FRANCIS SCHAEFFER ANALYZES ART AND CULTURE PART 106 A look at the BEATLES as featured in 7th episode of Francis Schaeffer film HOW SHOULD WE THEN LIVE? Part D “Imagine there’s no heaven” (Artist featured today is Allen Jones)


The Beatles broke up on April 10, 1970 and just a few weeks later in May of 1970 John Lennon finished up his song IMAGINE. That song summed up the GOD IS DEAD movement of the 1960’s with the words “Imagine there’s no heaven, It’s easy if you try.”

In the film HOW SHOULD WE THEN LIVE? Episode 7 Francis Schaeffer noted concerning the generation of youth of the 1960’s, “This record,  Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band, became the rallying cry for young people throughout the world. It expressed the essence of their lives, thoughts and their feelings.”

It was during the 1960’s that the GOD IS DEAD MOVEMENT really got going strong and just a few weeks after the breakup of the Beatles their former leader John Lennon put this view into the song IMAGINE.

Is there a God or is the world just one big machine shaped by chance? It is my view that the Beatles suffered from an inferior complex when it came to book learning though they all were bright individuals. Maybe that is the reason they included the most brilliant man of the 20th century (Albert Einstein) on the  cover of SERGEANT PEPPER’S LONELY HEARTS CLUB BAND album. John Lennon never did believe the theory of evolution but the growth of secular thinking and the general acceptance of the GOD IS DEAD movement in the 1960’s led many to buy into the view that we are all basically machines developed by chance and there is no grand designer. Francis Schaeffer rightly noted, “Humanist man has no place for a personal God, but there is also no place for man’s significance as man and no place for love, no place for freedom.”

John Lennon did later sing these words below:

Imagine there’s no heaven
It’s easy if you try
No hell below us
Above us only sky
Imagine all the people
Living for today…
Imagine there’s no countries
It isn’t hard to do
Nothing to kill or die for
And no religion too
Imagine all the people
Living life in peace…
This indicates that he did hold the secular GOD IS DEAD view at least when he finished recording the song in May of 1970 (the month following the breakup of the Beatles).

John Lennon – Imagine HD

Single by John Lennon
from the album Imagine
Released 11 October 1971
Length 3:03
Label Apple
Writer(s) John Lennon
John Lennon US singles chronology
Power to the People
Imagine” /
It’s So Hard
Happy Xmas (War Is Over)
John Lennon UK singles chronology
Stand by Me
Imagine” / “Working Class Hero”

The Beatles – 51 Years Ago Today – All You Need is Love

All You Need Is Love

(Beatles playing the song REVOLUTION pictured above)

If the GOD IS DEAD crowd of the 1960’s is right then the  world is just one big machine shaped by chance and what are some of the conclusions that can be drawn from that?

Francis Schaeffer in HOW SHOULD WE THEN LIVE? Episode 7 asserted:

There is one man who well understood the logical conclusion of the deification of nature, Marquis de Sade. “If nature is all then ‘what is’ is right and nothing more can be said….As nature has made us (the men) the strongest we can do with her (the woman) whatever we please.” The inevitable result was his cruelty to women. Thus there was no basis for either morals or law…Humanist man beginning only from himself has concluded that he is only a machine. Humanist man has no place for a personal God, but there is also no place for man’s significance as man and no place for love, no place for freedom.

In other words, if we get our values from nature then the answer is MIGHT MAKES RIGHT!!!! Woody Allen has demonstrated this in his 1989 movie CRIMES AND MISDEMEANORS.

Geoffrey Rush plays the Marquis de Sade and Kate Winslet as Madeleine in the film ‘Quills’.

Dan Guinn posted on his blog at concerning the Nazis and evolution: As Schaeffer points out, “…these ideas helped produce an even more far-reaching yet logical conclusion: the Nazi movement in Germany. Heinrich Himmler (1900-1945), leader of the Gestapo, stated that the law of nature must take its course in the survival of the fittest. The result was the gas chambers. Hitler stated numerous times that Christianity and its notion of charity should be “replaced by the ethic of strength over weakness.” Surely many factors were involved in the rise of National Socialism in Germany. For example, the Christian consensus had largely been lost by the undermining from a rationalistic philosophy and a romantic pantheism on the secular side, and a liberal theology (which was an adoption of rationalism in theological terminology) in the universities and many of the churches. Thus biblical Christianity was no longer giving the consensus for German society. After World War I came political and economic chaos and a flood of moral permissiveness in Germany. Thus, many factors created the situation. But in that setting the theory of the survival of the fittest sanctioned what occurred. ” 

(Heinrich Himmler pictured below) 

The Beatles – A Day In The Life

Tony Bartolucci’s Outline of HOW SHALL WE THEN LIVE? by  Francis Schaeffer,  Began: June, 2006 | Finished November: 2006

VII. Chapter Seven: The Rise of Modern Science

A. The Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution came at the same time as the High Renaissance and the Reformation. According to Schaeffer, we can date the rise of modern science with Copernicus (1475-1543). The Scientific Revolution was almost exclusively a western phenomenon. The east (China, Islam, etc.) did have some contributions, but they were limited by their adherence to Aristotelian logic and Neoplatonism. It was at Oxford that scholars first attacked Aquinas’ philosophy based on Aristotle; this was in the 13 c. th

(J. Robert Oppenheimer pictured above with Albert Einstein)

(Pictured above is Alfred North Whitehead.  While he is widely recognized for his collaborative work with Bertrand Russell on the Principia Mathematica, he also made highly innovative contributions to philosophy, especially in the area of process metaphysics.)

1. Christianity and Science

Both Alfred North Whitehead (d. 1947) and J. Robert Oppenheimer (d. 1967) maintained that modern science was born out of a Christian worldview. Apparently, neither man was a Christian. Whitehead wrote that Christianity is the mother of science because of “the medieval insistence on the rationality of God” (page 157). General consistent observations about nature were only reliable because they were based upon a rational and consistent God (cf. pages 158-59).

(Pictured below J. Robert Oppenheimer in 1944)

a. Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

Bacon could be called the major prophet of the Scientific Revolution Bacon believed in, and studied the Bible. For Bacon and these early scientists, science was not autonomous (as it is today).

b. Note the List of Christians who were Leaders in the  Scientific Revolution Listed by Schaeffer on Pages 159-161

B. Christianity and Changing Worldviews of Science

1. Einstein’s Theory of Relativity

Some try to support a worldview of relativity on the basis of Einstein. But Einstein’s theory is based on the assumption that everywhere in the universe light travels at the same speed in a vacuum. “Nothing is less relative philosophically than the theory of relativity” (page 162). As Einstein once quipped, “I cannot believe that God plays dice with the cosmos.”

2. Werner Heisenberg’s Theory of Uncertainty or the Indeterminacy Principle

This principle has to do with a certain area of observation, specifically the location of an object and its velocity. A physicist cannot have an accurate observation of both the location of colliding atoms and their velocity. ISW the quantum theory does not support randomness. All of these things are based on the premise of a consistent, orderly universe (cf. page 162).

C. Benefits of the Christian Worldview

1. Gave a Foundation to the Observations of Science – There is a Fixed Uniformity

2. Man Can Endeavor to Learn Scientific Truth by way of Reason (man can reason because he is created in the image of God)

3. A Christian Base Meant that the World was Worth Learning About (nature reflects the handiwork of God, not the taboos of pantheistic deities)

4. There was no Inconsistency or Conflict Between the Bible and Science

D. Other Worldviews in Contrast Then and Now

1. Note that the Greeks, Moslems and the Chinese Lost Interest in Science

The Chinese, for example, never had the confidence that the laws ofthe universe could be understood since there was no assurance that a God more rational than ourselves had instituted such knowledge.

2. The Christian Uniformity of Natural Causes in an Open System

The early Christian scientists that were foundational to the Scientific Revolution upheld uniformity in an open system. God has made a cause and effect universe. But the universe is open (not closed) and God and man are outside of the uniformity of natural causes. “In other words, all that exists is not a part of a total cosmic machine” (page 164). The cause and effect universe may be changed in its direction by God or by man (of course, God is ultimately sovereign over man). This makes place for the importance of God as well as man in the cosmos.

The Beatles – Revolution

Francis Schaeffer in his book HOW SHOULD WE THEN LIVE? noted:

But we may ask, “Isn’t science now in a new stage, one in which the concept of an orderly universe is passe?” It is often said that relativity as a philosophy as a world-view, is supported by Albert Einstein’s (1879-1955) theory of relativity. But this is mistaken because Einstein’s theory of relativity assumes that everywhere in the universe light travels at a constant speed in a vacuum. In other words, we must say with the utmost force that nothing is less relative philosophically than the theory of relativity. Einstein himself stood implacably against any such application of his concepts. We can think of his often quoted words from the London Observer of April 5, 1964: ‘I cannot believe that God plays dice with the cosmos.’”


Quoting further from Francis Schaeffer in HOW SHOULD WE THEN LIVE? Episode 7:

MAN IS ONLY A MACHINE, BUT THE MEN WHO HOLD THIS POSITION COULD NOT AND CAN NOT LIVE LIKE MACHINES. If they could then modern man would not have his tensions either in his intellectual position or in his life, but he can’t. So they must leap away from reason to try to find something that gives meaning to their lives, to life itself, even though to do so they deny their reason.

Once this is done any type of thing could be put there. Because in the area of nonreason, reason gives no basis for a choice. This is the hallmark of modern man. How did it happen? It happened because proud humanist man, though he was finite, insisted in beginning only from himself and only from what he could learn and not from other knowledge, he did not succeed….Aldous Huxley the English philosopher and writer proposed drugs as a solution. We should, he said, give healthy people drugs and they can then find truth inside their own heads. All that was left for Aldous Huxley and those who followed him was truth inside a person’s own head. With Huxley’s idea, what began with the existential philosophers – man’s individual subjectivity attempting to give order as well as meaning, in contrast to order being shaped by what is objective or external to oneself – came to its logical conclusion. Truth is in one’s own head. The ideal of objective truth was gone.

 With A Little Help From My Friends

The drug culture and the mentality that went with it had it’s own vehicle that crossed the frontiers of the world which were otherwise almost impassible by other means of communication. This record,  Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band, became the rallying cry for young people throughout the world. It expressed the essence of their lives, thoughts and their feelings. Later came psychedelic rock an attempt to find this experience without drugs. The younger people and the older ones tried drug taking but then turned to the eastern religions. Both drugs and the eastern religions seek truth inside one’s own head, a negation of reason. The central reason of the popularity of eastern religions in the west is a hope for a nonrational meaning to life and values.


How Should We then Live Episode 7 small

A Christian Manifesto Francis Schaeffer

Published on Dec 18, 2012

A video important to today. The man was very wise in the ways of God. And of government. Hope you enjoy a good solis teaching from the past. The truth never gets old.


Francis Schaeffer pictured below:


Francis Schaeffer “BASIS FOR HUMAN DIGNITY” Whatever…HTTHR

Francis Schaeffer ended HOW SHOULD WE THEN LIVE? Episode 7 with these words:

When we think of Christ of course we think of his substitutionary death upon the cross when he who claimed to be God died in a substitutionary way and as such his death had infinite value and as we accept  that gift raising the empty hands of faith with no humanistic elements we have that which is real life and that is being in relationship to the infinite personal God who is there and being in a personal relationship to Him. But Christ brings life in another way that is not as often clearly thought about perhaps. He connects himself with what the Bible teaches in his teaching and as such he is a prophet as well as a savior. It is upon the basis of what he taught  and the Bible teaches because he himself wraps these together that we have life instead of death in the sense of having some knowledge that is more than men can have from himself, beginning from himself alone. Both of these elements are the place where Christ gives us life.  

Francis Schaeffer on pages 178 to 179 of volume 1 THE GOD WHO IS THERE asserted:

I do not believe that there is a leap of faith needed; there are good and sufficient reasons to know why Christianity is true–and more than that, that is the Bible’s insistence. The Bible’s emphasis is that there are good and sufficient reasons to know Christianity is true, so much so that we are disobedient and guilty if we do not believe it.

The Christian system (what is taught in the whole Bible) is a unity of thought. Christianity is not just a lot of bits and pieces–there is a beginning and an end, a whole system of truth, and this system is the only system that will stand up to all the questions that are presented to us as we face the reality of existence. Some of the other systems answer some of the questions but leave others unanswered. I believe it is only Christianity that gives the answers to all the crucial questions.

What are those questions? The questions are those which are presented to us as we face the reality of existence. God shuts us up to reality. We cannot escape the reality of what is, no matter what we say we believe or think.

This reality of which I speak falls into two parts: the fact that the universe truly exists and it has form, and then what I would call the “mannishness” of man--which is my own term for meaning that man is unique. People have certain qualities that must be explained.

(Sartre pictured below)

God has shut up all people to these things, and I always like to go back to the statement of Jean-Paul Sartre, though he had no answer for his own statement, and that is that the basic philosophic question is that something is there. Things do exist, and this demands an explanation for their existence. I would then go beyond Sartre’s statement to one by Albert Einstein. Einstein said that the most amazing thing about the universe is that we can know something truly about it. In other words, it has a form that is comprehensible, even though we cannot exhaust it. And then I would say beyond that–no matter what people say they are, they are what they are, that is, man is unique as made in the image of God. Any system of thought, to be taken seriously, has to at least try to explain these two great phenomena of the universe and man. In other words, we are talking about objective truth related to reality and not just something within our own heads.

Now I would like to add a corollary to this: in WHATEVER HAPPENED TO THE HUMAN RACE?, and especially the extensive notes of the fifth chapter, there is a third thing and that is the way the Bible measures up to history. Once we say that, this is very exciting. It is very exciting because other religions are not founded in history, they are “out there” somewhere, or you can think of them as inside of your own head–whichever way you are looking at it. On the other hand, the Bible claims to be rooted in history. Whether we are considering the history of the Old Testament, whether we are considering the history of Christ, including the resurrection, or Paul’s journeys, it is insisted on as real history. So now we have three interwoven parts. Usually I have dealt with the twentieth-century person, but the third is also there. We have to face the reality of the universe and its having an existence and having a form. We have to face the reality in the uniqueness of man. We are able to discuss the fact that the Bible is rooted in history.

Francis Schaeffer has correctly argued:

The universe was created by an infinite personal God and He brought it into existence by spoken word and made man in His own image. When man tries to reduce [philosophically in a materialistic point of view] himself to less than this [less than being made in the image of God] he will always fail and he will always be willing to make these impossible leaps into the area of nonreason even though they don’t give an answer simply because that isn’t what he is. He himself testifies that this infinite personal God, the God of the Old and New Testament is there. 

Instead of making a leap into the area of nonreason the better choice would be to investigate the claims that the Bible is a historically accurate book and that God created the universe and reached out to humankind with the Bible. Below is a piece of that evidence given by Francis Schaeffer concerning the accuracy of the Bible.


(SEEN BELOW) Wikipedia notes: The Mesha Stele (also known as the “Moabite Stone”) is a stele (inscribed stone) set up around 840 BCE by King Mesha of Moab (a kingdom located in modernJordan). Mesha tells how Kemosh, the God of Moab, had been angry with his people and had allowed them to be subjugated to Israel, but at length Kemosh returned and assisted Mesha to throw off the yoke of Israel and restore the lands of Moab. Mesha describes his many building projects.[1]

We should take one last step back into the history of the Old Testament. In the previous note we looked first at the Dead Sea Scrolls, dating to around 100 B.C. Then we went back to the period of the Late Monarchy and looked first at the siege of Hezekiah in Jerusalem by Sennacherib in 701 B.C. and also at the last years of Judah down to about 600 B.C. Then we went further back to about 850 B.C., to Ahab and Jezebel, the ivory house, the Black Obelisk, the Moabite Stone and so on–then back again to about 950 B.C., to the time of Solomon and his son Rehoboam and the campaign by Shishak, the Egyptian pharaoh.

(the Black Obelisk pictured below)

This should have built up in our minds a vivid impression of the historic reliability of the biblical text, including even the seemingly obscure details such as the ration tablets in Babylon. We saw, in other words, not only that the Bible gives us a marvelous world view that ties in with the nature of reality and answers the basic problems which philosophers have asked down through the centuries, but also that the Bible is completely reliable, EVEN ON THE HISTORICAL LEVEL.

The previous notes looked back to the time of Moses and Joshua, the escape from Egypt, and the settlement in Canaan. Now we will go back further–back as far as Genesis 12, near the beginning of the Bible.

Do we find that the narrative fades away to a never-never land of myths and legends? By no means. For we have to remind ourselves that although Genesis 12 deals with events a long time ago from our moment of history (about 2000 B.C. or a bit later), the civilized world was already not just old but ancient when Abram/Abraham left “Ur of the Chaldeans” (see Genesis 11:31).

Ur itself was excavated some fifty years ago. In the British Museum, for example, one can see the magnificent contents of a royal burial chamber from Ur. This includes a gold headdress still in position about the head of a queen who died in Ur about 2500 B.C. It has also been possible to reconstruct from archaeological remains what the streets and buildings must have been like at the time.

Like Ur, the rest of the world of the patriarchs (that is, of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob) was firm reality. Such places as Haran, where Abraham went first, have been discovered. So has Shechem from this time, with its Canaanite stone walls, which are still standing, and its temple.

Genesis 12:5-9New American Standard Bible (NASB)

Abram took Sarai his wife and Lot his nephew, and all their possessions which they had accumulated, and the [a]persons which they had acquired in Haran, and they [b]set out for the land of Canaan; thus they came to the land of Canaan. Abram passed through the land as far as the site of Shechem, to the[c]oak of Moreh. Now the Canaanite was then in the land. The Lord appeared to Abram and said, “To your [d]descendants I will give this land.” So he built an altar there to the Lord who had appeared to him. Then he proceeded from there to the mountain on the east of Bethel, and pitched his tent, with Bethel on the west and Ai on the east; and there he built an altar to the Lord andcalled upon the name of the Lord. Abram journeyed on, continuing toward the[e]Negev.

Haran and Shechem may be unfamiliar names to us but the Negrev (or Negeb) is a name we have all read frequently in the news accounts of our own day. 

(Below is a painting of Abraham’s departure by József Molnár)

Negev Nuclear Research Center – Israel

The Negev – Israel’s Desert

Featured artist today is Allen Jones

Allen Jones (artist)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Allen Jones
Born 1 September 1937 (age 78)
Southampton, England
Nationality British
Education Royal College of Art
Alma mater Hornsey College of Art
Known for Sculptor, painter, artist, educator
Notable work Life Class (1968)
Chair (1969)
The Tango (1984)
Style Abstract expressionism
Movement Pop art
Awards Prix des Jeunes Artistes (1963)

Allen Jones RA (born 1 September 1937) is a British pop artist best known for his paintings, sculptures, and lithography. He was awarded the Prix des Jeunes Artistes at the 1963 Paris Biennale. He is a Senior Academician at the Royal Academy of Arts.

Jones has taught at the Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg, the University of South Florida, the University of California, the Banff Center School of Fine Arts in Canada, and the Berlin University of the Arts. His works reside in a number of collections; including the Tate, the Museum Ludwig, the Warwick Arts Centre and the Hirshhorn Museum.[1] His best known work Hatstand, Table and Chair, involving fibreglass “fetish” mannequins, debuted to protests in 1970.

Early life and education[edit]

“For my generation anyone who wanted to cut the mustard had to reckon withAbstract Expressionism…. I’ve never wanted to show the struggle involved in the making of the work, and to make it part of the painting the way it is with Pollock orde Kooning. That’s just not me; constitutionally I couldn’t abandon the figure. But I had to find a new way of doing it. Abstract Expressionism had swept everything away. You couldn’t go back to representing the figure through some moribund visual language.”
— Allen Jones in a 2014 interview[2]

Jones was born in the English city of Southampton on 1 September 1937. The son of a Welsh factory worker, he was raised in the west London district of Ealing,[2] and in his youth attended Ealing County Grammar School for Boys.[citation needed] Jones had an interest in art from an early age. In 1955, he began studying painting and lithography at Hornsey College of Art in London, where he would graduate in 1959.[2] At the time the teaching method at Hornsey was based on Paul Klee‘sPedagogical Sketchbook from the 1930s. While a student at Hornsey, Jones travelled to Paris and the French region ofProvence, and was particularly influenced by the art of Robert Delaunay.[3] He also attended a Jackson Pollock show at theWhitechapel Gallery in 1958, and according to Jones, “for me it was outside any known frame of reference. The scale, the ambition, the freedom. I felt like suing my teachers for not telling me what was happening in the world.”[2] He afterwards travelled to see the Musie Fernand Léger in the French commune of Biot,[3] and in 1959 he left Hornsey to begin attending the Royal College of Art.[4]

As one of the first British pop artists, Jones produced increasingly unique paintings and prints in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and in particular enjoyed combining different visual languages to expose the historical constructions underlying them.[5] According to Jones, about his early ambitions, “I wanted to kick over the traces of what was considered acceptable in art. I wanted to find a new language for representation… to get away from the idea that figurative art was romantic, that it wasn’t tough.”[2] He was part of a unique generation of students at the Royal College, among which his fellow students were R. B. Kitaj, Peter Phillips, David Hockney, and Derek Boshier, but was expelled from the Royal College of Art in 1960, at the end of his first year.[6] Explained by Mark Hudson in The Telegraph many years later, “horrified at the new developments brewing among their younger students, the college’s academic old guard decided to make an example of someone. They chose Jones.”[2] Dismayed, Jones signed up for a teacher training course and returned to his studies at Hornsey College of Art in 1960, graduating the following year.[4][7]

Art career[edit]

Early teaching and exhibits (1961–63)[edit]

Despite his expulsion from the Royal College, in January 1961 Jones’ work was included in the Young Contemporaries 1961 exhibit. The annual Royal Society of British Artists exhibition was described in the press as “the exhibition that launched British pop art,”[2] Young Contemporaries helped expose England to the art of Jones, David Hockney, R. B. Kitaj, Billy Apple, Derek Boshier, Joe Tilson, Patrick Caulfield, and Peter Blake, all of whom were variously influenced by American Pop.[8] Among his works, Jones entered several paintings of London buses on shaped canvases, which were afterwards put on display at the London West End gallery Arthur Tooth & Sons. One of the gallery’s directors then introduced Jones to the work of American pop artists such as Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein and Claes Oldenburg, which proved inspirational to Jones.[2] In 1961, he took a job teaching lithography at Croydon College of Art in London, where he would remain until 1963. Around this time, Jones was influenced by the works of writers such as Friedrich Nietzsche, Sigmund Freud, and Carl Jung.[3] According to Jones, his 1963 painting Hermaphrodite, depicting “fused male/female couples as metaphors of the creative act,” draws from both Freud and Nietzsche.[4] In 1963, Jones was awarded the Prix des Jeunes Artistes at the Paris Biennale.[3] The following year, Jones and other Nouveau réalisme and pop artists such as Peter Phillips and Pauline Boty were featured in documentaries by Belgian director Jean Antoine, Evelyne Axell‘s husband.[9]

Travel in United States and abroad (1964–69)[edit]

“[In New York City Jones] found a scene dominated by the ideas of the influential critic Clement Greenberg: that the essence of painting lay in the flatness of the canvas, in hard edges, in the painting as object. Jones wanted to create a new kind of art that conformed to those principles… but which retained the human figure. He found the imagery that would allow him to do that in the seedy bookshops of Times Square.”
Mark Hudson[2]

Intrigued by the “toughness” of American pop art, Jones moved to Manhattan in 1964 and took a studio at the Chelsea Hotel. In New York City, Jones recollects learning to “present what you were saying as clearly as possible,” and he developed an interest in making his images tangible.[2] For the year Jones remained in the city, he “discovered a rich fund of imagery in sexually motivated popular illustration of the 1940s and 1950s.”[4] According to Jones, about his art of the time:

Fetishism and the transgressive world produced images that I liked because they were dangerous. They were about personal obsessions. They stood outside the accepted canons of artistic expression and they suggested new ways of depicting the figure that weren’t dressed up for public consumption.”[2]

Among other projects at the time, Jones “worked on a three-dimensional illusionism with obvious erotic components.”[3] When Jones’ close friend Peter Phillips came to New York on a Harkness Fellowshipin 1964, for two years they spent much of their time travelling together throughout the United States.[3] Jones’ style continued to develop, and his 1966 painting Perfect Match “made explicit [his] previously subdued eroticism, adopting a precise linear style as a means of emphasizing tactility.”[4]

Prints by Jones (top left and bottom right corners) were included on the “multiples” prints by the xartcollection in the late 1960s.

In 1967, Jones’ work along with the works of artists such as Piero Gilardi and David Hockney were included in an exhibition for the wedding of Guglielmo Achille Cavellini‘s daughter.[10] The following year, when the xartcollection exhibition series was created in Zürich, Switzerland, Jones and artists such as Max Bill, Getulio Alviani, and Richard Hamilton were among the first to be included in the company’s “multiples.” Until it dissolved a few years later, the company’s philosophy was to make contemporary art available to a large public by industrially producing three-dimensional “multiples,” with several artists’ work included on each.[11] Jones was a guest lecturer at the Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg in Germany from 1968 to 1970, and in 1969 was also a visiting professor at the University of South Florida.[3] His 1968 set of prints, Life Class, was among his first works to incorporate elements of sculpture. Each print is made of two halves, the bottom being a realistic pair of women’s legs in tights, while the upper halves are drawn in a 1940s fetishist graphic style representing “the secret face of British male desire in the gloomy post-war years.”[5] About his further experimentation with sculpture, Jones has stated that “I spent so much time giving my figures that grabbable quality, I thought, why don’t I make them in three dimensions?”[2]

Hatstand, Table and Chair (1970)[edit]

“When I looked at what other avant-garde artists were doing with the figure there was always a kind of prop, something that let the viewer off the hook, that told them ‘this is a work of art’. I wanted to make a figure that was devoid of those props. There was an idea I’d seen in an adult comic strip where a person was used as a table, and that set off a whole host of resonances.”
— Allen Jones[2]

While living in the London neighbourhood of Chelsea in the late 1960s, Jones began working in sculpture.[12] His fibreglass sculpture Chair, which was completed in 1969, marked the start of a series of “life-size images of women as furniture with fetishist and sado-masochist overtones.”[4] The first three sculptures were each sculpted from Jones’ drawings, with Jones overseeing professional sculptor as he produced the figures in clay. The three female figures were then cast in plaster by a company that specialised in producing shop mannequins. Each of the original three figures was produced in an edition of six.[13]

External video
TateShots: Allen Jones, Tate Gallery

Jones first group of erotic fibreglass sculptures, of a Hatstand, Table and Chair gained international attention when exhibited in 1970. The works were met with strong protests for perceived misogyny, which succeeded in making Jones a “cultural hot potato”.[5] Laura Mulvey writing for Spare Rib magazine suggested the sculptures was inspired by latent castration anxiety. Almost a decade later, when they were put on display at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in 1978, they were attacked with stink bombs. Eight years later, on International Women’s Day, Chair was damaged by paint stripper while exhibited at the Tate.[6] According to art historian and curator, Marco Livingstone, writing in 2004: “More than three decades later, these works still carry a powerful emotive charge, ensnaring every viewer’s psychology and sexual outlook regardless of age, gender or experience.”[14]

The severe reaction from the art world, feminists, and the mainstream press after the sculptures’ debut would limit Jones’ exhibition career in England over the next several decades. When asked about their effect on his career, Jones was quoted stating “it’s collateral damage. I wanted to offend the canons of accepted worth in art. I found the perfect image to do that, and it’s an accident of history that these works coincided with the arrival of militant feminism.”[2] Roman Polanski, Elton John and Gunter Sachs all owned a piece at one stage, with one of the sets selling at auction in 2012 for £2.6 million. The sculptures have also been referenced in Stanley Kubrick‘s 1971 film A Clockwork Orange.[6]

Maîtresse and teaching (1973–1980s)[edit]

Taikoo Place, Hong Kong, showing HK Quarry Bay, Tong Chong Street, Allen Jones’ sculpture City Shadow I Security, pictured in 2009.

Jones, photographer Brian Duffy, and air brush specialist Philip Castle were commissioned to collaborate on the annual and often salacious Pirelli calendar in 1973, resulting in a unique edition that Clive James would later jokingly call “the only Pirelli Calendar that nobody bothered to look at twice”.[15] In 1973, Jones spent time as a guest lecturer at the University of California, Los Angeles, and after visiting Japan in 1974, the following year he toured Canada.[3] Jones designed Barbet Schroeder‘s 1975 film Maîtresse.[3] Starring Bulle Ogier as the professional dominatrix Ariane and Gérard Depardieu as her obsessed lover, the film provoked controversy in the United Kingdom because of its graphic depictions of sado-masochism.[16]

Dancers by Allen Jones, Hay’s Galleria in March 2011

By the mid 1970s, he was again focusing on canvas and painting, and among his notable works at this time were Santa Monica Shores in 1977.[4] Now at the Tate, the work was painted while he was a guest lecturer at the University of California, Los Angeles in 1977, and later that summer he was a visiting director of studies in drawing and painting in Alberta, Canada, at theBanff Center School of Fine Arts. Known for only very occasionally taking on commissions, Jones was commissioned to design a hoarding for Fogal, a hosiery manufacturer, at Basel station in 1978. The Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool held a large retrospective exhibition on his work in 1979, and the exhibit later travelled to the Serpentine Gallery in London. Continuing to travel, he was invited by the Berlin University of the Arts to be a guest professor from 1982 to 1983.[3] By that time, he had largely returned to “a playful stylisation in figure sculptures,” including The Tango in 1984, a life-size dancing couple made from steel plate.[4] In 1986, his work was included in the Venice Biennale‘s Art e Scienza exhibition, alongside artists such as Brian Eno and Tony Cragg,[citation needed] and that year he was elected as a Royal Academician by the Royal Academy.[17] Opened in 1987, Birch and Conran was the first art gallery in Soho, and their inaugural show featured British Pop artists such as Jones, Sir Peter Blake, Richard Hamilton, and Clive Barker.[citation needed] From 1990 to 1999, he served as a trustee at the British Museum, and in 2000 became an Emeritus Trustee.[18]

He has works held by the Cass Sculpture Foundation. One of which, the outdoor sculpture Temple from 1998, was

a response to the artifice of cultivated landscape… Jones sought to make a sculpture which used that artifice to distort scale and distance and to manipulate our perception of space. Jones’s interest derived from eighteenth-century landscape architects, who did this when introducing decorative buildings and follies into their schemes.[7]

Also, with the figure at top of the structure Jones uses “colour to introduce the notion of movement in the figure, with the alternate arms of yellow and green in diagonally opposing positions.”[19]

Recent exhibitions and holdings (2000s)[edit]

Sculpture by Jones, designed with Whitaker Malem.

Sculpture by Jones at Georgsplatz Hanover in Germany.

Jones continued his artistic activity into the 2000s, and among other projects he incorporated leatherwork by Whitaker Malem.[20] In recent years, Jones has increasingly become known for his large steel sculptures, many of which are abstract in nature and feature intertwining figures. A number of them were displayed in an outdoor exhibit in May 2015 at the Art in the Park event held by Lake Zurich.[21] His work is also included in a number of public and private art collections; three of his paintings are in the collection of the Centro de Arte Moderna of the Gulbenkian Foundation in Lisbon,[22] and he has pieces in the Ingram Collection of Modern British Art.[23]

In 2007, he was awarded an honorary Doctorate of Arts from Southampton Solent University.[18] He has had solo exhibitions at the Wetterling Teo Gallery in Stockholm and the Serge Sorokko Gallery. His works featured in the Pop Art Portraits show at the National Portrait Gallery in London, and had a dedicated room of watercolours, drawing and paintings at the Tate Britain. In 2008, he was given a dedicated watercolour room at the Royal Academy of Arts. In April 2013, his work was included in a major exhibition at the National Museum of Wales in Cardiff, titled Pop and Abstract, alongside work by artists like Peter Blake and Bridget Riley.[24] A parody of Jones Chair sculpture was part of a collection exhibited under the name Allen Jones Remake at the Venus Over Manhattan Gallery in New York in 2013.[25] An example of Jones’ 1969 Chair sculpture (as well as over fifty other works) remains at the Tate, which was acquired in 2014.[4][13] In November 2014, a retrospective on Jones opened at the Royal Academy of Arts, running until January 2015 in London.[26][27]

Artistic style and influences[edit]

Associated with the British Pop art movement of the late 1960s,[5] Jones is known for his work with lithography, painting, drawing, and sculpture. The Cass Sculpture Foundation wrote about Jones’ work that “on a flat canvas, painted forms appear sculptural and his three-dimensional works are painterly. He uses colour to describe form, at times with graphic precision, or conversely with an energy and freedom of gesture which is close to direct expression. Similar developments are evident in his printmaking.”[7] The Tate has described his output in lithography as “prolific,” writing that it “proved an appropriate medium for his graphic flair.”[4] Artists and pop fashion designers such as Alexander McQueen, Issey Miyake and Richard Nicoll have cited Jones as an influence on their own styles.[26]

Jones is known for incorporating erotic imagery into his works, including rubber fetishism and BDSM, and this sexuality has often been a focus of both art critics and the press.[20] Mark Hudson wrote in 2014 that Jones’ “subjects have included musicians, dancers and London buses, but in the popular perception his name is irrevocably linked to his peerlessly kinky fetish women, whether in two or three dimensions, with their machined surfaces and blank expressions – images that are as emblematic of classic British pop art as Peter Blake‘s Beatles paintings or Hockney‘s swimming pools.”[2] In a review on Jones’ career, Richard Dorment wrote in November 2014 that “you could argue that Jones’s work isn’t really about women; it’s about men and how they look at and think about women. Men use various strategies to neutralise or control desire. One is to fetishise the female body…[while] another is for the man to appropriate it.”[28]

Dorment further explains himself by writing that

turn to Jones’s paintings, and you see that he explores the theme of men transformed into women again and again. A man dancing with a woman becomes inextricably fused into her body; another trades trousers and brogues for stockings and heels, as he walks from one edge of the canvas to the other…

Dorment further opines that “the paintings… show men and women in sexual situations, but they are joyous and liberated and self-indulgent in a way that the lugubrious mannequins aren’t.”[28] Wrote Catrin Davies for Twin Factory in November 2014 about the show,

Jones’ paintings provide a little counterbalance to the implied misogyny of his sculptures. In these colourfully kitsch scenes he paints about power-play with cross-dressing inferences, of the dominate female, the submissive male, of the animalistic rituals of mating and the delicate interplay of coupling represented in the form of dance.[27]

Personal life[edit]

Jones lives and works in Oxfordshire, England.[2]



This autumn Christie’s auction house will be showcasing the Pioneers of British Pop Art in the first UK exhibition devoted to these international innovators since a touring show from Germany visited York in 1976. We’re taking the opportunity to introduce some of the fantastic early British pop artists, whose achievements have often been overlooked.

Christie’s head of postwar and contemporary art Frances Outred has said that early British pop art is crying out for serious appraisal, “What’s really interesting here is that it’s not like the British were second – they were the first. Britain invented the term Pop Art and it is now a global phenomenon which is known principally as an American phenomenon.”

The Christie’s exhibition, titled ‘Britain Went Pop!’, will show how British artists went on to influence the big American pop artists such as Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein, “As the Americans became more and more popular and strong it seems the Brits became a bit more shy and went more esoteric”, Outred explained.

Christie’s have been working with living artists such as Peter Blake and Allen Jones and the families of other artists to showcase over 70 works, many of which have not been since the 1960s, if at all. One of the earliest works will be a 1948 proto-pop art collage by Eduardo Paolozzi. Whilst the British pop artists were mostly men, the exhibition will also feature the work of two women artists, Jann Haworth and Pauline Boty, who were both innovators of the international movement.

Here’s an introduction to some of the renowned and lesser known British artists who led the way in the cutting-edge exploration of the paradoxical imagery of popular culture. Meet the forgotten women, the father, the godfather and the king of Pop Art…


Richard Hamilton is regarded by many as the father of Pop Art. His best known work was his 1956 collage ‘Just What is it That Makes Today’s Homes so Different, so Appealing?’, considered by some historians to mark the birth of the pop art movement.

Hamilton is credited with coining the phrase ‘pop art’ itself. In words dating from 1957, that are seen as prescient of the likes of Andy Warhol and Damien Hirst, he wrote, “Pop art is popular (designed for a mass audience), transient (short term solution), expandable (easily forgotten), low cost, mass produced, young (aimed at youth), witty, sexy, gimmicky, glamorous, big business.”

Hamilton hung out with the musicians of the Sixties; his silkscreen ‘Swingeing London’ shows Mick Jagger in the back of a police car and Paul McCartney asked him to design The Beatles’ ‘White Album’ sleeve. René Magritte andMarcel Duchamp were among his close friends and David Hockney and Peter Blake were among those he taught and influenced.


During the late 1950s, Peter Blake became one of the best known pioneers of British pop art. Studying at the Royal College of Art (1953-7), he was placed in the centre of Swinging London and came into contact with the leading figures of popular culture.

He came to wider public attention when, along with Pauline Boty, Derek Boshier and Peter Philips, he featured in Ken Russell’s ‘Monitor’ film on pop art, ‘Pop Goes the Easel’ (broadcast on the BBC in 1962). Blake’s art captured the effervescent and optimistic ethos of the sixties and reflected his fascination with icons and the ephemera of popular culture.

The ‘Godfather of Pop Art’ is best known for co-creating the sleeve design for the Beatle’s ‘Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band’ with fellow pop art pioneer Jan Howarth. Still creating exceptional artwork today, he continues to explore the beauty to be found in everyday objects.


Gerald Laing loomed large in the British pop art movement, helping to define the 1960s with huge canvases based on newspaper photographs of famous models, astronauts and film stars. His portrait of Brigitte Bardot is one of his most famous works.

Laing’s earliest pop art pieces presented young starlets or bikini-clad beauties bursting with sex appeal, capturing the excitement and exuberance of the 1960s. His work frequently commented on current events, such as the painting ‘Souvenir’ (1962), a response to the Cuban missile crisis which used a 3D effect allowing the viewer to see Khruschev from one side and Kennedy from the other.

At the end of his third year at St Martin’s (1963) he spent the summer in New York, having been given introductions to Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, James Rosenquist and Robert Indiana, all of whom were still on the brink of fame. Indiana employed him as a studio assistant and Andy Warhol became a friend and lifelong influence.


Allen Jones is one of the most renowned British pop sculptors. While living in New York (1964-5) he discovered a rich fund of imagery in the sexually motivated popular illustrations of the 1940s and 1950s. Henceforth, in paintings such as ‘Perfect Match’, he made explicit previously subdued eroticism. The full extent of his Pop sensibility emerged in sexually provocative fibreglass sculptures such as ‘Chair’ (1969), life-size images of women as furniture with fetishist and sado-masochist overtones.

In the late 1950s Jones studied at the Royal College of Art with David Hockney and R.B.Kitaj. He credits Richard Hamilton, Eduardo Paolozzi and the writer Lawrence Alloway for introducing him to new ways of thinking about representation. Living on the Kings Road in the 60s and 70s he witnessed the liberation of the body and socio-political situation that followed the austerity of the post war years. These things fed into his artwork and with the passage of time his sculptures now encapsulate the spirit of swinging London.


Pauline Boty was a founder of British pop art and the only female painter in the British wing of the movement. She has been described by the Independent as “the heartbreaker of the Sixties art scene.” In 1959, she entered the Royal College of Art (a year ahead of Boshier, David Hockney and Allen Jones).

Boty, who died in 1966 aged just 28, was a key player in the frenetic Swinging London social scene; she was reportedly loved by countless men including Peter Blake, she escorted Bob Dylan around London on his first visit to Britain, and was a dancer on ‘Ready Steady Go!’. Her work was, in the pop art manner, uncompromising, sensational, gaudy, and frequently explicitly sexual. Her rebellious art, combined with her free-spirited lifestyle, made her a herald of 1970s feminism.


Although Jann Haworth is an American born artist she spent many years living in England, moving to London in 1961 to study art history at the Courtauld Institute of Art and studio art at the Slade. She experimented with sewn and stuffed soft sculptures which often contained specific references to American culture, for examples her dummies of Mae West and Shirley Temple. Her use of soft materials was unprecedented at the time and she soon became an innovative leading figure of the British pop art movement.

Haworth married Peter Blake, with whom she created the iconic album cover design of The Beatles’ ‘Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band’. The original concept was to have The Beatles dressed in their new “Northern brass band” uniforms appearing at an official ceremony in a park. For the great crowd gathered at this imaginary event, John Lennon, Paul McCartney, and George Harrison, as well as Haworth and Blake all submitted a list of characters they wanted to see in attendance. Blake and Haworth then pasted life-size, black-and-white photographs of all the approved characters onto hardboard, which Haworth subsequently hand-tinted. Haworth also added several cloth dummies to the assembly, including one of her “Old Lady” figures and a Shirley Temple doll who wears a ‘Welcome The Rolling Stones’ sweater. Inspired by the municipal flower-clock in Hammersmith, West London, Haworth came up with the idea of writing out the name of the band in civic flower-bed lettering.


The Telegraph has declared Joe Tilson “the forgotten king of British pop art” He was one of the first in the group of young art stars to have a highly successful show in the Swinging Sixties (1961). “I was famous before the Beatles and Hockney,” Tilson says.

Following national service, he studied alongside Frank Auerback, Leon Kossoff and Peter Blake at the Royal College of Art. Part of the gilded circle, he made lasting friendships with Blake and David Hockney. He responded quickly to the emergence of pop art, adapting his earlier, highly formalised abstract language to the creation of objects reminiscent of children’s toys in their construction, bold colours and schematised imagery.

‘Britain Went Pop!’ will also be showcasing work by David Hockney, R.B. Kitaj, Colin Self, Clive Barker, Derek Boshier, Antony Donaldson, Jann Haworth, Nicholas Monro, Eduardo Paolozzi, Peter Phillips and Richard Smith.


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