Hollies did not chart in the UK but did well in Canada and in the USA charting at No. 32.

Nash’s departure saw The Hollies again turn to outside writers for their single A-sides, but the group’s British chart fortunes rallied during 1969 and 1970, and they scored four consecutive UK Top 20 hits (including two consecutive Top 5 placings) in this period, beginning with the Geoff Stephens/Tony Macaulay song, “Sorry Suzanne” (Feb. 1969), which reached No.3 in the UK. The follow-up was the emotional ballad “He Ain’t Heavy, He’s My Brother” written by Bobby Scott and Bob Russell, which featured the piano playing of Elton John, and which reached No.3 in the UK in October 1969, No.7 in the US in March 1970. The US version of Hollies Sing Holliesadded this song and was retitled He Ain’t Heavy, He’s My Brother, reaching No.32 on the US album charts.

1970s[edit]

The Hollies’ next single, “I Can’t Tell the Bottom from the Top”, again featured the young Elton John on piano and reached UK No. 7 in May 1970, charting in twelve countries. The UK hits continued with “Gasoline Alley Bred” (Oct. 1970, UK No. 14, Australia No. 20[13]), while the Tony Hicks’ song, “Too Young to Be Married” – merely an album track in the UK and the US – became a No. 1 single in Australia, New Zealand and Malaysia, also reaching No. 9 in Singapore. Allan Clarke’s hard edged rocker, “Hey Willy”, made No. 22 in the UK in 1971, and charted in eight other countries.

Like Graham Nash before him, frontman Allan Clarke by 1971 was growing frustrated, and he too began clashing with producer Ron Richards over material; after seeing Nash’s success since departing, he was eager to leave the group and cut a solo album. After the 1971 album Distant Light, which concluded the band’s EMI/Parlophone contract in the UK (and reached No.21 on the American Billboard chart), Clarke departed from the Hollies in December, a move which surprised both the band’s fans and the public in general.

The Hollies signed with Polydor for the UK/Europe in 1972, although their US contract with Epic still had three more albums to run. Swedish singer Mikael Rickfors, formerly of the group Bamboo (who had supported the Hollies in Sweden in 1967), was quickly recruited by the rest of the band and sang lead on the group’s first Polydor single “The Baby” (UK No. 26, March 1972). When Mikael first auditioned for them, he tried to sing in Allan Clarke’s range and the results were terrible.[14] The rest of the group decided it might be better to record songs with him starting from scratch. Terry Sylvester and Tony Hicks blended with Mikael’s baritone voice instead of him trying to imitate Allan’s tenor voice.[14] There were rumours Mikael couldn’t speak a word of English and had to learn the words of “The Baby” phonetically.[14] The rumour about him not knowing English was false, though he did struggle to understand English words that he had not put together.[14]

Meanwhile, in a counter-programming move, Parlophone lifted a Clarke-composed track from the previously-unsuccessful album Distant Light that also featured Clarke on lead vocals and lead guitar, the Creedence Clearwater Revival-inspired “Long Cool Woman in a Black Dress“. Parlophone released this as a rival single to “The Baby” in February 1972, although it fared relatively poorly in the UK (No. 32). In the US, Epic, which owned the rights to Distant Light but had not released it, finally released the album in April 1972 and the single in May 1972. Surprisingly, the song became a smash hit outside of Europe, peaking at No. 2 in the US (the Hollies’ highest-charting single in the US ever) and No. 1 in Australia.[15]

“Long Dark Road”, another track from Distant Light with lead vocals by Clarke, distinctive three-part harmonies, and a harmonica throughout, was then also released as a US single, reaching No. 26. As a result, Epic pressured Clarke and the Hollies to reform, despite the fact that they had split over a year previously, placing Rickfors in an awkward position.

Meanwhile, the Rickfors-led Hollies released their first album Romany (which reached No. 84 in the US) in October 1972. A second Rickfors-sung single, “Magic Woman Touch” (1972), failed to chart in the UK, becoming the band’s first official single to miss the UK charts since 1963, although it did chart in seven other countries, reaching the Top Ten in the Netherlands, New Zealand and Hong Kong. A second Rickfors/Hollies album, Out on the Road (1973), was recorded and issued in Germany. With the US success of Distant Light and its singles, Clarke decided to rejoin the band the summer of 1973 and Rickfors then left. Accordingly, no UK or US release was made of Out on the Road, giving this “lost” Hollies album legendary status among the band’s fans – and high prices on the original German release.

After Clarke’s return, the Hollies returned to the UK Top 30 with another swamp rock-style song penned by Clarke, “The Day That Curly Billy Shot Down Crazy Sam McGee” (UK No. 24, 1973). In 1974 they scored what was to be their last major new US and UK hit single with the Albert Hammond/Mike Hazlewood-composed love song, “The Air That I Breathe” (previously recorded by Hammond and by Phil Everly on his 1973 solo album, Star Spangled Springer), which reached No. 2 in the UK and Australia[16] and made the Top 10 in the US.

After the US failure of the Hollies’ single “4th of July, Asbury Park“, written by Bruce Springsteen, Epic gave up on the Hollies in the US, combining their two 1976 albums into their last US release of the decade, Clarke, Hicks, Sylvester, Calvert, Elliott (again including the Springsteen song to give it one last chance at success).

The Hollies continued to have singles chart hits during the rest of the seventies, but mostly in Europe and New Zealand. In 1976, for example, the group released three singles in three different styles, none of which charted in the UK or the US. “Star,” an uptempo harmony number reminiscent of their sixties hits, charted only in New Zealand and Australia, the hard rock number “Daddy Don’t Mind” charted only in The Netherlands and Germany, and “Wiggle That Wotsit,” an excursion into disco territory, charted only in The Netherlands, Sweden, and New Zealand. Especially popular outside of the US, always very professional in their continuous concert engagements, The Hollies had album chart successes with compilation albums in 1977 and 1978, which kept them going through the late 1970s.

1980s to the present[edit]

In 1980, the Hollies returned to the UK charts with the single “Soldier’s Song”, written and produced by Mike Batt, which was a minor hit in 1980 reaching No.58 in the UK. They also released an album of Buddy Holly covers named Buddy Holly which didn’t chart in the UK or the US, but did chart in the Netherlands among other places.

In May 1981 Calvert and Sylvester left the group after musical disagreements with Bruce Welch, who was producing them at that time (nothing from the Welch sessions was ever released during this time). Sylvester also disagreed strongly with the band’s sacking of their long time manager Robin Britten. Alan Coates joined the band on rhythm guitar and high harmony vocals shortly afterwards.

The Hollies went back in the studio on 6 June 1981 with singer/writer/guitarist John Miles and session bassist Alan Jones to record “Carrie” and “Driver”. But neither one of these songs was released at this time (“Carrie” eventually appeared as the b-side of the re-released “He Ain’t Heavy” in 1988).

In August 1981 the remaining Hollies released “Holliedaze” on EMI, a medley edited together by Tony Hicks from their hit records, which returned them to the UK Top 30. At the request of the BBC, Nash and Haydock briefly rejoined in September 1981 to promote the record on Top of the Pops. The Hollies issued their last Polydor single “Take My Love and Run” (written by keyboard player Brian Chatton, who also appeared with the Hollies while they promoted the single on TV) in November 1981 but this failed to chart.

Graham Nash joined them for the recording of an Alan Tarney song “Somethin’ Ain’t Right” in 10 September 1982 which led to a proper reunion album What Goes Around… issued on WEA Records in July 1983. Graham Nash continued appearing with the Hollies through early 1984 culminating in the Hollies last hit in the USA Top 40 with a remake of ‘the Supremes‘ “Stop in the Name of Love“, which reached No.29 in 1983. “Stop in the Name of Love” was taken from the album What Goes Around… which was released in July 1983 and charted in the US on Billboard top 200 albums at No. 90. A live album featuring the Clarke-Hicks-Elliott-Nash re-grouping, Reunion, was recorded at Kings Island Amusement Park in Ohio, during a US tour that followed that same year, finally being issued first in 1997 as Archive Alive, then retitled Reunion (with two extra tracks) in 2004.

The Hollies continued to tour and perform through the 1980s, by this time reaching classic rock status and drawing crowds around the world to see them. In the mid 80s, the band began to lower the keys of their songs when Allan began to lose range.

After its use in a TV beer commercial (for Miller Lite lager) in the summer of 1988, “He Ain’t Heavy” was reissued in the UK and reached No.1, thus establishing a new record for the length of time between chart-topping singles for one artist of 23 years (the Hollies’ only previous UK No.1 having been 1965’s I’m Alive). By this time bassist Ray Stiles, formerly a member of 1970s chart-topping glam rock group Mud, had joined the permanent line-up.

1988 also saw the release of compilation album All the Hits & More: The Definitive Collection which charted in the UK.

In 1993 the Hollies had their 30th anniversary as a band. A compilation album, The Air That I Breathe: The Very Best of The Hollies, charted No. 15 in the UK. This album included a new single, “The Woman I Love”, which charted at No. 42 in the UK. Graham Nash again reunited with the Hollies to record a new version of “Peggy Sue Got Married” that featured prerecorded lead vocals by Buddy Holly, taken from an ‘alternate’ version of the song given to Nash by Holly’s widow Maria Eleana Holly. This “Buddy Holly & The Hollies” recording opened the Not Fade Away tribute album to Holly by various artists. The Hollies also continued to tour and make TV appearances.

The Hollies were awarded an Ivor Novello Award in 1995 for Outstanding Contribution to British Music.

Allan Clarke retired in February 2000. He was replaced by Carl Wayne, former lead singer of the Move. A New Zealand Hollies Greatest Hits compilation made No. 1 in that country in 2001, dislodging the Beatles’ 1 collection from the top spot. While re-establishing the band as a touring attraction over 2000 to mid-2004, Carl Wayne only recorded one song with them, “How Do I Survive?“, the last (and only new) track on the 2003 Greatest Hits(which reached No.21 in the UK Album chart). After Wayne’s death from cancer in August 2004, he was replaced by Peter Howarth. By that time Alan Coates left the band and was replaced by Steve Lauri.

The Hollies charted at No. 21 in the UK in 2003 with compilation album, Greatest Hits from EMI in CD format. (EMI has released most of the Hollies EMI music on CD over the past 25 years)

The Hollies were inducted into the ‘Vocal Group Hall of Fame’ in the US in 2006. Also in 2006 the Hollies’ first new studio album since 1983, Staying Power, was released by EMI featuring Peter Howarth on lead vocals.

The group released a studio album Then, Now, Always in late March 2009, again featuring Peter Howarth on lead vocals. The album was later given an official release by EMI in 2010 with the addition of an extra original song, “She’d Kill For Me”.

In recognition of their achievements, the Hollies were inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2010.[2] In the same year, a compilation album, Midas Touch: The Very Best of The Hollies, charted in the UK at No. 23.

In 2012, the Hollies released Hollies Live Hits! We Got The Tunes!, a live Double CD featuring the Hollies’ live performances recorded during the band’s 2012 UK Tour.

In 2013, the Hollies 50th year was packed with a worldwide 50th Anniversary Concert Tour performing over 60 concerts.

In 2014, EMI released a 3CD compilation; ’50 At Fifty’ which concluded with one new song; ‘Skylarks’ written by Bobby Elliott, Peter Howarth and Steve Vickers

In the United States[edit]

The Hollies were one of the last of the major British Invasion groups to have significant chart success in the United States. Their first single was not issued in the US and, although they had a minor US hit in 1964 with “Just One Look“, it was not until “Look Through Any Window” that the band reached the US Top 40. Many of their early singles that had been major hits in the UK, including “Here I Go Again“, “I’m Alive“, “Yes I Will” and “We’re Through”, failed to even reach the Top 100 in the US.

From 1966 until after they signed to Epic in 1967, the band had their most concentrated success in the US, including four Top 10 songs (“Bus Stop“, “Stop Stop Stop“,[17] “On a Carousel“, and “Carrie Anne“. The move to Epic followed by Graham Nash’s departure ended this streak; after that, the Hollies had a few more huge hits: “He Ain’t Heavy He’s My Brother” (No. 7, 1969), “Long Cool Woman” (No. 2, 1972), and “The Air That I Breathe” (No. 6, 1974). They did have additional US chart hits with the non-UK singles “Pay You Back With Interest” (No. 28 in 1966), “Dear Eloise” (No. 50 in 1967), “Long Dark Road” (No. 26 in 1972), and the “reunion” single “Stop! In the Name of Love” (No. 29 in 1983).

Rock and Roll Hall of Fame[edit]

In 2010, the Hollies were included in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.[18] The band members inducted were Allan Clarke, Graham Nash, Tony Hicks, Eric Haydock, Bobby Elliott, Bernie Calvert, and Terry Sylvester.

It was announced that the band would be reuniting with Allan Clarke and Graham Nash for a live performance at the induction ceremony, but the current incarnation of the band (with HOF inductees Hicks and Elliott) was unable to reschedule a performance in London to attend. The Hollies were represented at the RRHOF ceremony by Clarke, Nash, Sylvester, Haydock and Calvert. Allan Clarke and Graham Nash gave a reunion performance consisting of “Bus Stop“, “Carrie Anne” (accompanied by Adam Levine and Jesse Carmichael from Maroon 5), and “Long Cool Woman” (accompanied by Steve Van Zandt on guitar and Pat Monahan (from Train), with a cameo appearance by Sylvester on vocals). The performance marked the first time that Clarke had sung in 10 years.

Band members[edit]

Current

  • Tony Hicks – lead guitar, backing vocals (1963–present)
  • Bobby Elliott – drums (1963–present)
  • Ray Stiles – bass (1986–1990, 1991–present)
  • Ian Parker – keyboards (1991–present)
  • Peter Howarth – lead vocals, rhythm guitar (2004–present)
  • Steve Lauri – rhythm guitar, backing vocals (2004–present)

Discography[edit]

See The Hollies discography

UK Albums :

  • Then, Now, Always (2009)

US Albums :

References[edit]

  1. Jump up^ The Hollies at AllMusic
  2. Jump up to:a b The band’s lineup in the Hall of Fame includes only the seven band members during 1964 through 1971. The most famous member during this time was Graham Nash, who went on to form the Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young supergroup in the US. Letterman updateThe Boston Globe, 17 December 2009
  3. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Dawn Eden, 30th Anniversary essay, March 1993, in 30th Anniversary Collection.
  4. Jump up^ William Kerns (14 March 2009). “Holly’s influence will not fade away”. Lubbockonline.com. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  5. Jump up^ 2009 Graham Nash Reflections :: Introduction to autobiographical liner/CD booklet
  6. Jump up^ “Go-Set national Top 40, 12 Apr. 1967”. Poparchives.com.au. 12 April 1967. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  7. Jump up^ “Go-Set national chart, 9 Aug. 1967”. Poparchives.com.au. 9 August 1967. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  8. Jump up^ “Gli Hollies di Graham Nash”altervista.org.
  9. Jump up^ “Gli Hollies – Non Prego Per Me (Live 1967 Audio)”YouTube.
  10. Jump up^ “Grande enciclopedia rock”google.it.
  11. Jump up^ “‘,Go-Set’, national Top 40, 8 May 1968”. Poparchives.com.au. 8 May 1968. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  12. Jump up^ DISC magazine article reproduced in the Hollies tour book 2004
  13. Jump up^ “Go-Set national chart, 20 Feb. 1970”. Poparchives.com.au. 20 February 1971. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  14. Jump up to:a b c d Circus Magazine, May 1973. – “Romany – The Hollies Hop Over Disaster” by Janis Schacht.
  15. Jump up^ “Go-Set National Top 40, 20 September 1972”. Poparchives.com.au. 30 September 1972. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  16. Jump up^ “‘,Go-Set’, national Top 40, 1 June 1974”. Poparchives.com.au. 1 June 1974. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  17. Jump up^ Gilliland, John (1969). “Show 38 – The Rubberization of Soul: The great pop music renaissance. [Part 4]” (audio). Pop ChroniclesUniversity of North Texas Libraries.
  18. Jump up^ Congratulations to the 2010 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Inductees!”Rockhall.com, 17 December 2009

External links[edit]

 

 

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FRANCIS SCHAEFFER ANALYZES ART AND CULTURE PART 191 “Film series HOW SHOULD WE THEN LIVE? PART 2, THE MIDDLE AGES” Featured artist is Marlene Dumas

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How Shall We Then Live?—Francis Schaeffer

Episode Two: The Middle Ages
Key Terms:

  1. “Asceticism”: The view that matter is inherently evil and that by afflicting the body you will gain salvation. Under this idea the monks would inflict physical pain on their bodies to gain spiritual blessings. The idea did not come from the Bible but from Greek philosophers such as Plato.
  2. “Usury”: Charging interest on loans made to others. It has been modified at times to mean the charging of unjust loans through high interest rates.
  3. “Conciliar movement”: The attempt to place the authority of the council of the bishops under the authority of the popes.
  4. “Infinite reference point”: In logic, you cannot have a universal in the conclusion unless you have one in the premise. In philosophy, only an infinite absolute can give meaning to the particulars of life.
  5. “Christian art”: As Christianity became corrupted by the intrusion of pagan philosophy, the art reflected this change. It went from real people in real backgrounds to unreal people (symbols) in real backgrounds to unreal people in unreal backgrounds.
  6. Christian music was also corrupted by pagan thought. The message of the music was emphasized over the medium. Then it slowly changed to the medium over the message. The Gregorian chants are an illustration of this process. The chants were in a language which the common man did not understand. But it did not matter as the music of the chants gave man a non-rational religious experience that did not center in truth but in the experience itself. It made you “feel” religious.
  7. The Middle Ages produced some pre-reformers such as Huss and Wycliff who warned that the Roman Church had departed from the Gospel and that the common man with his Bible could decide religious truth. They taught that the Bible was the absolute authority in all matters of faith and practice- not the arbitrary rulings of the clergy.
  8. This threatened the popes because their authority was arbitrary and not based on anything other than their own personal opinion. Not having any biblical support for such things as the Mass or such doctrines as purgatory, the popes then used the power of the state to kill those who disagreed with them.

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HowShouldWeThenLive Episode 4

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Featured artist today is Marlene Dumas

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Image result for Marlene Dumas

Marlene Dumas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Marlene Dumas
Marlene Dumas - 2008 - Self Portrait at Noon.jpg

Self Portrait at Noon, 2008
Born 3 August 1953 (age 64)
Cape TownSouth Africa
Education Michaelis School of Fine Artde Ateliers
Known for Painting
Awards Rolf Schock Prize in Visual Arts(2011)
Website www.marlenedumas.nl

Marlene Dumas (born 3 August 1953) is a South African born artist and painter who lives and works in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In the past Dumas produced paintings, collages, drawings, prints and installations. She now works mainly with oil on canvas and ink and watercolor on paper.[1] Almost all of Marlene Dumas’s paintings can be traced back to a photographic source, either collected from the media or taken by the artist herself.[2]

Life[edit]

Early Years[edit]

Marlene Dumas was born on a wine farm in Kuilsrivier, a semi-rural area in the outskirts of Cape Town in South Africa. She attended Bloemhof Girls’ High in Stellenbosch after her father’s death in 1966. Among her schoolmates were Marlene van Niekerk and Sandra Kriel, who also is an artist. Dumas attended the University of Cape Town’s Michaelis School of Fine Art. The artist describes the impact art school had on her and her art: ” Art school in South Africa was very stimulating in a theoretical way, issues that only now are becoming important for some Europeans, like… what is political art? I learn a lot about ethics, philosophy and theory in South Africa, while in Holland I started to look at paintings for the first time. I started to appreciate the pictorial or visual intelligence of remarkable paintings. So, that’s important to my work, as well as being white in a black country influenced my philosophy in life. I was not the victim of the bad system. I was part of the wrong system. So I don’t make work about being victimized (although apartheid as a whole was very bad for the spirit of its people). I rather find everyone capable of terrible things and I fear my own weakness and blindness first”.[3] In the summer of 1976, Marlene Dumas moved to Europe.[4]

Work[edit]

The White Disease, 1985

Dumas attended the University of Cape Town in Cape TownSouth Africa from 1972-1975 and relocated to Amsterdam in 1976, where she attended the University of Amsterdam as a student of painting and psychology from 1979-1980. At this time, Dumas was aspiring to be an abstract painter and was influenced by artists such as Willem de Kooning and Gerhard Richter.[5] The works Dumas produced between 1975 and 1979 demonstrate the development in the artist’s characteristic style, where the subject matter; the apartheid in South Africa, is presented in abstract style in painting. As Cornelia Butler, the curator of Dumas’s retrospective exhibition “Measuring Your Own Grave” in Tate Modern asserts, “Dumas’s paintings are products of the contemporary image world – that is, they are drawn from directly from the events of our time, abstracted to resonate in content and form.”[6] In 1984, Dumas started painting heads and figures.[7] These head and figure drawings were usually ink-wash based. Between the years 1979 to 1984, Marlene Dumas took a break from painting, and she primarily produced works on paper. These works are often a collage of drawings in pencil, ink or crayon with a title or a quote, newspaper clippings and magazines and sometimes objects. The paper used would usually be cut from a large roll, scratched, stained and torn.[8] A series of paintings she executed in the mid-1980s, titled “The Eyes of the Night Creatures”, explores recurring themes in the artist’s oeuvre, including racial and ethical intolerance. Dumas also gained recognition on the European scene for her series of painting in “The Eyes of the Night Creatures.”[9] The White Disease(1985) is a painting of an ageing South African woman with pale blue eyes taken from a medical photograph. The painting projects the disease of apartheid and Dumas acknowledges it as one of her favourites. Christie’s auction lot notes observes that the painting recalls the influence of predecessors such as Egon Schiele and Leon Golub. Translucent white paint creates a ghostly shade, alluding to the subject’s illness, while water-saturated colors gives the portrait an unreal transparency, suggesting the fugitive nature of life. The shape of the nose is replaced by a simple blob of pink color, symbolising a loss of humanity and the subject’s indifference to her state.[10][11][12]

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Dumas produced a series of works based around the subject of pregnancy and babies.[13] Dumas states: “To create an artwork (to make an image of) and to give birth have essentially nothing to do with one another. Yet this is no reason to stop loving metaphors or avoiding the unrelated. But the poetry that results from mixing different kinds of language, disappears into sloppy thinking, when we imagine that these differences can ever be solved harmoniously; or even worse, when we forget that these realities we are mixing are of a beautiful and often cruel indifference towards each other.” [14] In 1987, she gave birth to her daughter, Helena, and a great body of work followed. The most compelling is The First People, which is a series of four canvases devoted to newborn infants. Each painting is large (many times greater than life-size) and each is composed vertically. She does not idealize her images; instead the babies are unattractive, squirming little beings with gnarled fingers and toes, bloated bellies, and wrinkled skin. Depicting a similar, rather horrifying, large baby is Warhol’s Child, painted on a horizontal plane, during the same period. It is a homage to Alice Neel, specifically the portrait Andy Warhol (c.1970).[15] Alice Neel is among the many artists who influenced Marlene Dumas’s works.

In the 1990s, Dumas indirectly returned to the subject of apartheid.[16] Between 1998 through 2000, in collaboration with the photographer Anton Corbijn, she worked on a project called “Stripping Girls”, which took the strip clubs and peep shows of Amsterdam as their subject;[17] while Corbijn exhibited photographs in the show, Dumas took Polaroids which she then used as sources for her pictures.

Since she first began painting portraits in the 1980s, famous figures ranging from Osama Bin Laden to Naomi Campbell, various family members, friends and even unknown persons have been the subjects of her work. The haunting and distorted faces and bodies of her figures are a product of her use of thinned down paint, wiping the pigment away from the canvas to create the washed out, smudged figures that are characteristic of her work. At times dark and disturbing, always weighted in poignancy, and drawn on topical and contentious material, she repeatedly mixes the personal with the political.[18] She has said that her works are better appreciated as originals, to mirror the at times shocking, discomforting intimacy she captures with her works.

Dumas uses oil and water color in her paintings. Many of her works confront themes such as pornography and segregation. A large number of her symbolic paintings depict either erotic or disconcerting nude bodies in acts.[19][20]

For Manifesta 10 in St Petersburg, Dumas created Great Men, a series of 16 ink and pencil portraits that depict famous gay men who have all influenced the artist, including James BaldwinLeonard MatlovichRudolf NureyevVaslav NijinskyPyotr Ilyich TchaikovskyAlan TuringOscar Wilde and Tennessee Williams.[21] Each of the men depicted was persecuted, in one way or another, because they were suspected of being gay. According to Dumas, the series is to “contribute to a mentality change” in Russia at a time of increasingly anti-gay legislation in the country.[22]

Writing[edit]

In addition to being a visual artist, Dumas is also an active writer. Her exhibitions and their accompanying catalogues are populated by a number of Dumas’ essays, poems, and passages about her work. A collection of these writings entitled Sweet Nothings: Notes and Texts was published by Tate in 2015. When used in conjunction with her work, Dumas’ writing can be both helpful and confusing, contributing additional layers to the work’s content and interpretation. Dumas is certainly not the first to use text in her work, but the way she directly addresses the reader by using the pronoun ‘you’ is a significant departure from Barbara Kruger‘s plural statements (‘We won’t play nature to your culture’) and Jenny Holzer‘s objective truisms (‘Abuse of power comes as no surprise’).[23]

Teaching[edit]

Dumas is committed to teaching. In a 2007 interview she said, “I see teaching as a very important thing, and not only because I teach [the students] things, but also because we have a dialogue, and you see what you really want. You find things out. I still believe in the Socratic dialogue. Art is really something that you learn from being around people”.[24] Marlene Dumas has also stated that she believes an artist defines and understand themselves only in relation to other artists, which is one of the reasons why she holds and attends lectures and discussions worldwide.[25]

Exhibitions[edit]

Marlene Dumas, Narutowicz. the President 1922, 2012, Zachęta National Gallery, Warsaw

Marlene Dumas’s works have been exhibited in galleries across the US, Canada, Japan and Europe, including Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, UK, Ireland, Sweden, France, Austria, Portugal, Iceland, Norway and Poland. While her first exhibition was in 1984, in the Centraal Museum in Netherlands, she was exhibited in her homeland only in 2008, pointing to her art’s reception in South Africa.[26] Dumas’s first all-painting show was held in 1985, at the Galerie Paul Andriesse in Amsterdam, and it brought together nine portraits. Three of the portraits were of women named Martha; Martha Freud, the artist’s grandmother, and a worker. The women depicted sharing the same name demonstrates the significance language holds for Marlene Dumas, who has repeatedly commented on her meticulous selection of the titles for her works.[7]

In 1992 Dumas participated in Documenta IX in Kassel, Germany. Her catalogue entry for the show, My Thoughts on Big Shows presents the artist’s perspective of group shows which she would attend many of throughout her career.

“It’s not possible to participate in – Big Shows – without feeling this urge – to bite – the hand that feeds you.

Give me a face instead of a place – I don’t understand Kassel (as a place) – it’s too grey, too cold and too – far away for me.

Give me – the head of – John the Baptist. “[27]

In 1995 Dumas represented the Netherlands in the 46th Venice Biennale (together with Marijke van Warmerdam and Maria Roosen).[28][1] Dumas’s first international solo museum exhibition, “Marlene Dumas: Name No Names,” opened at the New Museum in 2002.[29] A major American museum exhibition and midcareer retrospective entitled “Measuring Your Own Grave”, opened in June 2008 at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, and moved to the Museum of Modern Art in New York City and the Menil Collection in Houston.[7] Also in 2008, the South African National Gallery, Cape Town, and the Standard Bank Gallery, Johannesburg, presented two consecutive shows of the artist’s work, marking the first time Dumas had solo exhibitions in her homeland. The Haus der Kunst, Munich, showed “Marlene Dumas: Tronies” in 2011.[30] The Stedelijk Museum, the Tate Modern, and the Beyeler Foundation have organized a major retrospective of the artist called “Marlene Dumas: The Image as Burden”, which includes artworks from the 1970s until 2014, set to debut in Amsterdam in September 2014 and due at the Tate 5 February – 10 May 2015.[31]

In 2017, works of art by Marlene Dumas are on display as part of group exhibitions in the Het Atzewige Museum in Belgium; from April 20 until August 13, National Portrait Gallery in London; from March 27 until October 1, Galerie Gebr in Germany; from March 25 until April 29, and Rijksmuseum in the Netherlands; from February 17 until May 21.[32]

Marlene Dumas’s works will also be exhibited at the ABN AMRO Headquarters in Amsterdam; from January 19, 2017 until March 2018.[32]

Dumas is represented by the David Zwirner Gallery, Gallery Koyanagi, Frith Street Gallery, Zeno X Gallery and Galerie Paul Andriesse.

Collections[edit]

Work by the artist is held in the public collections of various museums, including Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam,[33] the ARKEN Museum for Moderne Kunst, Copenhagen; Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago; Bawag Foundation, Vienna; Bonnefantenmuseum, Maastricht; Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh; Centraal Museum, Utrecht; De Pont Museum of Contemporary Art, Tilburg; Centre Pompidou, Paris; Centro de Artes Visuales Helga de Alvear, Caceres; Dallas Museum of Art, Dallas; De Ateliers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; The Flemish Ministry of Culture, Brussels; Fonds Regional d’Art Contemporain Picardie, Amiens; Gemeentemuseum, Arnhem, The Netherlands; Gemeentemuseum Den Haag, The Hague; Institute of Contemporary Art, BostonSouth African National Gallery, Cape Town; Johannesburg Art Gallery, Johannesburg; Joods Historisch Museum, Amsterdam; Kasteel Wijlre / Hedge House, Wijlre, The Netherlands; Krannert Art Museum and Kinhead Pavilion, Champaign, Illinois; Kunsthalle zu Kiel der Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Kiel, Denmark; Lieve Van Gorp Foundation for Women Artists, Antwerp, Belgium; Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles; Museum De Pont, Tilburg, The Netherlands; Museum für Moderne Kunst, Frankfurt; Museum het Domein, Sittard, The Netherlands; Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles; Museum of Contemporary Art, Tokyo; The Museum of Modern Art, New York; Museum van Hedendaagse Kunst Antwerpen, Antwerp, Belgium; Museum voor Moderne Kunst, Arnhem, The Netherlands; Strasbourg Museum of Modern and Contemporary ArtNasher Museum of Art, Durham; Paleis Vught, Vught, The Netherlands; Saatchi Gallery, London; Scheringa Museum voor Realisme, Spanbroek, The Netherlands; Stadsgalerij Heerlen, Heerlen, The Netherlands; Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven; Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam; Stedelijk Museum, Gouda, The Netherlands; Museum De Lakenhal, Leiden, The Netherlands; Stedelijk Museum Schiedam, Schiedam, The Netherlands; Stedelijk Museum voor Actuele Kunst, Ghent, Belgium; Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam; Tate Modern, London, England; and ZKM Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie, Karlsruhe.

Recognition[edit]

Dumas has been awarded honorary doctorate degrees from the University of Antwerp (2015), Stellenbosch University (2011) and Rhodes University (2010). She was the winner of the 2011 edition of the Rolf Schock award in Stockholm.[34]

In 1998, Dumas received the Coutts Contemporary Art Foundation Award. In 2007, Dumas received the Dusseldorf Art Prize. In 2012, Dumas won the Johannes Vermeer Award.[35]

Art market[edit]

Dumas’s artworks were first auctioned in 1994 in the Netherlands, where three paintings and drawings were sold for between $790 and $3,100. In 1999, following her debut exhibition at the Museum Kunst Hedendaagse in Antwerp, her drawing Checkered Skirt was sold for $22.000 at Christie’s New York.[36] By 2002, the record for Dumas’s paintings, only a few of which had come to auction, stood at about $50,000. Jule, die Vrou (Jule, the Woman), a 1985 close-up of a transvestite’s face, was auctioned at Christie’s for $1.24 million in 2004. In 2005 at Christie’s in London, The Teacher (Sub a) (1987), a rendering of a posed class photograph, was sold for $3.34 million.[37] In 2008, The Visitor (1995) sold for £3.1 million at Sotheby’s in 2008, making Dumas the most expensive living female artist at the time.[38] In an interview conducted by a correspondent of Vogue, Dumas asserted that she is not at ease with being an artist whose works are being sold at such high prizes. She stated: “If you know the history of art, the people whose work fetched the highest prices have often been terrible artists”.[39] However, most of Dumas’s works are sold to well-established institutions. Her portrait of the late Amy WinehouseAmy-Blue(2011), was acquired by London’s National Portrait Gallery for £95,000 ($150,000) in November 2012.[40]

Image result for Marlene Dumas

Sources[edit]

  • Selma Klein Essink, Marcel Vos and Jan Debbaut, Miss Interpreted, exhibition catalogue, Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven 1992
  • Jonathan Hutchinson, Chlorosis, exhibition catalogue, The Dougles Hyde Gallery, Dublin 1994
  • Catherine Kinley, Marlene Dumas, exhibition broadsheet, Tate Gallery, London 1996
  • Gianni Romano, Suspect, Skira, Milan, 2003
  • Cornelia Butler, Marlene Dumas: painter as witness, Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, 2008
  • Ilaria Bonacossa, Dominic van den Boogerd, Barbara Bloom and Mariuccia Casadio, Marlene DumasPhaidon Press, London, 2009
  • Neal Benezra and Olga M. Viso, Distemper: Dissonant Themes in the Art of the 1990s. Hirshhorn Museum, Washington, D.C. 1996

External links[edit]

 

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WOODY WEDNESDAY All my posts on MIDNIGHT IN PARIS

 

I am moving the WOODY WEDNESDAY to a monthly feature on http://www.thedailyhatch.org. My passion has been recent years to emphasize the works of Francis Schaeffer in my apologetic efforts and most of those posts are either on Tuesdays or Thursdays. If you would like to visit some of my past blog posts on WOODY ALLEN then click on some of the links below.

I have spent alot of time talking about Woody Allen films on this blog and looking at his worldview. He has a hopelessmeaningless, nihilistic worldview that believes we are going to turn to dust and there is no afterlife. Even though he has this view he has taken the opportunity to look at the weaknesses of his own secular view. I salute him for doing that. That is why I have returned to his work over and over and presented my own Christian worldview as an alternative.

My interest in Woody Allen is so great that I have a “Woody Wednesday” on my blog www.thedailyhatch.org every week. Also I have done over 30 posts on the historical characters mentioned in his film “Midnight in Paris.” (Salvador Dali, Ernest Hemingway,T.S.Elliot,  Cole Porter,Paul Gauguin,  Luis Bunuel, and Pablo Picasso were just a few of the characters.)

During the last 30 days here are the posts that have got the most hits on my blog on this subject on the historical characters mentioned in the movie “Midnight in Paris”:

The Characters referenced in Woody Allen’s “Midnight in Paris” (Part 15, Luis Bunuel)
The Characters referenced in Woody Allen’s “Midnight in Paris” (Part 9, Georges Braque)
The Characters referenced in Woody Allen’s “Midnight in Paris” (Part 5 Juan Belmonte)
The characters referenced in Woody Allen’s movie “Midnight in Paris” (Part 23,Adriana, fictional mistress of Picasso)
The characters referenced in Woody Allen’s “Midnight in Paris” (Part 11, Rodin)The Characters referenced in Woody Allen’s “Midnight in Paris” (Part 29, Pablo Picasso)The Characters referenced in Woody Allen’s “Midnight in Paris” (Part 13, Amedeo Modigliani)

The Characters referenced in Woody Allen’s “Midnight in Paris” (Part 14, Henri Matisse)
Characters referenced in Woody Allen’s movie “Midnight in Paris” (Part 35, Recap of historical figures, Notre Dame Cathedral and Cult of Reason)

The Characters referenced in Woody Allen’s “Midnight in Paris” (Part 3 Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald)
The Characters referenced in Woody Allen’s “Midnight in Paris” (Part 10 Salvador Dali)

The characters referenced in Woody Allen’s “Midnight in Paris” (Part 12, Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel)

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I love the movie “Midnight in Paris” by Woody Allen and I have done over 30 posts on the historical characters mentioned in the film. Take a look below:

“Midnight in Paris” one of Woody Allen’s biggest movie hits in recent years, July 18, 2011 – 6:00 am

(Part 32, Jean-Paul Sartre)July 10, 2011 – 5:53 am

 (Part 29, Pablo Picasso) July 7, 2011 – 4:33 am

(Part 28,Van Gogh) July 6, 2011 – 4:03 am

(Part 27, Man Ray) July 5, 2011 – 4:49 am

(Part 26,James Joyce) July 4, 2011 – 5:55 am

(Part 25, T.S.Elliot) July 3, 2011 – 4:46 am

(Part 24, Djuna Barnes) July 2, 2011 – 7:28 am

(Part 23,Adriana, fictional mistress of Picasso) July 1, 2011 – 12:28 am

(Part 22, Silvia Beach and the Shakespeare and Company Bookstore) June 30, 2011 – 12:58 am

(Part 21,Versailles and the French Revolution) June 29, 2011 – 5:34 am

(Part 16, Josephine Baker) June 24, 2011 – 5:18 am

(Part 15, Luis Bunuel) June 23, 2011 – 5:37 am

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The movie MIDNIGHT IN PARIS offers many of the same themes we see in Ecclesiastes. The second post looked at the question: WAS THERE EVER A GOLDEN AGE AND DID THE MOST TALENTED UNIVERSAL MEN OF THAT TIME FIND TRUE SATISFACTION DURING IT?

In the third post in this series we discover in Ecclesiastes that man UNDER THE SUN finds himself caught in the never ending cycle of birth and death. The SURREALISTS make a leap into the area of nonreason in order to get out of this cycle and that is why the scene in MIDNIGHT IN PARIS with Salvador Dali, Man Ray, and Luis Bunuel works so well!!!! These surrealists look to the area of their dreams to find a meaning for their lives and their break with reality is  only because they know that they can’t find a rational meaning in life without God in the picture.

The fourth post looks at the solution of WINE, WOMEN AND SONG and the fifth and sixth posts look at the solution T.S.Eliot found in the Christian Faith and how he left his fragmented message of pessimism behind. In the seventh post the SURREALISTS say that time and chance is all we have but how can that explain love or art and the hunger for God? The eighth  post looks at the subject of DEATH both in Ecclesiastes and MIDNIGHT IN PARIS. In the ninth post we look at the nihilistic worldview of Woody Allen and why he keeps putting suicides into his films.

In the tenth post I show how Woody Allen pokes fun at the brilliant thinkers of this world and how King Solomon did the same thing 3000 years ago. In the eleventh post I point out how many of Woody Allen’s liberal political views come a lack of understanding of the sinful nature of man and where it originated. In the twelfth post I look at the mannishness of man and vacuum in his heart that can only be satisfied by a relationship with God.

In the thirteenth post we look at the life of Ernest Hemingway as pictured in MIDNIGHT AND PARIS and relate it to the change of outlook he had on life as the years passed. In the fourteenth post we look at Hemingway’s idea of Paris being a movable  feast. The fifteenth and sixteenth posts both compare Hemingway’s statement, “Happiness in intelligent people is the rarest thing I know…”  with Ecclesiastes 2:18 “For in much wisdom is much vexation, and he who increases knowledge increases sorrow.” The seventeenth post looks at these words Woody Allen put into Hemingway’s mouth,  “We fear death because we feel that we haven’t loved well enough or loved at all.”

In MIDNIGHT IN PARIS Hemingway and Gil Pender talk about their literary idol Mark Twain and the eighteenth post is summed up nicely by Kris Hemphill‘swords, “Both Twain and [King Solomon in the Book of Ecclesiastes] voice questions our souls long to have answered: Where does one find enduring meaning, life purpose, and sustainable joy, and why do so few seem to find it? The nineteenth post looks at the tension felt both in the life of Gil Pender (written by Woody Allen) in the movie MIDNIGHT IN PARIS and in Mark Twain’s life and that is when an atheist says he wants to scoff at the idea THAT WE WERE PUT HERE FOR A PURPOSE but he must stay face the reality of  Ecclesiastes 3:11 that says “God has planted eternity in the heart of men…” and  THAT CHANGES EVERYTHING! Therefore, the secular view that there is no such thing as love or purpose looks implausible. The twentieth post examines how Mark Twain discovered just like King Solomon in the Book of Ecclesiastes that there is no explanation  for the suffering and injustice that occurs in life UNDER THE SUN. Solomon actually brought God back into the picture in the last chapter and he looked  ABOVE THE SUN for the books to be balanced and for the tears to be wiped away.

The twenty-first post looks at the words of King Solomon, Woody Allen and Mark Twain that without God in the picture our lives UNDER THE SUN will accomplish nothing that lasts. The twenty-second post looks at King Solomon’s experiment 3000 years that proved that luxuries can’t bring satisfaction to one’s life but we have seen this proven over and over through the ages. Mark Twain lampooned the rich in his book “The Gilded Age” and he discussed  get rich quick fever, but Sam Clemens loved money and the comfort and luxuries it could buy. Likewise Scott Fitzgerald  was very successful in the 1920’s after his publication of THE GREAT GATSBY and lived a lavish lifestyle until his death in 1940 as a result of alcoholism.

In the twenty-third post we look at Mark Twain’s statement that people should either commit suicide or stay drunk if they are “demonstrably wise” and want to “keep their reasoning faculties.” We actually see this play out in the film MIDNIGHT IN PARIS with the character Zelda Fitzgerald. In the twenty-fourth, twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth posts I look at Mark Twain and the issue of racism. In MIDNIGHT IN PARIS we see the difference between the attitudes concerning race in 1925 Paris and the rest of the world.

The twenty-seventh and twenty-eighth posts are summing up Mark Twain. In the 29th post we ask did MIDNIGHT IN PARIS accurately portray Hemingway’s personality and outlook on life? and in the 30th post the life and views of Hemingway are summed up.

In the 31st post we will observe that just like Solomon Picasso slept with many women. Solomon actually slept with  over 1000 women ( Eccl 2:8, I Kings 11:3), and both men ended their lives bitter against all women and in the 32nd post we look at what happened to these former lovers of Picasso. In the 33rd post we see that Picasso  deliberately painted his secular  worldview of fragmentation on his canvas but he could not live with the loss of humanness and he reverted back at crucial points and painted those he loved with all his genius and with all their humanness!!! In the 34th post  we notice that both Solomon in Ecclesiastes and Picasso in his painting had an obsession with the issue of their impending death!!!

___________

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In the last post I pointed out how King Solomon in Ecclesiastes painted a dismal situation for modern man in life UNDER THE SUN  and that Bertrand Russell, and T.S. Eliot and  other modern writers had agreed with Solomon’s view. However, T.S. Eliot had found a solution to this problem and put his faith in […]

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“Woody Wednesday” ECCLESIASTES AND WOODY ALLEN’S FILMS: SOLOMON “WOULD GOT ALONG WELL WITH WOODY!” (Part 4 MIDNIGHT IN PARIS Part C, IS THE ANSWER TO FINDING SATISFACTION FOUND IN WINE, WOMEN AND SONG?)

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“Woody Wednesday” ECCLESIASTES AND WOODY ALLEN’S FILMS: SOLOMON “WOULD GOT ALONG WELL WITH WOODY!” (Part 3 MIDNIGHT IN PARIS Part B, THE SURREALISTS Salvador Dali, Man Ray, and Luis Bunuel try to break out of cycle!!!)

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“Woody Wednesday” ECCLESIASTES AND WOODY ALLEN’S FILMS: SOLOMON “WOULD GOT ALONG WELL WITH WOODY!” (Part 2 MIDNIGHT IN PARIS Part A, When was the greatest time to live in Paris? 1920’s or La Belle Époque [1873-1914] )

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