FRANCIS SCHAEFFER ANALYZES ART AND CULTURE PART 145 PHILOSOPHER AND 1972 LIBERTARIAN PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE JOHN HOSPERS Part A, this post includes portion of 6-2-94 letter from Hospers to me blasting Christian Evangelicalism, (Featured artist is Roxy Paine)

I have enjoyed doing this series of posts on John Hospers because he was a very interesting philosopher. I had been deeply influenced in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s by Milton Friedman and I knew that John Hospers had been a close friend of Ayn Rand and the first Libertarian Presidential Candidate in 1972 so I was drawn to his writings.

I sent a cassette tape of Adrian Rogers on Evolution to John Hospers in May of 1994 which was the 10th anniversary of Francis Schaeffer’s passing and I promptly received a typed two page response from Dr. John Hospers. Dr. Hospers had both read my letter and all the inserts plus listened to the whole sermon and had some very angry responses. If you would like to hear the sermon from Adrian Rogers and read the transcript then refer to my earlier post at this link.  Over the last few weeks I have posted  portions of Dr. Hospers’ letter and portions of the cassette tape that he listened to back in 1994, but today I want  to look at some other comments made on that cassette tape that John Hospers listened to and I will also post a few comments that Dr. Hospers made in that 2 page letter.


John Hospers Looks Back at His Career


Hospers on his friendship with Ayn Rand

John Hospers

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“Hospers” redirects here. For the community in the midwestern United States, see Hospers, Iowa.
John Hospers
John Hospers 1998.jpg

Hospers in 1998
Personal details
Born June 9, 1918
Pella, Iowa, U.S.
Died June 12, 2011 (aged 93)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Political party Libertarian
Alma mater Central College, Iowa
University of Iowa
Columbia University

John Hospers (June 9, 1918 – June 12, 2011)[1] was an American philosopher and politician. In 1972 he became the first presidential candidate of the Libertarian Party, and was the only minor party candidate to receive an electoral vote in that year’s U.S. presidential election, and also the most recent third-party candidate to receive an electoral vote (although there have been incidents of faithless electors since then).[2]

Education and career[edit]

John Hospers was born on June 9, 1918 in Pella, Iowa, the son of Dena Helena (Verhey) and John De Gelder Hospers. He graduated from Central College. Hospers earned advanced degrees from the University of Iowa and Columbia University. He conducted research, wrote, and taught in areas of philosophy, including aesthetics and ethics. He taught philosophy at Brooklyn College and at the University of Southern California, where for many years he was chairman of the philosophy department and professor emeritus.[3]

In 2002, an hour-long video about Hospers’ life, work, and philosophy was released by the Liberty Fund of Indianapolis, as part of its Classics of Liberty series.[4]


Hospers’ books include:[5]

  • Meaning and Truth in the Arts (1946)
  • Introductory Readings in Aesthetics (1969)
  • Artistic Expression (1971)
  • Libertarianism – A Political Philosophy for Tomorrow (1971)
  • Understanding the Arts (1982)
  • Law and the Market (1985)
  • Human Conduct (now in its 3rd edition, 1995)
  • An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis (now in the 4th edition, 1996)

Hospers was editor of three anthologies, and contributed to books edited by others. He wrote more than 100 articles in various scholarly and popular journals.[6]

Hospers was editor of The Personalist (1968–1982) and The Monist (1982–1992),[5] and was a senior editor at Liberty magazine.[7]

Image result for john hospers ayn rand

Friendship with Ayn Rand[edit]

During the period he taught philosophy at Brooklyn College, Hospers was very interested in Objectivism. He appeared on radio shows with Ayn Rand, and devoted considerable attention to her ideas in his ethics textbook Human Conduct.[8]

According to Rand’s biographer, Barbara Branden, Hospers met Rand when she addressed the student body at Brooklyn College. They became friends, and had lengthy philosophical conversations. Rand’s discussions with Hospers contributed to her decision to write nonfiction. Hospers read Atlas Shrugged (1957), which he considered an aesthetic triumph.[9] Although Hospers became convinced of the validity of Rand’s moral and political views, he disagreed with her about issues of epistemology, the subject of their extensive correspondence.[10] Rand broke with Hospers after he criticized her talk on “Art and Sense of Life“, before the American Society of Aesthetics at Harvard.[11]

1972 presidential candidacy[edit]

In the 1972 U.S. Presidential election, Hospers and Tonie Nathan were the first presidential and vice-presidential nominees, respectively, of the newly formed Libertarian Party.[5] The Libertarian Party was poorly organized, and Hospers and Nathan managed to get on the ballot in only two states[12] (Washington and Colorado), receiving 3,674 popular votes.[13]

Hospers and Nathan received one electoral vote from faithless elector Roger MacBride, a Republican from Virginia, resulting in Nathan becoming the first woman to receive an electoral vote in a United States presidential election.[12][14]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Party political offices
First Libertarian nominee for President of the United States
Succeeded by
Roger MacBride


Here is a quote from June 2, 1994 letter from John Hospers:

How we got here seems to me less important than what we do with our lives now that we’re here; but for some reason your preacher-friend (Adrian Rogers) finds it important to try to demolish (quite unsuccessfully) a scientific theory that has received lots of confirmation from every scientific quarter during the last 1 1/2 centuries. 


During the 1990′s I actually made it a practice to write famous atheists and scientists that were mentioned by Adrian Rogers and Francis Schaeffer and challenge them with the evidence for the Bible’s historicity and the claims of the gospel. Usually I would send them a cassette tape of Adrian Rogers’ messages “6 reasons I know the Bible is True,” “The Final Judgement,” “Who is Jesus?” and the message by Bill Elliff, “How to get a pure heart.”  I would also send them printed material from the works of Francis Schaeffer and a personal apologetic letter from me addressing some of the issues in their work. My second cassette tape that I sent to both Antony Flew and George Wald was Adrian Rogers’ sermon on evolution and here below you can watch that very sermon on You Tube.   Carl Sagan also took time to correspond with me about a year before he died. 

(Francis Schaeffer pictured below)

Image result for francis schaeffer

Adrian Rogers pictured below

I have posted on Adrian Rogers’ messages on Evolution before but here is a complete message on it.

Evolution: Fact of Fiction? By Adrian Rogers

Colossians chapter 1—before I tell you what I don’t believe, let me tell you what I do
believe. I can give it to you in a few verses, with gratefulness. I want to join the Apostle Paul in saying, “Giving thanks unto the Father, which hath made us meet to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light: who hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us into the kingdom of his dear Son: in whom we have redemption through his blood, even the forgiveness of sins: who”—this is Jesus—“is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature: for by him”—that is, “by Jesus”—“were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him: and he is before all things, and by him all things consist” (Colossians 1:12–17). Can you say amen to that? Friend, that’s my faith. Without any stutter, stammer, apology, or fear of contradiction from above, that is what I believe.

The big question is this: Did God make man, or did man make God? That is, is man in the image of God, or is God in the imagination of man? Is man just an animal, just a clever creature? Did mankind come up here, somehow accidentally, and spontaneously? Did we all arrive from prehistoric slime? Well, if you go to public schools, that’s what you’re going to learn.

(Adrian Rogers pictured below with Bear Bryant)

Time Magazine carried an ad for the Time-Life Book Series. Now, the Time-Life Book Series is called The Emergence of Man. I want to read that advertisement to you. And, by the way, this book, The Emergence of Man, is found in almost all public libraries, and it’s found in most of our public schools—elementary and junior high schools, that is. So, let me read from the ad that is common fare in the public libraries and public schools. Here’s the ad—and I quote: “Today, that creature who first began to raise himself above other animals no longer exists. He has become unique, set apart from the two million other species living on the planet by a thumb that makes your hand a precision tool, by a means that locks you into a comfortable upright position, and by your capacity for abstract thought and speech.” You see, that’s what they say differentiates you from an ape or some other creature. And then, they go on to say: “All of this and more has enabled your species to dominate the earth and let you share with every other creature that ever lived the same origin.”

Now, listen to this: “The same accident that led to the spontaneous generation of the first-celled slimy algae, 3½ billion years ago.” It’s always interesting to me how they know these dates—“3½ billion years ago.” Then, they ask, in this advertisement: “How did it all happen? What was the evolutionary process that led man and his conquest of a harsh and hostile environment? You will find the amazing story in Time-Life Books’ new series, The Emergence of Man. You will feel a sense of immediacy, invisible adventure, in incredible lifelike, pictorial, technical photo painting.”

Now, I want you to listen to that phrase, “You will feel a sense of immediacy, invisible adventure, in incredible lifelike, pictorial, technical photo painting.” I mean, you look at it; you say, “Wow, here are the pictures. Just look at that! They all have pictures. Here are the ape-men. We can see them progressing. And, there’s the lifelike, technical photo painting of these creatures.”
Well, just what is evolution, anyway? Darwin wrote his book, The Origin of the Species. And, he was a famous evolutionist—the father of evolution. And, he says this, on page 23—Darwin says this: “Analogy would lead me to the belief that all animals and plants are descended from some one prototype. All organisms start from a common origin. From some low and intermediate forms both animals and plants have been developed. All organic things which have ever lived on Earth may be descended from some one primordial form.”

(Charles Darwin)

Now, what is the primary tool of evolution? Well, the primary tools of the evolutionary process, according to Darwin, are two things: One is mutation—that things keep changing; and then, next, natural selection, which has led to the survival of the fittest. And so, over billions of years, we see man—who starts out as some primordial ooze, slime—and, he becomes primitive protozoa. Somehow—magically, accidentally, mysteriously—non-organic matter, nonliving matter, gains a spark of life; and, you get a one-celled organism, a protozoa. And, given a few billion years, that becomes an un¬segmented worm. You didn’t know you were once a worm? And then, that un¬segmented worm becomes a fish. And then, that fish becomes an amphibian. And then, that amphibian becomes a reptile. And then, that reptile becomes a bird. And then, that, bird becomes a mammal. And, somehow, that mammal turns into man.

Now, here’s what they were asked to believe, and here’s what, in public schools, you must be taught: that nothing plus time plus chance changes amoebas to astronauts, molecules to monkeys, and then to man. Now, friend, I submit to you—and I’m not really trying to be funny—that is a fairy tale for adults. They believe that time plus chance can turn frogs into princes. The late great Dr. W. A. Criswell used to quote a little poem: Once I was a tadpole beginning to begin.

Then I was a frog with my tail tucked in.
Then I was a monkey in a banyan tree.
And now I am a professor with a Ph.D. (author unknown) That’s what they believe.

I. Three Reasons Why I Reject Evolution

Now, I want to say again, that I wholeheartedly reject this monkey mythology. And, I don’t want to be convoluted; I want to be very simple. I want to give you three basic reasons why I reject evolution.

A. Logical Reasons

First of all, I reject evolution for logical reasons—I reject it for logical reasons. Now, don’t get the idea that you have to check your brain behind the door not to believe in evolution. Many intelligent and well-trained scientists—listen to me—are moving away from this theory, and it is not necessarily because they are Bible believers; it is because of the lack of evidence for evolution. And, many of our kids are only hearing one side of the story.

Let me tell you what some scientists,not Baptist preachers, are saying—but some well-known, respected scientists like Dr. Newton Tahmisian, a physiologist for the Atomic Energy Commission. Here’s what he stated—and I’m quoting him: “Scientists who go about teaching that evolution is a fact of life are great con-men, and the story they are telling may be the greatest hoax ever. In explaining evolution, we do not have one iota of fact”—“In explaining evolution, we do not have one iota of fact.” That’s an eminent scientist who says that.

Robert Etheridge of the British Museum noted,  “In all this great museum there is not a particle of evidence of transmutation of species. Nine-tenths of the talk of evolutionists is sheer nonsense, not founded on observation and wholly unsupported by fact. This museum is full of proofs of the utter falsity of their views.”

(In my effort to look up Robert Etheridge I found that according to Wikipedia Robert Etheridge Jr (23 May 1847 – 4 January 1920)  was educated at the Royal School of Mines, London, under Thomas Huxley, and was trained as a palaeontologist by his father.)

Let me quote you another. Sir Ambrose Fleming (1849-1949), president of the Philosophical Society of Great Britain, explained this—again, I quote: “The evolutional theory is purely the product of the imagination.” Now, this is a scientist—not an ordinary scientist, an extraordinary one—the president—the president—of the Philosophical Society of Great Britain.

The late president of the Royal College of Surgeons in Great Britain, a leading British surgeon, Dr. Cecil Wakeley (1892-1979) has said this—listen: “When I was a medical student, I was taught the theory of evolution, but I never believed it.” Now, this is a leading scientist and surgeon.

Swedish embryologist, Dr. Søren Løvtrup, wrote this—I want you to listen to this quote: “I believe that, one day, the Darwinian myth will be ranked the greatest deceit in the history of science. When this happens, many people will pose the question, ‘How did this ever happen?’” Now again, I want to remind you this is not some Bible-thumping preacher. I have nothing against Bible-thumping preachers, which I happen to be one. But, that’s not who’s saying this. This is an embryologist of no mean repute. (Løvtrup, Søren, 1987, Darwinism: The Refutation of a Myth, p.422, London: Croom and Helm).

Don’t get the idea that it’s just evangelical Christians—fundamentalists—who refuse evolution. Many of the greatest scientists who’ve ever lived in the past were creationists. Let me name some of them. This is the “Hall of Fame” in science: Michael Faraday, Lord Kelvin, Joseph Lister, Louis Pasteur, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Sir William Ramsey, Lord Francis Bacon, Samuel Morris. And, we could name others. All of these men were great scientists, and all of them were creationists.


Roxy Paine – Kansas City Public Television

Uploaded on Mar 10, 2011

Roxy Paine’s stainless steel sculpture “Ferment” to be permanently installed at Nelson-Atkins Museum in Kansas City.

Roxy Paine – Produced by Philip Dolin & Molly Bernstein, Particle Productions, Inc

Uploaded on Nov 22, 2010


Featured artist is Roxy Paine

Roxy Paine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Roxy Paine
Roxy Paine MSG.jpg

Roxy Paine’s Conjoined, 2007, installed inMadison Square Park, New York
Nationality American
Education College of Santa Fe (now Santa Fe University of Art and Design),Pratt Institute
Known for Sculpture,

Roxy Paine (born 1966,[1] New York) is an American artist.[2] He was educated at both the College of Santa Fe (now Santa Fe University of Art and Design) in New Mexico and the Pratt Institute in New York.[3]

Since 1990, Paine’s work has been internationally exhibited and is included in major collections such as the De Pont Museum of Contemporary Art, Tilburg, The Netherlands; Hirshhorn Museum, Washington, D.C.; Israel Museum, Jerusalem;Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, CA; and the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY. His dendroid sculptures can be found at various museums and foundations including the Olympic Sculpture Park, Seattle; Wanas Foundation, Knislinge, Sweden; Montenmedio Arte Contemporaneo NMAC, Cadiz, Spain; the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City; the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas and theNational Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Roxy Paine lives and works in Brooklyn[1] and Treadwell, New York.[4]


In his body of work, Roxy Paine mirrors natural processes, drawing increasingly on the tension between organic and man-made environments, between the human desire for order and nature’s drive to reproduce. His highly detailed simulations of natural phenomena include an ambitious series of hand-wrought stainless steel trees, vitrines of mushroom and plant life in various states of decay and several large-scale machines designed to replicate creative processes. Collectively, his works demonstrate the human attempt to impose order on natural forces, depicting the struggle between the natural and the artificial, the rational and the instinctual. Paine has said, “I’m interested in taking entities that are organic and outside of the industrial realm, feeding them into an industrial system, and seeing what results from that force-feeding. The end results are a seamless containment of these opposites.”[5]

Paine is represented by Kavi Gupta in Chicago and Berlin,[6] and by Marianne Boesky Gallery in New York.[7]

Early work[edit]

Paine began showing his work in Williamsburg, Brooklyn in 1990 and 1991 at an artist run collective called Brand Name Damages (which he helped to found) and he had his first solo exhibition at the short-lived Herron Test-Site in October 1992. His early work consisted of kinetic and time-based sculptures such as Viscous Pult, 1990, which consisted of a paint brush smearing ketchup, white paint and motor oil on the gallery space’s front window; and Displaced Sink, 1992, which had a leaking pipe in the ceiling dripping water on a tall stack of soap bars, leaving a pool of semi-liquid soap to collect on the gallery floor.[8]

Roxy Paine’s Dinner of the Dictators, 1993-95.

His next solo exhibition was at Ronald Feldman Gallery in 1995, and it included other kinetic works, but the central and most critically acclaimed work was a piece called Dinner of the Dictators, 1993–95, a vitrine enclosing the taxidermied favorite meals of infamous dictators, ranging from Genghis Khan and Adolf Hitler to Napoleon Bonaparte and Suharto. The research alone took eight months, and overall, the work took two years to produce, opening Paine to new approaches and processes in his work.[9]

From this point onwards, Paine’s work separated into a few distinct but nevertheless related categories. The first involves naturalistic works: minutely precise reproductions of natural objects like mushrooms, leafy plants or poppies. A second category consists of machine-based works: he has devised a number of conceptually-challenging art-making machines, like the SCUMAK (Auto Sculpture Maker), 1998, PMU (Painting Manufacturing Unit), 1999–2000,[10] and the Erosion Machine, 2005. Bridging the gap between the naturalistic and mechanized works, Paine also creates large-scale stainless steel trees and boulders of varying sizes (ranging from 8 – 50 feet in height).


Roxy Paine’s Amanita Field, 2001, installed in Germany.

Paine’s vitrines and botanical works often feature replicas of plants that have been discovered as extremely poisonous or have been used by humans for experimental hallucinogenic or drug experiences. The living plants are cast and subsequently rendered in thermoset polymers, paint, lacquer, and epoxy, among other materials. Crop, 1997–98, shows a field of poppies, with ripened pods exposing the evidence of raw opium being readied for harvest. The piece embodies the shifting views of the beauty of a field of wild flowers and the grave potential of drug addiction.[11] Amanita Muscaria Field, 2000, shows a field of psychoactive mushrooms that appear as if they are sprouting from the gallery floor. This field might present multiple readings: are these works a hallucinogenic vision on their own or do they represent the plant life that offers the possibility of arriving at that vision? Another related series of works is that of the Dead Amanita vitrines, lifelike mushrooms seem to be decaying under glass. The genusAmanita is a group of poisonous and psychoactive mushrooms that has some species that are among the deadliest if ingested by humans.

Roxy Paine’s Datura 2, 2006

Another example is the leafy plant genus Datura, which has long been used as a poison and hallucinogen; many species are known by common names such as Hell’s Bells or Devil’s weed. Paine’s re-creation of various species of Datura take on a state of potential, presenting us with a deceptively simple plant that nonetheless contains complex molecules that can give rise to an altered state of consciousness.


Removing the artist’s hand in the creative process and replacing it with a computer program is the crux of Roxy Paine’s machine-based works. His first art-making machine, Paint Dipper, 1997, employed a steel armature that continuously dipped canvases into a vat of paint over the course of time, creating works that collect latex paint stalactites along the bottom edge. SCUMAK (Auto Sculpture Maker), 1998–2001, melts plastic with pigments and periodically extrudes them onto a conveyor belt, creating bulbous shaped sculptures that are each unique.

Roxy Paine’s SCUMAK 2, 2001, installed at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Detroit, 2007.

PMU (Painting Manufacturing Unit), from 1999–2000, involves a metal painting arm that is programmed to expel white paint onto a canvas according to specific instructions programmed into the machine. The resulting works often can evoke landscapes or possibly layers of geological sediment.

Most recently, Paine introduced his Erosion Machine, 2005, which consists of a robotic arm that traces and cuts patterns into large blocks of stone. The course of the arm’s movement is determined by data sets, such as weather conditions and school test results. The work suggests the corrosive effects of human imposition on the environment while at the same time represents the transformation of the banal into the beautiful.

About the SCUMAK (Auto Sculpture Maker), art historian Jonathan Fineburg wrote that “The beauty of the machine and the eccentricity of the results are also a paean to the romantic. Paine positions both his gardens and his machines at a fluid interface of man, nature, and science; they take the viewer to an intuitive experience of the liminal place at which scientists have arrived as they begin to redesign the human genome and connect living neurons with silicon chips.”[12]


Roxy Paine uses both mechanical means and the innate logic of natural forms to create his “Dendroid” tree-like sculptures. Paine’s meticulous research and observation of a variety of tree species help him to understand the “language” of how a tree grows, and from there he creates fictional tree species that grow to a logic of their own. Paine has said:

I’ve processed the idea of a tree and created a system for its form. I take this organic majestic being and break it down into components and rules. The branches are translated into pipe and rod.[13]

Employing the language that he has invented pertaining to each of these fictive species, Paine’s trees are “grown” through a laborious process of welding together the cylindrical piping and rods of diminishing size.[14] He has also described his aims with the Dendroids series by saying, “I have been seeking to expand the edges of the language, and send the work outward into those edges. Essentially, I am establishing the rules of a language, only to then break those rules.”[15]

The first of these dendroids was Impostor, 1999, now at the Wanas Foundation, in Knislinge, Sweden. Roxy has gone on to create twenty-five of these sculptures, including Bluff, 2002, which premiered in New York’s Central Park during the Whitney Biennial in 2002, and the very ambitious Conjoined, 2007, recently on display in Manhattan’s Madison Square Park (through December 31, 2007). Conjoined is a 40 ft tall by 45 ft wide sculpture of two trees whose branches cantilever in space and connect in mid air. Paine creates two different fictional tree species where each branch from one tree joins with a branch from the other. For the observer, it is unclear where one tree begins and the other ends. “Conjoined” was acquired in 2008 by and is on display at the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth.

Paine’s recent sculpture, Inversion, 2008, was installed in the Public Art Projects section of Art Basel 39, in Basel, Switzerland in June 2008. It was also part ofFREEDOM: Den Haag Sculptuur 2008 in The Hague, Netherlands through August 2008.

Maelstrom, 2009, was on view at the Metropolitan Museum of Art from April 28 – November 29, 2009 [16] and Graft, 2009 was installed at the National Gallery of Art Sculpture Garden in Washington, DC, in the fall of 2009. When asked about Maelstrom Paine described it as existing on five “levels” at once:

“On one level, it’s a forest that has been downed by an unseen force—a force of nature or, perhaps, a force of man. I also want the sculpture to be the force itself, a swirling, churning force. The word ‘maelstrom’ actually has a Dutch root; it literally means ‘grinding stream,’ …The third state is trees in the state of becoming abstractions. There are areas with recognizable tree parts and then others where representation is stretching, breaking apart, and coalescing again… I want the fourth state of trance to be a pipeline in a factory that’s run amuck. This is getting back to the root of the material, so to speak, which is purely industrial. Here the piece is embracing its source. And, finally, the fifth state is that of a mental storm, or what I envision happens during an epileptic seizure.”

Distillation, 2010, was on view at James Cohan Gallery in New York from October 16 – December 11, 2010,[17] and One Hundred Foot Line, 2010, was installed permanently at the National Gallery of Canada, in Ottawa, Ontario.[18] Distillation, as described by Hilarie Sheets in The New York Times,

pushes the metaphoric content that underpins these sculptures to new extremes. It still uses arboreal forms, but they now mesh with other overtly defined branching systems: a vascular network of arteries and veins with two plump kidneys, mushroom colonies and their germinating mycelia, neuron bundles and taxonomic diagrams, and raw pipelines connected to steel tanks and industrial valves.[19]

Ferment was permanently installed in April 2011 on the south lawn of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City, MO. Taking more than three years to produce, this 56-ft tall stainless steel dendroid sculpture, as described by Paine, “was trying to capture a churning, swirling force.”


In September 2013 Roxy Paine debuted the first two installations of a new series of work utilizing large-scale dioramas. The two installations were revealed in an exhibition at the Kavi Gupta gallery in Chicago.[20] The new pieces, meticulously carved from wood, are life-size replicas of a fast-food restaurant and a control room, respectively.

Roxy Paine’s “Carcass,” 2013 installed at Kavi Gupta CHICAGO

The new work draws from a complex dialog of Western and Eastern philosophies which both embrace and deconstruct the values and conceptual core of Paine’s earlier work. Christian Viveros-Faune, in an interview with Paine,[21] discussed Paine’s interests in the Japanese philosophical aesthetic of Wabi-Sabi, which emphasizes the beauty within natural and unpredictable flaws. Paine also told Viveros-Faune of an interest in Poststructuralism and the theories of Michel Foucault on Episteme, as described by Paine[22]

“I have been very influenced by Foucault’s idea of the episteme, the knowledge structure and base of an era which determines what kind of questions can and cannot be asked at any point in time. I think it is particularly pertinent at this moment when the amount of information is so vast, and access to it so instantaneous; yet the kinds of questions being asked feel throttled and narrow, a retreat into the comforts of each person’s hyper-specialized realm of knowledge.”[21]

Paine further discussed his interest in the new work as a manifestation of “A copy of a copy of a copy,” which could be connected Foucault’s fellow poststructuralist, Jean Baudrillard.


Selected exhibitions[edit]

Solo Exhibitions

Articulated Confusion: The Drawings of Roxy Paine, Frederik Meijer Gardens and Sculpture Park, Grand Rapids, MI[1]

Marianne Boesky, New York, NY[1]

Roxy Paine, Kavi Gupta, Chicago, September 20 – December 20, 2013[20]

Roxy Paine: Scumaks and Dendroids, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, MO, April 29 – August 28, 2011

Roxy Paine: Distillation, James Cohan Gallery, New York, October 16 – December 11, 2010

Roxy Paine, Wanas Foundation, Knislinge, Sweden

Roxy Paine: Scumaks, The Mill, Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut

Roxy Paine: Dendroid Drawings and Maquettes, James Cohan Gallery, New York, May 1 – June 6, 2009

Roxy Paine on the Roof: Maelstrom, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Roof Garden, New York, NY, April 28 – November 29, 2009


Roxy Paine: SCUMAKS”, James Cohan Gallery, New York, Opened June 26, 2008

Roxy Paine, Madison Square Park, New York, NY, May 15 – December 31, 2007

Roxy Paine: PMU, curated by Bruce Guenther, Portland Art Museum, Portland, OR, February 25 – May 28, 2006

Roxy Paine: New Work, James Cohan Gallery, New York, January 14 – February 25, 2004

Defunct, Aspen Art Museum, Aspen, CO, 2004

‘Roxy Paine, James Cohan Gallery, New York, November 8 – December 22, 2002

Scumak, Bernard Toale Gallery, Boston

Roxy Paine: Second Nature, co-curated by Joseph Ketner and Lynn Herbert, Rose Art Museum, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA. Traveled to Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, TX; SITE Santa Fe, New Mexico; De Pont Foundation for Contemporary Art, Tilburg, Netherlands (April 2002 through January 2004)

Roxy Paine, Museum of Contemporary Art, North Miami, FL, November 11, 2001 – January 27, 2002

Roxy Paine, Grand Arts, Kansas City, MO, June 29 – August 11, 2001

“Roxy Paine”, Christopher Grimes Gallery, Los Angeles, May 26 – June 30, 2001

“Roxy Paine”, James Cohan Gallery, New York, April 5 – May 5, 2001

Roxy Paine, Galerie Thomas Schulte, Berlin, Germany, February 13 – April 20, 2001

“Roxy Paine”, Roger Bjorkholmen Gallery, Stockholm, Sweden, February 26 – March 31, 1999

Roxy Paine, Ronald Feldman Fine Arts, New York, NY, January 9 – February 13, 1999

Roxy Paine, Musee D’Art Americain Giverny, Giverny, France, June 1 – November 15, 1998. Traveled to Lunds Kunsthall, Lund, Sweden, March 6 – April 18, 1999

Roxy Paine, Renate Schroder Galerie, Koln, Germany, April 24 – June 6, 1998

“Roxy Paine”, Ronald Feldman Fine Arts, New York, March 15 – April 26, 1997 “Roxy Paine”, Temple Gallery, Tyler School of Art, Temple University, Philadelphia, September 5 – October 11, 1997

Roxy Paine, Ronald Feldman Fine Arts, New York, NY, April 29 – June 3, 1995

Roxy Paine, Herron Test-Site, Brooklyn, NY, October 9 – November 8, 1992

Horns, The Knitting Factory, New York, December 3–31, 1991

Group Exhibitions

“Out of Hand: Materializing the Postdigital”, Museum of Art and Design, New York, NY[1]

Lifelike, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN

Color in Flux, Westerburg Museuum fur modern Kunst, Bermen, Germany
Nod Nod Wink Wink: Conceptual Art in New Mexico and Its Influences, The Harwood Museum of Art, Taos, New Mexico

The Secret Life of Trees, Monica de Cardenas Galleria, Zuoz, Switzerland
Out of the Woods, Leslie Tonkonow, New York
17th Biennale of Sydney: The Beauty of Distance: Songs of Survival in a Precarious Age, Sydney, Australia

Reflection, Refraction, Reconfiguration: Mediated Images from the Collection of Polly and Mark Addison, University Art Museum, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO
Remote Proximity: Nature in Contemporary Art, Kunstmuseum Bonn, Bonn, Germany
The Rose at Brandeis: Works From the Collection, The Rose Art Museum, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA

Bending Nature, Franklin Park Conservatory, Columbus, OH
Bizarre Perfection, Israel Museum, Jerusalem, Israel
Freedom: Den Haag Sculpture 2008, The Hague, The Netherlands
Public Art Projects, Art Basel 39, Basel, Switzerland
Paragons: New Abstraction from the Albright-Knox Gallery, Doris McCarthy Gallery, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario

Delicatessen, Dorothy F. Schmidt Center Gallery, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida
Art Machines/Machine Art, Schirn Kunsthalle, Frankfurt, Germany. Travelled to Museum Tinguely, Basel, Switzerland (through July 2008)
Molecules that Matter, Tang Teaching Museum, Saratoga Springs, NY. Travelled to Chemical Heritage Foundation, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; College of Wooster Art Museum, Wooster, Ohio (through May 2009)
The Outdoor Gallery: 40 Years of Public Art in New York City Parks, The Arsenal Gallery in Central Park, New York
Drawings from the Collection of Martina Yamin, Davis Museum and Cultural Center, Wellesley College, MA

Recent Acquisitions, Musée d’art contemporain de Montréal, Montreal, Canada, October 28, 2006 – March 25, 2007
Meditations in an Emergency, Museum of Contemporary Art Detroit, MI, October 28, 2006 – April 29, 2007
A Brighter Day, James Cohan Gallery, New York, NY
Garden Paradise, curated by Lacy Davisson Doyle and Clare Weiss, The Arsenal Gallery in Central Park, New York, NY
American Academy Invitational Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture, The American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York, March 7 – April 9
Uneasy Nature, curated by Xandra Eden, Weatherspoon Art Museum, The University of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC, February 18 – May 28

Ecstasy: In and About Altered States, organized by Paul Schimmel with Gloria Sutton, Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, CA
The Empire of Sighs, Numark Gallery, Washington D.C.
Extreme Abstraction, Albright Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY
Sculpture, James Cohan Gallery, New York
Flower Myth. Vincent van Gogh to Jeff Koons, Fondation Beyeler, Riehen/Basel, Switzerland
Material Terrain: A Sculptural Exploration of Landscape and Place, curated by Carla Hanzal, commissioned by Laumeier Sculpture Park, St. Louis, MO. Traveling to Santa Cruz Museum of Art and History, Santa Cruz, CA; University of Arizona Museum of Art, Tucson, AZ; Memphis Brooks Museum of Art, Memphis, TN; Cheekwood Museum of Art, Nashville, TN; Lowe Art Museum, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (February 2005 through December 2007)

PILLish: Harsh Realities and Gorgeous Disasters, curated by Cydney Payton, Museum of Contemporary Art Denver, Denver, CO, through January 2, 2005
Paintings That Paint Themselves, or so it seems, Kresge Art Museum, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI
Summer Show, James Cohan Gallery, New York
Between the Lines, James Cohan Gallery, New York
The Flower as Image, Louisiana Museum for Moderne Kunst, Humlebaek, Denmark
Natural Histories: Realism Revisited, Scottsdale Museum of Contemporary Art, Scottsdale, AZ, May 29 – September 12

Work Ethic, Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, Maryland, October 12, 2003 – January 11, 2004. Traveled to the Des Moines Center for the Arts May 15 – August 1, 2004
UnNaturally, organized by Independent Curators International (ICI), curated by Mary-Kay Lombino. Traveled to Contemporary Art Museum, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL; H & R Block Artspace at the Kansas City Art Institute, Kansas City, MO; Fisher Gallery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA; Copia: The American Center for Wine, Food and the Arts, Napa, CA; Lowe Art Museum, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (January 2003 through November 2004)
The Great Drawing Show 1550-2003 A.D, Michael Kohn Gallery, Los Angeles, April 12 – May 31
Decade, Schroeder Romero, Brooklyn, April 11 – May 19

The Whitney Biennial in Central Park, curated by Tom Eccles, organized by the Public Art Fund, New York in collaboration with The Whitney Museum of American Art, New York
Early Acclaim: Emerging Artist Award Recipients 1997-2001, The Aldrich Museum of Contemporary Art, Ridgefield, CT, September 22 – December 31

Painting Matter, James Cohan Gallery, New York, May 3 – June 15, 2002
2001 Brooklyn!, Palm Beach Institute of Contemporary Art, Palm Beach, FL, September 4 – November 25
Arte y Naturaleza, Outdoor Sculpture Garden, Montenmedio Arte Contemporaneo, Cadiz, Spain, June 2 – October 2
Present Tense 6, Israel Museum, Jerusalem, Israel, May – December
A Contemporary Cabinet of Curiosities – Selections from the Vicki and Kent Logan Collection, California College of Arts and Crafts, San Francisco, January 17 – March 3
Give and Take, Serpentine Gallery in collaboration with the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, January 30 – April 1
Making the Making, Apex Art, New York, January 5 – February 3
Waterworks: U.S. Akvarell 2001, curated by Kim Levin, Nordiska Akvarellmuseet, Skarhamn, Sweden
01.01.01: Art in Technological Times, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, CA
All-Terrain, Contemporary Art Center of Virginia, Virginia Beach, VA

From a Distance: Approaching Landscape, curated by Jessica Morgan, Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, MA
WILDflowers, Katonah Museum of Art, Katonah, NY, July 28 – October 3
Working in Brooklyn: Beyond Technology, Brooklyn Museum of Art, Brooklyn, NY, July 1 – September 12
5th Lyon Biennale of Contemporary Art: Sharing Exoticism, Lyon Biennale, Lyon, France, June 27 – September 24
Vision Ruhr, Dortmund Coal Factory, Dortmund, Germany, May 11 – August 20
The Greenhouse Effect, Serpentine Gallery, London, April 4 – May 21
Sites Around the City: Art and Environment, curated by Heather Sealy Lineberry, Arizona State University Art Museum, Tempe, AZ, March 4 – June 4
Greater New York: New Art in New York Now, PS1 Contemporary Art Center in collaboration with the Museum of Modern Art, New York, February 27 – April 16
Visionary Landscape, Christopher Grimes Gallery, Santa Monica, CA, January 8 – February 19. Travelled to The End, Exit Art/The First World, New York, January 29 – April 8
As Far As the Eye Can See, Atlanta College of Art Gallery, Atlanta, GA, January 29 – March 7

Best of the Season: Selected Work from the 1998-99 Gallery Season, The Aldrich Contemporary Art Museum, Ridgefield, CT, September 26 – January 9, 1999

Interlacings: The Craft of Contemporary Art, Whitney Museum of American Art at Champion, Stamford, CT, September 10 – November 21
22/21, Emily Lowe Gallery/Hofstra Museum, Hempstead, NY, September 8 – October 25
Elise Goodheart Fine Art, Sag Harbor, NY, July 24 – August 16
DNA Gallery, Provincetown, MA, July 17 – August 5
Nine International Artists at Wanas, 1998, Wanas Foundation, Knislinge, Sweden, May 24 – August 18
Landscapes, Meyerson & Nowinski, Seattle, WA, January 8 – March 1

Redefinitions, A View From Brooklyn, California State University, Fullerton, CA, November 9 – December 11
Sculpture, James Graham & Sons, New York, July 10 – August 29
Summer of Love, Fotouhi Cramer Gallery, New York, July 2 – August 2
Artists Respond to 2001: Space Odyssey, Williamsburg Arts and Historical Society, Brooklyn, June 21 – July 26
Benefit for Pat Hearn, Morris-Healey Gallery, New York, February 26 – March 9
9 to 5 at Metrotech: New Commissions for the Common, The Public Art Fund, Brooklyn, NY, October 30, 1997 – May 31, 1998
Best of the Season 1996-97, The Aldrich Museum of Contemporary Art, Ridgefield, CT, September 14 – January 4, 1997
Current Undercurrent: Working in Brooklyn, Brooklyn Museum of Art, Brooklyn, July 25, 1997 – January 25, 1998

Imaginary Beings, Exit Art/The First World, New York, December 2 – January 27, 1996
Art on Paper, Weatherspoon Art Gallery, The University of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC, November 12 – January 21, 1996
Human/Nature, The New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York, NY, April 20 – May 18
Better Living Through Chemistry, Randolph Street Gallery, Chicago, March – April, 1996
Momenta Art, Inside Out, Brooklyn, September 15 – October 7, 1996
Currents in Contemporary Art, Christie’s East, New York, July 22–31, 1996
Inside: The Work of Art, California Center for the Arts, Escondido, CA, June 16 – October 13, 1996
Wish You Were Here, Bronwyn Keenan Gallery, New York, March 1–30, 1996
New York State Biennial, New York State Museum, Albany, NY, February 8 – May 26, 1996
NY Withdrawing, Ronald Feldman Fine Arts, New York, January 13 – February 17, 1996
Multiples, Pierogi 2000, Brooklyn, NY, December 2, 1995 – January 15, 1996

Lookin’ Good-Feelin’, 450 Broadway Gallery, New York, December 5–9, 1995

Red Windows: Benefit for Little Red School House, Barneys Windows, November – December, 1994
Spring Benefit, Sculpture Center, New York, April 19, 1994
Garden of Sculptural Delights, Exit Art/The First World, New York, NY, March 2 – April 23, 1994
Free Falling, Berlin Shafir Gallery, New York, January 22 – February 19, 1994

UNTITLED (14), Ronald Feldman Fine Arts, New York, November 13 – December 23, 1993
INFLUX, Gallery 400, Chicago, November 3 – December 4, 1993
4 Walls Benefit, David Zwirner Gallery, New York, November 1993
Fantastic Wandering, Cummings Art Center, New London, CT, October 9 – November 10, 1993
Extracts, Islip Art Museum, Islip, NY, August 8 – September 19, 1993
Real Art Ways, Popular Mechanics, Hartford, CT, June 19 – July 16, 1993
Outside Possibilities ’93, The Rushmore Festival at Woodbury, New York, June 5 – July 4, 1993
The Nature of the Machine, Chicago Cultural Center, Chicago, April 3 – May 30, 1993
Out of Town: The Williamsburg Paradigm, Krannert Art Museum, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL, January 22- February 28, 1993

Fever, Exit Art, New York, December 14, 1992 – February 6, 1993

Group, Jimenez-Algus Gallery, Brooklyn, September 13 – October 13, 1991
Generator 547, Entropy, New York, August 2 – September 5, 1991
Tweeking the Human, Brand Name Damages and Minor Injury Galleries, Brooklyn, June 7–31, 1991
The Ego Show, Minor Injury Gallery, Brooklyn, April 5 – May 2, 1991

Desire and Deception, Brand Name Damages, Brooklyn, October 9–21, 1990
Group Show, Ridge Street Gallery, New York, September 3–26, 1990
Roxy Paine and David Fasoldt, Brand Name Damages, Brooklyn, NY, March 29 – April 6, 1990


Public collections[edit]

  • City of Beverly Hills, CA
  • Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, AR
  • De Pont Museum of Contemporary Art, Tilburg, The Netherlands
  • Denver Art Museum, Denver, CO
  • Frederik Meijer Gardens and Sculpture Park, Grand Rapids, MI
  • Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C.
  • Il Giardino Dei Lauri, Città della Pieve (PG), Italy
  • Israel Museum, Jerusalem
  • Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, TX
  • Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY
  • National Gallery of Art Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C.
  • National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, ON
  • Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, MO
  • The New School for Social Research, New York, NY
  • North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, NC
  • Fundación NMAC, Cadiz, Spain
  • Olympic Sculpture Park, Seattle Art Museum, WA
  • Rose Art Museum, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA
  • Saint Louis Art Museum, St. Louis, MO
  • San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, CA
  • Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE
  • Wanas Foundation, Knislinge, Sweden
  • Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY

See Also[edit]


  1. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e
  2. Jump up^
  3. Jump up^
  4. Jump up^
  5. Jump up^ Tsien, Billie “Roxy Paine” BOMB Magazine Spring 2009, retrieved July 27, 2011
  6. Jump up^
  7. Jump up^
  8. Jump up^ Volk, Gregory. ‘Roxy Paine: Dreams and Mathematics’ in Roxy Paine: Second Nature, 2002. Page 27, Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston and Rose Art Museum, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA.
  9. Jump up^ Volk, Gregory. Page 28-29.
  10. Jump up^ Tan, Lin (2001). “Roxy Paine June 29 – August 11, 2001”. Grand Arts, Kansas City, Missouri.
  11. Jump up^ Volk, Gregory. Page 33.
  12. Jump up^ Fineburg, Jonathan. Art Since 1940: Strategies of Being, Second Edition, 2000. Page 498-499, Harry N. Abrams, Publishers, New York, NY.
  13. Jump up^ Roxy Paine, interviewed by Allan McCollum. Bluff catalogue, 2002, Page 24. Public Art Fund and James Cohan Gallery.
  14. Jump up^ Neil, Jonathan T.D. ‘Do Androids Dream of Making Art? Roxy Paine’s Robot Artworks and Artificial Environments Ask Just that Question’ in Art Review, August 2006.
  15. Jump up^ Tsien, Billie “Roxy Paine” BOMB Magazine Spring 2009, retrieved July 27, 2011
  16. Jump up^ Metropolitan Museum website
  17. Jump up^ James Cohan Gallery:Distillation
  18. Jump up^ Sheets, Hilarie. ‘Man of Steel’s Industrial Web Mirroring Nature,’ The New York Times, October 17, 2010.
  19. ^ Jump up to:a b
  20. ^ Jump up to:a b
  21. Jump up^

External links[edit]


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