FRANCIS SCHAEFFER ANALYZES ART AND CULTURE Part 24 BOB DYLAN (Part B) Francis Schaeffer comments on Bob Dylan’s words from HIGHWAY 61 REVISITED!! (Feature on artist Susan Rothenberg)

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Just like tom thumb´s blues (no direction home)

Francis Schaeffer has written extensively on art and culture spanning the last 2000 years and here are some posts I have done on this subject before : Francis Schaeffer’s “How should we then live?” Video and outline of episode 10 “Final Choices” episode 9 “The Age of Personal Peace and Affluence”episode 8 “The Age of Fragmentation”episode 7 “The Age of Non-Reason” episode 6 “The Scientific Age” , episode 5 “The Revolutionary Age” episode 4 “The Reformation” episode 3 “The Renaissance”episode 2 “The Middle Ages,”, and  episode 1 “The Roman Age,” . My favorite episodes are number 7 and 8 since they deal with modern art and culture primarily.(Joe Carter rightly noted,Schaefferwho always claimed to be an evangelist and not a philosopher—was often criticized for the way his work oversimplified intellectual history and philosophy.” To those critics I say take a chill pill because Schaeffer was introducing millions into the fields of art and culture!!!! !!! More people need to read his works and blog about them because they show how people’s worldviews affect their lives!

J.I.PACKER WROTE OF SCHAEFFER, “His communicative style was not that of a cautious academic who labors for exhaustive coverage and dispassionate objectivity. It was rather that of an impassioned thinker who paints his vision of eternal truth in bold strokes and stark contrasts.Yet it is a fact that MANY YOUNG THINKERS AND ARTISTS…HAVE FOUND SCHAEFFER’S ANALYSES A LIFELINE TO SANITY WITHOUT WHICH THEY COULD NOT HAVE GONE ON LIVING.”

Francis Schaeffer’s works  are the basis for a large portion of my blog posts and they have stood the test of time. In fact, many people would say that many of the things he wrote in the 1960’s  were right on  in the sense he saw where our western society was heading and he knew that abortion, infanticide and youth enthansia were  moral boundaries we would be crossing  in the coming decades because of humanism and these are the discussions we are having now!)

There is evidence that points to the fact that the Bible is historically true as Schaeffer pointed out in episode 5 of WHATEVER HAPPENED TO THE HUMAN RACE? There is a basis then for faith in Christ alone for our eternal hope. This link shows how to do that.

Francis Schaeffer in Art and the Bible noted, “Many modern artists, it seems to me, have forgotten the value that art has in itself. Much modern art is far too intellectual to be great art. Many modern artists seem not to see the distinction between man and non-man, and it is a part of the lostness of modern man that they no longer see value in the work of art as a work of art.” 

Many modern artists are left in this point of desperation that Schaeffer points out and it reminds me of the despair that Solomon speaks of in Ecclesiastes.  Christian scholar Ravi Zacharias has noted, “The key to understanding the Book of Ecclesiastes is the term ‘under the sun.’ What that literally means is you lock God out of a closed system, and you are left with only this world of time plus chance plus matter.” THIS IS EXACT POINT SCHAEFFER SAYS SECULAR ARTISTS ARE PAINTING FROM TODAY BECAUSE THEY BELIEVED ARE A RESULT OF MINDLESS CHANCE.

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Francis Schaeffer with his son Franky pictured below. Francis and Edith (who passed away in 2013) opened L’ Abri in 1955 in Switzerland.

How Should We then Live Episode 7 small (Age of Nonreason)

#02 How Should We Then Live? (Promo Clip) Dr. Francis Schaeffer

The clip above is from episode 9 THE AGE OF PERSONAL PEACE AND AFFLUENCE

10 Worldview and Truth

In above clip Schaeffer quotes Paul’s speech in Greece from Romans 1 (from Episode FINAL CHOICES)

Two Minute Warning: How Then Should We Live?: Francis Schaeffer at 100

A Christian Manifesto Francis Schaeffer

Published on Dec 18, 2012

A video important to today. The man was very wise in the ways of God. And of government. Hope you enjoy a good solis teaching from the past. The truth never gets old.

Francis Schaeffer “BASIS FOR HUMAN DIGNITY” Whatever…HTTHR

Ballad Of A Thin Man

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Francis Schaeffer noted:

I want to give you an illustration of the Theatre of the Absurd from the back of Bob Dylan’s record Highway 61 revisited. Language becomes junk but once you have finished you have had a communication. It is really the same as a drug experience. Let me read this:

Liner Notes

On the slow train time does not interfere & at the Arabian crossing waits White Heap, the man from the newspaper & behind him the hundred Inevitables made of solid rock & stone — the Cream Judge & the Clown — the doll house where Savage Rose & Fixable live simply in their wild animal luxury . . . . Autumn, with two zeros above her nose arguing over the sun being dark or Bach is as famous as its commotion & that she herself — not Orpheus — is the logical poet “I am the logical poet” she screams “Spring? Spring is only the beginning!” she attempts to make Cream Judge jealous by telling him of down-to-earth people & while the universe is erupting, she points to the slow train & prays for rain and for time to interfere — she is not extremely fat but rather progressively unhappy . . . . the hundred Inevitables hide their predictions & go to bars & drink & get drunk in their very special conscious way & when tom dooley, the kind of person you think you’ve seen before, comes strolling in with White Heap, the hundred Inevitables all say “who’s that man who looks so white?” & the bartender, a good boy & one who keeps the buffalo in his mind, says, “I don’t know, but I’m sure I’ve seen the other fellow someplace” & when Paul Sargent, a plainclothes man from 4th street, comes in at three in the morning & busts everybody for being incredible, nobody really gets angry — just a little illiterate most people get & Rome, one of the hundred Inevitables whispers “I told you so” to Madam John . . . Savage Rose & Fixable are bravely blowing kisses to the Jade Hexagram Carnaby Street & to all the mysterious juveniles & the Cream Judge is writing a book on the true meaning of a pear — last year. he wrote one on famous dogs of the civil war & now he has false teeth & no children . . . . when the Cream met Savage Rose & Fixable, he was introduced to them by none other than Lifelessness — Lifelessness is the Great Enemy & always wears a hip guard — he is very hipguard . . . . Lifelessness said when introducing everybody “go save the world” & “involvement! that’s the issue” & things like that & Savage Rose winked at Fixable & the Cream went off with his arm in a sling singing “summertime & the livin is easy” . . . . the Clown appears — puts a gag over Autumn’s mouth and says “there are two kinds of people — simple people & normal people” this usually gets a big laugh from the sandpit & White Heap sneezes — passes out & rips open Autumn’s gag & says “What do you mean you’re Autumn and without you there’d be no spring! you fool! without spring, there’d be no you! what do you think of that???.” then Savage Rose & Fixable come by & kick him in the brains & color him pink for being a phony philosopher — then the Clown comes by and screams “You phony philosopher!” & jumps on his head — Paul Sargent comes by again in an umpire’s suit & some college kid who’s read all about Nietzsche comes by & says “Neitzsche never wore an umpire’s suit” & Paul says “You wanna buy some cloths, kid?” & then Rome & John come out of the bar & they’re going up to Harlem . . . . we are singing today of the WIPE-OUT GANG — the WIPE-OUT GANG buys, owns & operates the Insanity Factory — if you do not know where the Insanity Factory is located, you should hereby take two steps to the right, paint your teeth & go to sleep . . . . the songs on this specific record are not so much songs but rather exercises in tonal breath control. . . . the subject matter — though meaningless as it is — has something to do with the beautiful strangers . . . . the beautiful strangers, Vivaldi’s green jacket & the holy slow train

you are right john cohen — quazimodo was right — mozart was right. . . . I cannot say the word eye any more . . . . when I speak this word eye, it is as if I am speaking of somebody’s eye that I faintly remember . . . . there is no eye — there is only a series of mouths — long live the mouths — your rooftop — if you don’t already know — has been demolished . . . . eye is plasma & you are right about that too — you are lucky — you don’t have to think about such things as eye & rooftops & quazimodo.

Notes By Bob Dylan

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Francis Schaeffer comments:

If you don’t feel dead there is something wrong with you. You really are dead. This isn’t the Theartre of the Absurd, but it is the same exact technique. Everything is killed, but don’t think for a moment that communication is dead. It isn’t. It is a tremendous tool for a communication after all the rational logical controls are down and out of the way. And all I can say is that the kids that listen to this stuff and have nothing to anchor to you can’t for a moment think that they aren’t infiltrated by this. So I would not tie this very closely to the Theartre of the Absurd.

The Theartre of the Absurd does smash normal communication, but it doesn’t smash communication. It throws wide open a first order experience to speak of destruction to give this vague idea of hope in other forms. Then it leads to pantheism.

Jean Arp (Hans Arp)
Jean Arp is associated with the DADA movement. His collages were of torn pieces of paper dropped and affixed where they would land. His use of chance is intended to create free of human intervention. “Dada,” wrote Arp, “wished to destroy the hoaxes of reason and to discover an unreasoned order.”


Collage with Squares Arranged According to the Laws of Chance


Random Collage


Torn Paper and Gouache

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Highway 61 Revisited

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Highway 61 Revisited
A photograph of Dylan seated in a blue jacket with a person standing behind him holding a camera
Studio album by Bob Dylan
Released August 30, 1965
Recorded Columbia Studio A, 799 Seventh Avenue, New York, June 15 – August 4, 1965
Genre Rock, folk rock, blues rock, rock and roll
Length 51:26
Label Columbia
Producer Bob Johnston
Tom Wilson on “Like a Rolling Stone”
Bob Dylan chronology
Bringing It All Back Home
(1965)
Highway 61 Revisited
(1965)
Blonde on Blonde
(1966)
Singles from Highway 61 Revisited
  1. Like a Rolling Stone
    Released: July 1965

Highway 61 Revisited is the sixth studio album by the American singer-songwriter Bob Dylan, released by Columbia Records in August 1965. Having until then recorded mostly acoustic music, Dylan used rock musicians as his backing band on every track of the album, except for the closing 11-minute ballad, “Desolation Row.” Critics have focused on the innovative way in which Dylan combined driving, blues-based music with the subtlety of poetry to create songs that captured the political and cultural chaos of contemporary America. Author Michael Gray has argued that in an important sense the 1960s “started” with this album.[1]

Leading with the hit single “Like a Rolling Stone,” the album features songs that Dylan has continued to perform live over his long career, including “Ballad of a Thin Man” and “Highway 61 Revisited.” He named the album after the major American highway which connected his birthplace, Duluth, Minnesota, to southern cities famed for their musical heritage, including St. Louis, Memphis, New Orleans, and the Delta blues area of Mississippi.

Highway 61 Revisited peaked at number three in the United States charts and number four in the United Kingdom. The album was ranked number four on Rolling Stones “500 Greatest Albums of All Time“. “Like a Rolling Stone” was a top-10 hit in several countries, and was listed at number one on Rolling Stones 500 Greatest Songs of All Time list. Two other songs, “Desolation Row” and “Highway 61 Revisited,” were listed at number 187 and number 373 respectively.

Dylan and Highway 61

In his memoir Chronicles: Volume One, Dylan described the kinship he felt with the route that supplied the title of his sixth album: “Highway 61, the main thoroughfare of the country blues, begins about where I began. I always felt like I’d started on it, always had been on it and could go anywhere, even down in to the deep Delta country. It was the same road, full of the same contradictions, the same one-horse towns, the same spiritual ancestors … It was my place in the universe, always felt like it was in my blood.”[2]

While he was growing up in the 1950s, Highway 61 stretched from Duluth, where Dylan was born, through St. Paul, and down to the Mississippi delta. Along the way, the route passed near the birthplaces and homes of influential musicians such as Muddy Waters, Son House, Elvis Presley, and Charley Patton. The “empress of the blues”, Bessie Smith, died after sustaining serious injuries in an automobile accident on Highway 61. Critic Mark Polizzotti points out that blues legend Robert Johnson is alleged to have sold his soul to the devil at the highway’s crossroads with Route 49.[3] The highway had also been the subject of several blues recordings, notably Roosevelt Sykes‘ “Highway 61 Blues” (1932) and Mississippi Fred McDowell‘s “61 Highway” (1964).[4]

Dylan has stated that he had to overcome considerable resistance at Columbia Records to give the album its title. He told biographer Robert Shelton: “I wanted to call that album Highway 61 Revisited. Nobody understood it. I had to go up the fucking ladder until finally the word came down and said: ‘Let him call it what he wants to call it’.”[5] Michael Gray has suggested that the very title of the album represents Dylan’s insistence that his songs are rooted in the traditions of the blues: “Indeed the album title Highway 61 Revisited announces that we are in for a long revisit, since it is such a long, blues-travelled highway. Many bluesmen had been there before [Dylan], all recording versions of a blues called ‘Highway 61’.”[6]

Recording sessions

Background

In May 1965, Dylan returned from his tour of England feeling tired and dissatisfied with his material. He told journalist Nat Hentoff: “I was going to quit singing. I was very drained.” The singer added, “It’s very tiring having other people tell you how much they dig you if you yourself don’t dig you.”[7]

As a consequence of his dissatisfaction, Dylan wrote 20 pages of verse he later described as a “long piece of vomit”.[8] He reduced this to a song with four verses and a chorus—”Like a Rolling Stone”.[9] He told Hentoff that writing and recording the song washed away his dissatisfaction, and restored his enthusiasm for creating music.[7] Describing the experience to Robert Hilburn in 2004, nearly 40 years later, Dylan said: “It’s like a ghost is writing a song like that … You don’t know what it means except the ghost picked me to write the song.”[10]

Highway 61 Revisited was recorded in two blocks of recording sessions that took place in Studio A of Columbia Records, located in Midtown Manhattan.[11] The first block, June 15 and June 16, was produced by Tom Wilson and resulted in the single “Like a Rolling Stone”.[12] On July 25, Dylan performed his controversial electric set at the Newport Folk Festival, where some of the crowd booed his performance.[13] Four days after Newport, Dylan returned to the recording studio. From July 29 to August 4, he and his band completed recording Highway 61 Revisited, but under the supervision of a new producer, Bob Johnston.[14]

Recording sessions, June 15–16

Al Kooper seated

Al Kooper’s improvised organ riff on “Like a Rolling Stone” has been described as “one of the great moments of pop music serendipity”.[15]

Tom Wilson produced the initial recording sessions for Highway 61 Revisited on June 15–16, 1965. Dylan was backed by Bobby Gregg on drums, Joe Macho, Jr. on bass, Paul Griffin on piano, and Frank Owens on guitar.[16] For lead guitar, the singer recruited Michael Bloomfield of the Paul Butterfield Blues Band.[17] The musicians began the June 15 session by recording a fast version of “It Takes a Lot to Laugh, It Takes a Train to Cry” and the song “Sitting on a Barbed Wire Fence”, which was omitted from the Highway 61 album.[18] Dylan and his band next attempted to record “Like a Rolling Stone”;[19] at this early stage, Dylan’s piano dominated the backing, which was in 3/4 time.[20] “Barbed Wire Fence”, the fast version of “It Takes a Lot to Laugh”, and an early take of “Like a Rolling Stone” were eventually released on The Bootleg Series Volumes 1–3 (Rare & Unreleased) 1961–1991.[21]

The musicians returned to Studio A the following day, when they devoted almost the entire session to recording “Like a Rolling Stone”. Present on this occasion was Al Kooper, a young musician invited by Wilson to observe, but who wanted to play on the session.[22] Kooper managed to sit in on the session, and he improvised an organ riff that, critics Greil Marcus and Mark Polizzotti argue, became a crucial element of the recording.[23][24] The fourth take was ultimately selected as the master, but Dylan and the band recorded eleven more takes.[25] After “Like a Rolling Stone” had been completed, he improvised a short unreleased song,[26] bootlegged under the title “Lunatic Princess Revisited”,[25] but copyrighted as “Why Do You Have to Be So Frantic?”.[27] Critic Clinton Heylin calls the song a “weird little one-verse fragment”, but claims that the riff is the blueprint of the singer’s 1979 evangelical composition, “Slow Train”.[26]

Recording sessions, July 29 – August 4

To create the material for Highway 61 Revisited, Dylan spent a month writing in his new home in the Byrdcliffe artists’ colony of Woodstock in upstate New York.[28] When he returned to Studio A on July 29, he was backed by the same musicians as the previous session, but his producer had changed from Wilson to Johnston.[29][a 1]

McCoy holding a microphone onstage

Nashville sessions musician Charlie McCoy’s chance visit to New York resulted in the guitar flourishes accompanying “Desolation Row”, the last track on the album.[30]

Their first session together was devoted to three songs. After recording several takes each of “Tombstone Blues“, “It Takes a Lot to Laugh” and “Positively 4th Street“, masters were successfully recorded.[31] “Tombstone Blues” and “It Takes a Lot to Laugh” were included in the final album, but “Positively 4th Street” was issued as a single-only release. At the close of the July 29 session, Dylan attempted to record “Desolation Row”, accompanied by Al Kooper on electric guitar and Harvey Brooks on bass. There was no drummer, as the drummer had gone home.[32] This electric version was eventually released in 2005, on The Bootleg Series Vol. 7.[33]

On July 30, Dylan and his band returned to Studio A and recorded three songs. A master take of “From a Buick 6” was recorded and later included on the final album, but most of the session was devoted to “Can You Please Crawl Out Your Window?” Dylan was unsatisfied with the results and set the song aside for a later date; it was eventually re-recorded with the Hawks in October.[34]

After Dylan and Kooper spent the weekend in Woodstock writing chord charts for the songs,[35] sessions resumed at Studio A on August 2.[36][37] “Highway 61 Revisited”, “Just Like Tom Thumb’s Blues“, “Queen Jane Approximately“, and “Ballad of a Thin Man” were recorded successfully and masters were selected for the album.[38][39][40]

One final session was held on August 4, again at Studio A. Most of the session was devoted to completing “Desolation Row”. Johnston has related that Nashville musician Charlie McCoy was visiting New York, and he invited McCoy to play guitar at the session.[30] According to some sources, seven takes of “Desolation Row” were recorded, and takes six and seven were spliced together for the master recording.[41]

The resulting album, Highway 61 Revisited, has been described as “Dylan’s first purely ‘rock’ album”,[42] a realization of his wish to leave his old music format behind and move on from his all-acoustic first four albums and half-acoustic, half-electric fifth album, Bringing It All Back Home. Documentary director D. A. Pennebaker, who filmed Dylan on his acoustic UK tour in May 1965, has said: “I didn’t know that he was going to leave acoustic. I did know that he was getting a little dragged by it.”[43]

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My favorite performance by Bob Dylan was when he played on this song below:

I pledge my head to heaven

Egypt.jpg (22417 bytes)

R-0153 Pledge My Head To Heaven (Keith Green) – Bob plays harmonica for Keith Green on this track from his gospel album So You Wanna Go Back To Egypt, Pretty Good Records, 1980

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Bob Dylan – Gotta Serve Somebody (Live)

Published on Feb 15, 2014

1998-10-29 Toronto, Canada

Songs

Side one

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In 2004, Rolling Stone magazine declared “Like a Rolling Stone” to be “the greatest song of all time”, and noted “the impressionist voltage of Dylan’s language, the intensely personal accusation in his voice (‘Ho-o-o-ow does it fe-e-e-el?’)” and “the apocalyptic charge of Kooper’s garage-gospel organ”.[44]

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Highway 61 Revisited opens with “Like a Rolling Stone”, which has been described as revolutionary in its combination of electric guitar licks, organ chords, and Dylan’s voice, “at once so young and so snarling … and so cynical”.[45] Michael Gray characterized “Like a Rolling Stone” as “a chaotic amalgam of blues, impressionism, allegory, and an intense directness: ‘How does it feel?'”[45] Polizzotti writes that the composition is notable for avoiding traditional themes of popular music, such as romance, and instead expresses resentment and a yearning for revenge.[46][47] It has been suggested that Miss Lonely, the song’s central character, is based on Edie Sedgwick, a socialite and actress in the Factory scene of pop artist Andy Warhol.[48] Critic Mike Marqusee has written that this composition is “surely a Dylan cameo”, and that its full poignancy becomes apparent upon the realization that “it is sung, at least in part, to the singer himself: he’s the one ‘with no direction home’.”[49] “Like A Rolling Stone” reached number two in the Billboard Hot 100 in the summer of 1965,[50] and was a top-10 hit in Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom.[51][52]

The fast-paced blues song “Tombstone Blues”, driven by Michael Bloomfield’s lead guitar, uses a parade of historical characters—outlaw Belle Starr, biblical temptress Delilah, Jack the Ripper (represented in this song as a successful businessman), John the Baptist (described here as a torturer), and blues singer Ma Rainey whom Dylan humorously suggests shared a sleeping bag with composer Beethoven—to sketch an absurdist account of contemporary America.[53] For critics Mark Polizzotti and Andy Gill, the reality behind the song is the then-escalating Vietnam War; both writers hear the “king of the Philistines” who sends his slaves “out to the jungle” as a reference to President Lyndon B. Johnson.[53][54]

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According to critic Andy Gill, “It Takes A Lot To Laugh” illustrates Dylan’s creativity, both in the way it adapts an old blues song, and in the way Dylan recorded two radically different versions of the song: the first, fast and guitar-driven; in his second version, released on Highway 61, Dylan transformed the song into a “slow, loping, piano-based blues”.[55]

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On July 29, 1965, Dylan and his band resumed recording “It Takes a Lot to Laugh, It Takes a Train to Cry”.[56] Tony Glover, who observed the recording session, has recalled that Dylan re-worked on the song at the piano while the other musicians took a lunch break.[57] Critic Sean Egan writes that by slowing down the tempo, Dylan transformed the song from an “insufferably smart-alec number into a slow, tender, sensual anthem”.[58] Gill points out that the lyrics reveal the singer’s talent for borrowing from old blues numbers, adapting the lines “Don’t the clouds look lonesome shining across the sea/ Don’t my gal look good when she’s coming after me” from “Solid Road” by bluesmen Brownie McGhee and Leroy Carr.[55]

Allmusic critic Bill Janovitz describes “From a Buick 6” as a “raucous, up-tempo blues”, which is played “almost recklessly”.[59] The song opens with a snare shot similar to the beginning of “Like a Rolling Stone”.[60] Partially based on Sleepy John Estes‘ 1930 song “Milk Cow Blues“,[59] the guitar part is patterned after older blues riffs by Robert Johnson, Charlie Patton and Big Joe Williams.[61] Robert Shelton hears the song as “an earthy tribute to another funky earth-mother”,[61] while for Heylin it is close to filler material; he argues that only through the musicians’ performance is Dylan able to “convince us he is doing more than just listing the number of ways in which this ‘graveyard woman’ is both a lifesaver and a death-giver”.[62]

“Ballad of a Thin Man” is driven by Dylan’s piano, which contrasts with “the spooky organ riffs” played by Al Kooper.[63] Marqusee describes the song as one of “the purest songs of protest ever sung”, as it looks at the media and its inability to understand both the singer and his work. He writes that the song became the anthem of an in-group, “disgusted by the old, excited by the new … elated by their discovery of others who shared their feelings”, with its refrain “Something is happening here/ But you don’t know what it is/ Do you, Mr Jones?” epitomizing the “hip exclusivity” of the burgeoning counterculture.[63] Robert Shelton describes the song’s central character, Mr Jones, as “one of Dylan’s greatest archetypes”, characterizing him as “a Philistine … superficially educated and well bred but not very smart about the things that count”.[61]

Side two

Polizzotti, in his study of Highway 61 Revisited, writes that the opening track of Side Two, “Queen Jane Approximately” is in a similar vein to “Like a Rolling Stone”, but the song offers “a touch of sympathy and even comfort in place of relentless mockery”.[64] The song is structured as a series of ABAB quatrain verses, with each verse followed by a chorus that is simply a repeat of the last line of each verse: “Won’t you come see me Queen Jane?”.[65] Gill calls this song “the least interesting track” on Highway 61, but praises the piano ascending the scale during the harmonica break as an evocation of “the stifling nature of an upper class existence”.[66] “Queen Jane Approximately” was released as the B-side of Dylan’s “One of Us Must Know (Sooner or Later)” single in early 1966.[67]

Dylan commences the title song of his album, “Highway 61 Revisited”, with the words “Oh God said to Abraham, ‘Kill me a son’/Abe says, ‘Man, you must be puttin’ me on'”.[68] As Gill has pointed out, Abraham was the name of Dylan’s father, which makes the singer the son whom God wants killed.[69] Gill comments that it is befitting that this song, celebrating a highway central to the history of the blues, is a “raucous blues boogie”.[69] He notes that the scope of the song broadens to make the highway a road of endless possibilities, peopled by dubious characters and culminating in a promoter who “seriously considers staging World War III out on Highway 61”.[69] The song is punctuated by the sound of a police siren. (On the album cover, Dylan is credited with playing “Police Car”.)[70] Highway 61 Revisited” was released as the B-side of his “Can You Please Crawl Out Your Window?” single on November 30, 1965.[71]

“Just Like Tom Thumb’s Blues” has six verses and no chorus.[72] The lyrics describe a nightmarish experience in Juarez, Mexico, where, in Shelton’s words, “our anti-hero stumbles amid sickness, despair, whores and saints.”[73] He battles with corrupt authorities, alcohol and drugs before resolving to return to New York City.[73][74][75] In this song, critics have heard literary references to Malcolm Lowry‘s Under the Volcano, Edgar Allan Poe‘s “The Murders in the Rue Morgue” and Jack Kerouac‘s Desolation Angels.[73][76][77] The backing musicians, Bobby Gregg on drums, Mike Bloomfield on electric guitar, and two pianists, Paul Griffin on tack piano and Al Kooper on Hohner Pianet, produce a mood that, for Gill, perfectly complements the “enervated tone” of the lyrics.[38][78] Heylin notes that Dylan took great care—sixteen takes—to get the effect he was after, with lyrics that subtly “[skirt] the edge of reason”.[36]

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Featuring a “courtly, flamenco-tinged guitar backing”,[79] it has been suggested that in “Desolation Row”, Dylan combined the cultural chaos of mid-1960s America with sepia-tinged TV westerns he remembered from his youth, such as Rawhide and Gunsmoke.[80]

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Dylan concludes Highway 61 Revisited with the sole acoustic exception to his rock album. Gill has characterized “Desolation Row” as “an 11-minute epic of entropy, which takes the form of a Fellini-esque parade of grotesques and oddities featuring a huge cast of iconic characters”. These include historical celebrities such as Einstein and Nero, the biblical characters Noah and Cain and Abel, the Shakespearian figures of Ophelia and Romeo, ending with literary titans T.S. Eliot and Ezra Pound.[79] The song opens with a report that “they’re selling postcards of the hanging”, and adds “the circus is in town”.[81] Polizzotti connects this song with the lynching of three black circus workers in Duluth, Minnesota, which was Dylan’s birthplace, and describes “Desolation Row” as a cowboy song, “the ‘Home On The Range’ of the frightening territory that was mid-sixties America”.[80] In the penultimate verse, the passengers on the Titanic are shouting “Which side are you on?”.[82] Shelton suggests Dylan is asking, “What difference which side you’re on if you’re sailing on the Titanic?” and is thus satirizing “simpleminded political commitment”.[82]

Outtakes

Eleven outtakes from the Highway 61 Revisited sessions have subsequently been released on the Columbia and Legacy record labels. The first proper non-album release from the sessions was the single “Positively 4th Street”,[83] although on an early pressing of the single Columbia used another Highway 61 outtake, “Can You Please Crawl Out Your Window?”, by mistake.[84] “Crawl Out Your Window” was subsequently re-recorded with the Hawks in October, and released as a single in November 1965.[34] Columbia accidentally released an alternate take of “From a Buick 6” on an early pressing of Highway 61 Revisited, and this version continued to appear on the Japanese release for several years.[62] Other officially released outtakes include alternate takes of “Like a Rolling Stone” and “It Takes a Lot to Laugh, It Takes a Train to Cry”, and a previously unreleased song, “Sitting on a Barbed Wire Fence”, on The Bootleg Series Volumes 1–3 (Rare & Unreleased) 1961–1991.[21] Alternate takes of “Desolation Row”, “Highway 61 Revisited”, “Just Like Tom Thumb’s Blues”, “Tombstone Blues” and a still different take of “It Takes a Lot to Laugh, It Takes a Train to Cry” were released on The Bootleg Series Volume 7.[33] Excerpts from several different takes of “Like a Rolling Stone” appeared on the Highway 61 Interactive CD-ROM,[85] released in February 1995.[86] Several other alternate takes of various songs were recorded during the Highway 61 sessions but remain unreleased,[87] as does the composition “Why Do You Have to Be So Frantic?”.[26]

Packaging

The cover artwork was photographed by Daniel Kramer several weeks before the recording sessions. Kramer captured Dylan sitting on the stoop of the apartment of his manager, Albert Grossman, located in Gramercy Park, New York, placing Dylan’s friend Bob Neuwirth behind Dylan “to give it extra color”.[88] Dylan wears a Triumph motorcycle T-shirt under a blue and purple silk shirt, holding his Ray-Ban sunglasses in his right hand.[88] Photographer Kramer commented in 2010 on the singer’s expression: “He’s hostile, or it’s a hostile moodiness. He’s almost challenging me or you or whoever’s looking at it: ‘What are you gonna do about it, buster?[89]

As he had on his previous three albums, Dylan contributed his own writing to the back cover of Highway 61 Revisited, in the shape of freeform, surrealist prose: “On the slow train time does not interfere & at the Arabian crossing waits White Heap, the man from the newspaper & behind him the hundred inevitable made of solid rock & stone.”[70] One critic has pointed out the close similarity of these notes to the stream of consciousness, experimental novel Tarantula, which Dylan was writing during 1965 and 1966.[58]

Reception and legacy

Professional ratings
Review scores
Source Rating
AllMusic 5/5 stars[90]
BBC (Favorable)[91]
Entertainment Weekly A+[92]
PopMatters (Favorable)[93]
Rolling Stone 5/5 stars[94]
Piero Scaruffi (8/10)[95]
Sputnikmusic 5/5[96]

In the British music press, initial reviews of Highway 61 expressed both bafflement and admiration for the record. New Musical Express critic Allen Evans wrote: “Another set of message songs and story songs sung in that monotonous and tuneless way by Dylan which becomes quite arresting as you listen.”[97] The Melody Maker LP review section, by an anonymous critic, commented: “Bob Dylan’s sixth LP, like all others, is fairly incomprehensible but nevertheless an absolute knock-out.”[98] The English poet Philip Larkin, reviewing the album for The Daily Telegraph, wrote that he found himself “well rewarded” by the record: “Dylan’s cawing, derisive voice is probably well suited to his material … and his guitar adapts itself to rock (‘Highway 61’) and ballad (‘Queen Jane’). There is a marathon ‘Desolation Row’ which has an enchanting tune and mysterious, possibly half-baked words.”[99]

In September 1965, the US trade journal Billboard also praised the album, and predicted big sales for it: “Based upon his singles hit ‘Like a Rolling Stone’, Dylan has a top-of-the-chart-winner in this package of his off-beat, commercial material.”[100] The album peaked at number three on the US Billboard 200 chart of top albums,[50] and number four on the UK albums charts.[101] In the US, Highway 61 was certificated as a gold record in August 1967,[102] and platinum in August 1997.[103]

Highway 61 Revisited has remained among the most highly acclaimed of Dylan’s works. Biographer Anthony Scaduto praises its rich imagery, and describes it as “one of the most brilliant pop records ever made. As rock, it cuts through to the core of the music—a hard driving beat without frills, without self-consciousness.”[104] Michael Gray calls Highway 61 “revolutionary and stunning, not just for its energy and panache but in its vision: fusing radical, electrical music … with lyrics that were light years ahead of anyone else’s; Dylan here unites the force of blues-based rock’n’roll with the power of poetry. The whole rock culture, the whole post-Beatle pop-rock world, and so in an important sense the 1960s started here.”[1]

Among Dylan’s contemporaries, Phil Ochs was impressed by Highway 61, explaining: “It’s the kind of music that plants a seed in your mind and then you have to hear it several times. And as you go over it you start to hear more and more things. He’s done something that’s left the whole field ridiculously in the back of him.”[105] In 2003, Rolling Stone magazine described Highway 61 as “one of those albums that changed everything”, and placed it at number four in its list of “The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time“.[106] The Rolling Stone list of “The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time” ranked “Highway 61 Revisited”, “Desolation Row” and “Like a Rolling Stone” at number 373,[107] number 187,[108] and number one, respectively.[44] In 2012, The Best 100 Albums of All Time book ranked Highway 61 Revisited as the greatest album of all time.[109]

Dylan playing guitar onstage

Having toured continuously since the inception of his Never Ending Tour in June 1988,[110] Dylan has performed “Like a Rolling Stone” more than 2,000 times in concert.[111]

Most of the songs on Highway 61 Revisited have remained important, in varying degrees, to Dylan’s live performances since 1965. According to his website, he has played “Like a Rolling Stone” over 2,000 times, “Highway 61 Revisited” more than 1,700 times, “Ballad of a Thin Man” over 1,000 times, and most of the other songs between 150 and 500 times.[111]

The influence of the songs on Highway 61 Revisited can be heard in many cover versions. “Like a Rolling Stone” has been recorded by artists including the Rolling Stones, on their live album Stripped,[112] David Bowie and Mick Ronson on Heaven and Hull,[113] Johnny Winter on Raisin’ Cane,[114] and Jimi Hendrix at the Monterey Pop Festival.[115] My Chemical Romance‘s version of “Desolation Row” was featured in the film Watchmen in 2009.[116] The song has also been covered by the Grateful Dead on their album Postcards of the Hanging.[117] “Just Like Tom Thumb’s Blues” has been recorded by Linda Ronstadt, Nina Simone and Neil Young.[75]

Track listing

The track listing of Highway 61 Revisited is as follows:[90]

All songs written and composed by Bob Dylan.

Side one
No. Title Length
1. Like a Rolling Stone 6:13
2. Tombstone Blues 6:00
3. It Takes a Lot to Laugh, It Takes a Train to Cry 4:09
4. From a Buick 6 3:19
5. Ballad of a Thin Man 5:58
Side two
No. Title Length
6. Queen Jane Approximately 5:31
7. Highway 61 Revisited 3:30
8. Just Like Tom Thumb’s Blues 5:32
9. Desolation Row 11:21

Personnel

The musical personnel on Highway 61 Revisited were as follows:[70][85][a 2]

  • Bob Dylan – guitar, harmonica, piano, vocals, police car noises
Additional musicians
___________________________________________________________

Featured artist Susan Rothenberg:

Susan Rothenberg: Emotions | Art21 “Exclusive”

Uploaded on Mar 26, 2010

Episode #099: Filmed at her home and studio in New Mexico, artist Susan Rothenberg explains how she transforms personal experiences and feelings into works that can become an “emotional moment” for the viewer. While discussing the loss of her dog, Rothenberg describes the process of recovering a memory of her pet through the act of painting.

Susan Rothenberg’s early work—large acrylic, figurative paintings—came to prominence in the 1970s New York art world, a time and place almost completely dominated and defined by Minimalist aesthetics and theories. The first body of work for which she became known centered on life-sized images of horses. Glyph-like and iconic, these images are not so much abstracted as pared down to their most essential elements. The horses, along with fragmented body parts (heads, eyes, and hands) are almost totemic, like primitive symbols, and serve as formal elements through which Rothenberg investigated the meaning, mechanics, and essence of painting. Rothenbergs paintings since the 1990s reflect her move from New York to New Mexico, her adoption of oil painting, and her new-found interest in using the memory of observed and experienced events (a riding accident, a near-fatal bee sting, walking the dog, a game of poker or dominoes) as an armature for creating a painting. These scenes excerpted from daily life, whether highlighting an untoward event or a moment of remembrance, come to life through Rothenbergs thickly layered and nervous brushwork. A distinctive characteristic of these paintings is a tilted perspective in which the vantage point is located high above the ground. A common experience in the New Mexico landscape, this unexpected perspective invests the work with an eerily objective psychological edge.

Learn more about Susan Rothenberg at: http://www.art21.org/artists/susan-ro…

VIDEO | Producer: Wesley Miller & Nick Ravich. Interview: Susan Sollins. Camera: Dyanna Taylor. Sound: Jim Gallup. Editor: Paulo Padilha. Artwork Courtesy: Susan Rothenberg.

__________________________

Susan Rothenberg: Bruce & the Studio | Art21 “Exclusive”

Uploaded on May 7, 2010

Episode #105: Susan Rothenberg describes the blend of studio time and ranch work that she shares with her husband, the artist Bruce Nauman, at their New Mexico home.

Susan Rothenberg’s early work—large acrylic, figurative paintings—came to prominence in the 1970s New York art world, a time and place almost completely dominated and defined by Minimalist aesthetics and theories. The first body of work for which she became known centered on life-sized images of horses. Glyph-like and iconic, these images are not so much abstracted as pared down to their most essential elements. The horses, along with fragmented body parts (heads, eyes, and hands) are almost totemic, like primitive symbols, and serve as formal elements through which Rothenberg investigated the meaning, mechanics, and essence of painting. Rothenbergs paintings since the 1990s reflect her move from New York to New Mexico, her adoption of oil painting, and her new-found interest in using the memory of observed and experienced events (a riding accident, a near-fatal bee sting, walking the dog, a game of poker or dominoes) as an armature for creating a painting. These scenes excerpted from daily life, whether highlighting an untoward event or a moment of remembrance, come to life through Rothenbergs thickly layered and nervous brushwork. A distinctive characteristic of these paintings is a tilted perspective in which the vantage point is located high above the ground. A common experience in the New Mexico landscape, this unexpected perspective invests the work with an eerily objective psychological edge.

Learn more about Susan Rothenberg at: http://www.art21.org/artists/susan-ro…

VIDEO | Producer: Wesley Miller & Nick Ravich. Interview: Susan Sollins. Camera: Robert Elfstrom & Dyanna Taylor. Sound: Jim Gallup & Ray Day. Editor: Paulo Padilha. Artwork Courtesy: Bruce Nauman & Susan Rothenberg. Special Thanks: Bruce Nauman.

______________________________

Susan Rothenberg

19 February – 11 April 2009

Susan_Rothenberg.JPG
© Susan Rothenberg
Red
oil on canvas
55 x 57 ½ inches / 140 x 146,1 cm

SUSAN ROTHENBERG

19 February 2009 through 11 April 2009

Sperone Westwater is pleased to announce an exhibition of ten new paintings by Susan Rothenberg.
In these new works on canvas, Rothenberg has created compositions with fragmented images of the body. Acting as surrogates for the human form, Rothenberg uses these disembodied puppet legs, heads and arms to demonstrate how the representation of the figure can be transformed into a study of space and form. Unlike other recent paintings in which much of the imagery was drawn from Rothenberg’s physical surroundings in the New Mexico desert, this new group of work uses the body as its primary subject. This series is the latest example of Rothenberg’s longtime ability to challenge and extend painterly conventions in her distinctive way of organizing pictorial space and her exploration of light, color, form and movement.
In these paintings, boldly colored shapes are juxtaposed against a textured and heavily worked white/grey/putty background – a technique that can be traced back to Rothenberg’s radical Horse Paintings of the 1970s. Although the shapes of body parts represented in these new paintings are familiar, all sense of narrative is lost by their dispersion across the picture plane and the composition as a whole becomes abstract.
Rothenberg’s first solo exhibition in New York in 1975, consisting of three large-scale painting of horses, was heralded for introducing imagery into minimalist abstraction and bringing a new sensitivity to figuration. Peter Schjeldahl called the show “a eureka,” stating that “the large format of the pictures was a gesture of ambition” and that “the mere reference to something really existing was astonishing.” Since then, Rothenberg has had numerous solo exhibitions and her work has been exhibited extensively throughout the United States and abroad. Her work is in the collections of over forty major public institutions worldwide. Recent important exhibitions include a retrospective at the Albright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York that traveled to Washington, D.C., St. Louis, Chicago, and Seattle (1992); a retrospective at the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo in Monterrey, Mexico (1996); a show of paintings from the nineties at The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (1999), and an exhibition of drawings and prints at the Museum of Art at Cornell University that traveled to The Contemporary Museum in Honolulu, and the Museum of Fine Arts, Santa Fe (1998-99). Forthcoming important exhibitions for Rothenberg include a group show titled “Paint Made Flesh” at the Frist Art Center in Nashville, Tennessee from 23 January – 10 May 2009, and a solo survey of twenty-five paintings presented by the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth and the Georgia O’Keeffe Museum in Santa Fe, New Mexico. “Susan Rothenberg: Moving in Place” will open at the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth (15 October 2009 – 4 January 2010), and travel to the Georgia O’Keeffe Museum in Santa Fe, New Mexico (22 January – 16 May 2010), The Phillips Collection in Washington D.C. (15 June – 30 September 2010), and the Miami Art Museum (15 October 2010 – 9 January 2011).
A catalogue with full-page color reproductions accompanies the exhibition. For more information as well as photographic images, please contact Maryse Brand at Sperone Westwater at (212) 999-7337, ormaryse@speronewestwater.com.

Susan Rothenberg

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Susan Rothenberg
Rothhorse2.jpg

Untitled (Horse) 1979
Susan Rothenberg’s painting
Born 1945
Buffalo, New York, U.S.
Nationality American
Field Contemporary art
Training Cornell University

Susan Rothenberg (born 1945) is a contemporary painter who lives and works in New Mexico, USA.

Background

Rothenberg was born in Buffalo, New York, in 1945. After graduating from Cornell University, she had her first solo exhibition: three large horse paintings, at 112 Greene Street Gallery, in 1975.

Style

Since the mid-1970s, Rothenberg has been recognized as one of the most innovative and independent artists of the contemporary period; in 2010, New York Times art critic David Belcher wrote that comparisons between Rothenberg and Georgia O’Keeffe had “become hard to avoid.”[1] From her early years in SoHo through her move to New Mexico’s desert landscape, Rothenberg has remained as influenced and challenged by her physical surroundings as she is by artistic issues and personal experiences. In addition to her earliest horse paintings, Rothenberg has taken on numerous forms as subject matter, such as dancing figures, heads and bodies, animals, and atmospheric landscapes. Rothenberg’s visceral canvases have continued to evolve, as she explores the boundary between figural representation and abstraction; her work also examines the role of color and light, and the translation of her personal experience to a painterly surface.

Rothenberg’s first solo exhibition in New York in 1975, consisting of three large-scale paintings of horses, was heralded for introducing imagery into minimalist abstraction, while bringing a new sensitivity to figuration. Critic Peter Schjeldahl called the show “a eureka,” stating that “the large format of the pictures was a gesture of ambition,” and that “the mere reference to something really existing was astonishing.”

Later career

Although best-knownt as a painter, Rothenberg has also made crucial contributions to the medium of drawing. On the occasion of her 2004 exhibition of drawings at Sperone Westwater, Robert Storr wrote, “…fundamentally, drawing is as much a matter of evocation as it is of depiction, of identifying the primary qualities of things in the world and transposing them without a loss of quiddity. This at any rate is what drawing has been for Rothenberg.”

Exhibitions

Rothenberg has had numerous solo exhibitions throughout the United States and abroad. Her first major survey, initiated by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, traveled to the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the Carnegie Institute, and the Tate Gallery, London, among other institutions (1983–1985). Recent exhibitions include a retrospective organized by Albright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo (1992–1994), which traveled to Washington, D.C., St. Louis, Chicago, and Seattle (1992); a retrospective at the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo in Monterrey, Mexico (1996); a survey of prints and drawings presented by the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University (1998); and Susan Rothenberg: Paintings from the Nineties at The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (1999). Rothenberg has been the recipient of the National Endowment for the Arts Fellowship Grant (1979), the Cornell University Alumni Award (1998), the Skowhegan Medal for Painting (1998), and Sweden’s Rolf Schock Prize (2003).

Personal life

Rothenberg married the artist Bruce Nauman in 1989.

Museum exhibitions

  • 1978 “Susan Rothenberg, Recent Work,” Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 20 May – 2 July (catalogue)
  • 1981–1982 “Susan Rothenberg,” Kunsthalle Basel, Switzerland, 3 October – 15 November; Frankfurter Kunstverein, Frankfurt, 7 December – 31 January; Louisiana Museum, Humlebaek, Denmark, 13 March – 2 May (catalogue); “Susan Rothenberg,” Akron Art Museum, Ohio, 21 November – 10 January
  • 1982 “Susan Rothenberg: Recent Paintings,” Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 14 October – 29 November (catalogue)
  • 1983–1985 “Susan Rothenberg,” Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California, 1 September – 16 October; San Francisco Museum of Art, California, 10 November – 25 December; Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, 18 January – 18 March 1984; Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 10 April – 3 June; Aspen Center for the Visual Arts, Colorado, 1 July – 19 August; Detroit Institute of Arts, Michigan, 9 September – 21 October; Tate Gallery, London, 21 November – 20 January 1985; Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, 26 February – 27 March (catalogue); “Currents,” ICA, Boston, April.
  • 1985 “Centric 13: Susan Rothenberg—Works on Paper,” University Art Museum, California State Center, Long Beach, 12 March – 21 April; Des Moines Art Center, Iowa, 21 June – 28 July (catalogue); “Susan Rothenberg, Prints,” Des Moines Art Center, Iowa, September – October
  • 1988 “Drawing Now: Susan Rothenberg,” Baltimore Museum of Art, Maryland, 23 February – 4 April
  • 1990 “Susan Rothenberg,” Rooseum Center for Contemporary Art, Malmo, Sweden, 30 June – 17 August 1990 (catalogue)
  • 1992–94 “Susan Rothenberg, Paintings and Drawings, 1974–1992,” Albright Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, 14 November 1992 – 3 January *1993; Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C., 10 February – 9 May 1993: The Saint Louis Art Museum, Saint Louis, MO., 27 May – 25 July 1993; Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, 20 August – 24 October 1993; Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, WA., 17 November – 9 January 1994; The Dallas Museum of Art, Dallas, TX, 30 January – 27 March 1994 (catalogue)
  • 1995 “Focus Series,” Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, VA, 18 February – 2 July
  • 1996–97 “Susan Rothenberg,” MARCO, Museo de Arte Contemporaneo de Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico, 4 October 1996 – 19 January 1997 (catalogue)
  • 1998–99 “Susan Rothenberg: Drawings and Prints,” Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 22 August – 25 October; The Contemporary Museum, Honolulu, HI, 15 January–14 March; Museum of Fine Arts, Santa Fe, NM, 21 March – 24 May (catalogue)
  • 1999–2000 “Susan Rothenberg: Paintings from the 90’s,” Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MFA, 18 November 1999 – 17 January 2000 (Catalogue)
  • 2009–2010 “Susan Rothenberg: Moving In Place,” Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, TX, 18 October 2009 – 3 January 2010

References

  1. Jump up ^ David Belcher, “Another Painter in O’Keefe Territory,” The New York Times, 8 April 2010.

Sources

  • Harry N. Abrams, Inc., published a major monograph on Rothenberg written by Joan Simon (Simon, Joan, Susan Rothenberg, New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1991).

External links

_______________

Susan Rothenberg

About Susan Rothenberg

Susan Rothenberg was born in Buffalo, New York, in 1945. She received a BFA from Cornell University. Her early work—large acrylic, figurative paintings—came to prominence in the 1970s New York art world, a time and place almost completely dominated and defined by Minimalist aesthetics and theories. The first body of work for which Rothenberg became known centered on life-size images of horses. Glyph-like and iconic, these images are not so much abstracted as pared down to their most essential elements. The horses, along with fragmented body parts (heads, eyes, and hands) are almost totemic, like primitive symbols, and serve as formal elements through which Rothenberg investigated the meaning, mechanics, and essence of painting. Rothenberg’s paintings since the 1990s reflect her move from New York to New Mexico, her adoption of oil painting, and her new-found interest in using the memory of observed and experienced events (a riding accident, a near-fatal bee sting, walking the dog, a game of poker or dominoes) as an armature for creating a painting. These scenes excerpted from daily life, whether highlighting an untoward event or a moment of remembrance, come to life through Rothenberg’s thickly layered and nervous brushwork. A distinctive characteristic of these paintings is a tilted perspective, in which the vantage point is located high above the ground. A common experience in the New Mexico landscape, this unexpected perspective invests the work with an eerily objective psychological edge. Susan Rothenberg received a fellowship from the National Endowment for the Arts and the Skowhegan Medal for Painting. She has had one-person exhibitions at Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; Dallas Museum of Art; Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, DC; Los Angeles County Museum of Art; Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis; and Tate Gallery, London; among others.

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