This outline below is one that I have found very helpful. It is by Tony Bartolucci


How Shall We Then Live?
Francis Schaeffer
Began: June, 2006 | Finished November: 2006

IV. Chapter Four: The Reformation
A. Two Movements
The High Renaissance in the south and the Reformation in the north must be viewed side by side.
They dealt with the same problems, but gave completely different solutions.
B. Forerunners
1. John Wycliffe (1320-84)
2. John Huss (1369-1415)
Huss further developed Wycliffe’s views on the priesthood of the believer. Huss was promised safe
conduct to speak at the Council of Constance, but was betrayed and burned at the stake on July 6,
a. The Bohemian Brethren
Founded in 1457 by followers of Huss. There ideas were spread by their emphasis on music and
hymns as well as their doctrines.
3. Savonarola
He drew large audiences in Florence between 1494-98. He has hanged and his body burned in the
square before the Florence Town Square.
B. Reformers
1. Martin Luther (1483-1546)
a. His 95 Theses (Oct. 31, 1517)
2. John Calvin (1509-64)
3. Zwingli (led Zurich to break with Rome in 1523
a. Henry VIII broke with Rome in 1534 – this was political but did open the
door for a Protestant England
C. Different Perspectives
The north was entrenched with Reformation thought while the south waslooking to man as the final
answer to life. The south was following Thomas Aquinas’ view that the mind of man was not fallen.
Humanists believed that man could think his way to solving all of life’s questions and problems. We
see this philosophy alive and well today.
1. This is Not to Say that the Reformation was Blind to all Progress
They learned from the Renaissance but filtered it through a theistic worldview. “At its core, the
Reformation was the removing of the humanistic disortions which had entered the church.” [page
D. How Humanistic Thought Showed Itself
1. Authority of the Church Made Equal to the Bible
2. Human Work was Added to the Work of Christ
3. After T. Aquinas Biblical Teaching and Pagan Thought were Synthesized
E. Erasmian Humanism
Erasmus only wanted partial reform. Farel disassociated himself from Erasmus because of this.
F. The Reformers Didn’t Have a “Nature vs. Grace” Problem
In their worldview there was meaning in the particulars and no universals vs. particulars dilemma.
Science and art were “set free” to operate under this worldview. Humanism, which focuses on the
individual, ends up leaving the individual meaningless. Bible = man made in God’s image.
1. The Rood Screen
In pre-reformation churches the people were separated from the altar by a high grill of iron or wood.
When reform came those screens were often removed and a Bible put in their place. Symbolic of sola
scriptura and the priesthood of every believer.
G. The Reformers and Art
They were not against art, but differentiated between cult images and genuine works of art that
exalted God. Many of the cult images were destroyed by their very donors who had come to faith
in Christ!
1. Lucas Cranach (1472-1553) Painted Luther and his Wife Many Times
2. The Reformation and Music
The Geneva Psalter was so lively that it was referred to as “Geneva jigs.” Luther was a superb
musician who placed a high priority on music in worship.
a. Reformation Composers
(1) Bach (1685-1750)
If there had been no Luther there would have been no Bach. Bach was a reformed believer who on
his score tributes to God such as “With the help of Jesus,” and “To God alone be the glory.”
(2) Handel (c. 1750)
3. Albrecht Durer
He was in the Netherlands in 1521. He heard a false rumor that Luther had been taken captive. In
fact, Luther’s friends had hidden him. Durer kept a diary in which he prayed that God keep Luther
safe (cf. pages 130-31). He wrote a letter to Spalatin in 1520 recommending Luther to him and
asking for the opportunity to “etch him in copper.” He also said that Luther has written more clearly
than anyone else in the past 140 years. He was probably thinking of John Huss (1369-1415). Durer
did many beautiful woodcuts and paintings.
4. Rembrandt (1606-69)
In 1663 he painted the “Raising of the Christ” for Prince Frederick Henry of Orange. A man in a blue
painter’s beret raises Christ on the cross. That man is Rembrandt himself.
To say that the Reformation depreciated or demeaned art is pure nonesense!
H. Jacob Burckhardt’s “The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy”
In his work (1860) he pointed out a crucial difference between the Reformation in the north and the
Renaissance in the south. Freedom was introduced in both locations. Yet, in the south it went to
license whereas in the north it did not. The reason being that the south’s Renaissance humanism left
man with no way to being for meaning to the particulars of life and no absolutes in morals. In the
north there was freedom restrained by the absolute values of Scripture.



This outline below is one that I have found very helpful. It is by Tony Bartolucci


How Shall We Then Live?
Francis Schaeffer
Began: June, 2006 | Finished November: 2006

V. Chapter Five: The Reformation, Continued
A. The Secondary Effects of the Reformation
We must recognize that the Reformation was not a “Golden Era” and that the reformers and the
church (and culture) they were influencing was far from perfect. There was a positive influence that
went beyond the church to the culture, including the arts and politics.
1. Gradual Political Freedom
a. There was Freedom w/o Chaos (something never-before seen)
b. Martin Bucer (1491-1551) and his Influence on Calvin
Bucer was a leader of the Reformation in Strasbourg. He had strong constitutionalist ideas that
influenced John Calvin greatly over in Geneva. Such was the Presbyterian model of church
government carried over into state government, recognizing such things as the need for an absolute
standard (the Bible) as well as limitations on powers in light of the sinfulness of men.
2. Later Political Ramifications
a. Samuel Rutherford (1600-61)
Rutherford was a Scot who wrote “Lex Rex: Law is King” (1644). This was an example of one of
many positive contributions Scotland made on England. In Lex Rex Rutherford contended that a
government must be based on immutable law (Bible) so that we could have freedom w/o chaos which
would result if decisions were made arbitrarily by sinful men. The exercise of rule by one man, or a
group of men, or by the 51% vote was doomed to failure as the whims of men are tainted by sin.
There must be a foundational absolute, biblical law, which forms the immutable foundation.
Therefore, one single individual could have a say and be right even if the majority disagree.
Rutherford’s work had great influence on the US Constitution. This was mediated through two
sources: 1) John Witherspoon, a Presbyterian and only pastor to sign the Constitution. 2) John
Locke. Rutherford emphasized the ideals of govt. by consent, separation of powers and the right
of revolution–all based on a biblical foundation. Locke didn’t have this foundation and based his
views on empiricism. But empiricismleaves no roomfor inalienable human rights which are universal
and not based on experience. Locke wished the results of biblical Christianity w/o having the
foundation of it. Thomas Jefferson picked up on this secularized form.
3. Places where the Christian Ideal Fell Short
a. A Perverted View of Race and the Misuse of Wealth
(1) Race / Slavery
Aristotle called a slave “a living tool.” Many Christians believed this lie and viewed certain people
as less than human because of their sin. Slavery was universal, however, and practiced by many
cultures. But this was no excuse for “Christian” nations. It must be kept in mind that many who
called themselves Christian were not in fact Christian and that God used genuine believers to
eradicate the slave trade, among them John Wesley – 1703-91 (who preached against slavery), John
Newton – 1725-1807 (who was a slave trader who jettisoned his occupation and spoke against it upon
coming to faith in Christ), Thomas Clarkson – 1760-1846 (the son of a Church ofEngland pastor who
spoke out against slavery and greatly influenced Wilberforce), and William Wilberforce – 1759-1833
(who fought against slavery in England and didn’t see the fruit of his labor until he was on his
deathbed in 1833 when a bill was passed in England abolishing slavery).
The USA failed in that it took longer to address this issue and do away with it once and for all.
However, groups such as the Reformed Presbyterian Church decreed as early as 1800 that no slave
holder be admitted to their fellowship.
(2) Wealth
The Industrial Revolution was a high point in this failure. There were many benefits of the growth
of technology and industry, but all-too-often those in England and America failed to remember the
Bible’s emphasis on caring for the less fortunate. The slums in London grew during this time and
children and women were exploited (cf. America’s early factories).
VI. Chapter Six: The Enlightenment
A. England’s Bloodless Revolution
England stands in contrast to France in this regard because England had a reformation base and
France did not. Voltaire was in exile in England (1726-29) and was impressed. France could not
reproduce what happened in England due to France’s humanistic, enlightenment base. The result in
France was a bloodbath that ended with the rule of Napoleon (1769-1821).
B. The Utopian Dream of the Enlightenment
This dream can be summed up with 5 words: reason, nature, happiness, progress and liberty. The
Renaissance humanism had blossomed into the Enlightenment.
1. The Reformation was Antithesis of the Enlightenment
They stood for 2 different things and that’s why they had two different results.
a. The Enlightenment in France
If these men had a religion it was Deism. Even during the “Reign of Terror” they held to their
utopian dream that men and society were perfectible. Voltaire sketched out four stages of history
with his being the apex! Voltaire was a skeptic who illogically complained of God’s lack of
intervention during the Lisbon earthquake of 1755.
In June 1789 the French Revolution was at its height. The members of the National Assembly based
their constitution on a humanistic theory of rights. On August 26 of that year they issued the
Declaration of the Rights of Man. For France, man became what for America was a Supreme Being
(the Creator that the USA based their Declaration upon 13 years prior). America had a Reformation
base, France a humanistic one. It took two years for France to draft a constitution (1789-91). It
failed within a year, the result being the Second French Revolution and a bloodbath.
b. Parallels
The American Revolution parallels that of the bloodless English, while the French Revolution
parallels that of the later Russian Revolution (with Napoleon and Lenin parallel to one another).
2. Communism’s Ideals
For communists, socialism is a step toward the ideal of utopian communism. However, this utopian
ideal always leads to repression.
3. Humanism and Absolutes
Humanism has no way to say that anything is right or wrong. For them, the final thing that exists,
the impersonal universe, is silent and neutral about right and wrong. For example, Marx’s Manifest
of the Communist Partycalled marriage a part of capitalism, or “private prostitution.” The family was
minimized. Later, the state decreed a code of family laws that were needed for the time. They were
an historical absolute for a limited time in history, utilitarian, not moral, in purpose.

HowShouldWeThenLive Episode 4









Featured artist is Tim Hawkinson

Tim Hawkinson


Tim Hawkinson is a master at conjuring both organic and inorganic materials into extraordinary objects that are uncannily like something entirely different.  Kitchen scraps, wizened Christmas trees, detritus blown by storms into his backyard and his own hair are just some of the materials he transforms into intelligent and amusing sculptures and photo-works. Importantly, many of Hawkinson’s objects use his own body as source material. Thumbsucker (2015), for example, is a two-part hanging sculpture of a moon and astronaut entirely made of casts of the artist’s lips and fingers.  Another work looks like a microscope, but the “lenses” were created by casting imprints of his skull or butt cheeks in resin.

Though Hawkinson’s work is playful and often humorous, he addresses some of the most serious issues of our time.  A number of works refer to current threats to our environment:  rising temperatures and sea levels, drought, and the carbon footprint of our most beloved consumer products.  Hawkinson is a visionary, a modern-day alchemist and provocateur, who sees the role of the artist in society as the person who asks the questions without answers.

Hawkinson’s solo museum exhibitions include the Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney; J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington DC, Power Plant Contemporary Art Gallery, Toronto, Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art, North Adams, and an exhibition organized by the Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati which traveled to five venues including the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, San Francisco. He was a featured artist in the PBS Art21 series in 2003, and was awarded a Guggenheim fellowship in 2015. Hawkinson’s tidal-dependent kinetic sound piece, “Bosun’s Bass,” was commissioned by the Exploratorium in San Francisco last year. His monumental sculpture, constructed from the demolished remains of the original downtown transit terminal, will be installed at the main entrance of the new Transbay Transit Center in San Francisco when it opens in 2017.

Courtesy of Hosfelt Gallery

Tim Hawkinson: Family Resemblance | “Exclusive” | Art21

Published on Jan 10, 2014

Episode #195: Filmed in 2013, Tim Hawkinson gives a tour of his sculpture exhibition at Pace Gallery in New York City. He provides insight into each artwork and discusses the variety of materials he used, such as resin and bronze casts of his body, pieces of his daughter’s old bicycle, and pine cones and palm fronds from his garden. Hawkinson made some of the works over time with his daughter Clare, a Girl Scout Brownie. “She has kind of given me ideas,” he says. Hawkinson named each sculpture in the exhibition after a different Girl Scout cookie, alluding to Clare’s involvement in his creative process.

Tim Hawkinson is known for creating complex sculptural systems through surprisingly simple means. Inspiration for many of Hawkinson’s pieces has been the re-imagining of his own body and what it means to make a self-portrait of this new or fictionalized body. Sculptures are often re-purposed out of materials, which the artist then mechanizes through hand-crafted electrical circuitry.

Learn more about the artist at:…

CREDITS: Producer: Ian Forster. Consulting Producers: Wesley Miller & Nick Ravich. Interview: Ian Forster. Camera: Ian Forster & Morgan Riles. Sound: Morgan Riles. Editor: Morgan Riles. Artwork Courtesy: Tim Hawkinson & Pace Gallery. Theme Music: Peter Foley.

“Exclusive” is supported, in part, by by the New York City Department of Cultural Affairs in partnership with the City Council; 21c Museum Hotel, and by individual contributors.

Tim Hawkinson

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tim Hawkinson
Born 1960
San Francisco

Tim Hawkinson (born 1960) is an artist from the United States of America who mostly works as a sculptor.


Hawkinson was born in San Francisco, California, and graduated from San Jose State University; in 1989 he earned an MFA at the University of California, Los Angeles.


Hawkinson′s work is mostly sculptural, ranging in scale from minute to huge. His themes include his own body (although some of his work could be called self portraiture), music, and the passing of time, as well as his artistic engagement with material, technique, and process. Some of his pieces are mechanized (the mechanism usually fully on view), or involve sound. His 2005 sculpture Bear is a part of the Stuart Collection of public art on the campus of the University of California, San Diego.

Hawkinson is renowned for creating complex sculptural systems through surprisingly simple means. His installation “Überorgan”—a stadium-size, fully automated bagpipe—was pieced together from bits of electrical hardware and several miles of inflated plastic sheeting. Hawkinson’s fascination with music and notation can also be seen in “Pentecost,” a work in which the artist tuned cardboard tubes and assembled them in the shape of a giant tree. On this tree the artist placed twelve life-size robotic replicas of himself, and programmed them to beat out hymns at humorously irregular intervals. The source of inspiration for many of Hawkinson’s pieces has been the re-imagining of his own body and what it means to make a self-portrait of this new or fictionalized body. In 1997 the artist created an exacting, two-inch tall skeleton of a bird from his own fingernail parings, and later made a feather and egg from his own hair. Believable even at a close distance, these works reveal Hawkinson’s attention to detail as well as his obsession with life, death, and the passage of time.


Hawkinson has participated in numerous exhibitions in the United States and abroad, including the Venice Biennale (1999), the Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art, (2000), the Power Plant in Toronto, Canada (2000), the Whitney Biennial (2002), and the 2003 Corcoran Biennial in Washington, D.C. Tim Hawkinson resides in Los Angeles with his wife.

A 2009 exhibition of new works included sculptures crafted from eggshells and a life-sized motorcycle constructed out of feathers. It was on view from May 8 through July  4, 2009 at The Pace Gallery, New York (32 East 57th Street). Hawkinson has been represented by The Pace Gallery since 2005.

Solo exhibitions[edit]

  • Whitney Museum of American Art, New York. February 11 – May 29, 2005.[1]
  • Los Angeles County Museum of Art. June 26 – September 5, 2005.[2]
  • J. Paul Getty Museum. March 6, 2007 – September 9, 2007
  • Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney, Australia. 2008


  1. Jump up^ Archived from the original on January 10, 2009. Retrieved January 17, 2009. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. Jump up^ Tim Hawkinson—June 26–August 28, 2005., retrieved February 20, 2011
  • Lawrence Rinder. 2005, Tim Hawkinson (Whitney Museum of American Art)

External links[edit]







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