Tag Archives: David Wolpe

The experts I was most impressed by in the film PATTERNS OF EVIDENCE:THE EXODUS

Is this a film about science or religion?

Published on Jun 14, 2014

Director Timothy P. Mahoney shares his thoughts about his film, Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus. Is this a scientific or religious film?

_________________________________

I went to see the film PATTERNS OF EVIDENCE: THE EXODUS and I enjoyed it very much. It stars Charles Alin,Manfred Bietak,John Bimson,Mansour Boraik,Israel Finkelstein,Norma Franklin,Manis Friedman,David Hartman,James Hoffmeier,Tim Mahoney,Michael Medved,,Benjamin Netanyahu,Shimon Peres,Maarten Rave,David Rohl, Kent Weeks,David Wolpe,Bryant Wood, and I have posted several very good reviews of the film on my blog.  Here are the experts I was most impressed with:

Presented in Alphabetical Order

  • Charles Aling

    Charles Aling

    Egyptologist, University of Northwestern

    Aling is a Professor of History at the University of Northwestern, St. Paul Minnesota. After serving as an intelligence officer in the US Army he excavated a royal tomb in the Valley of the Kings. Aling authored the book, Egypt and Bible History (1981), which explores the relationships between the two histories.

  • John Bimson

    John Bimson

    Tutor in Old Testament, Trinity College, Bristol, PhD Tutor

    Bimson’s special interests include the historical and archaeological background of the Old Testament and he has taken part in excavations in Israel. He did doctoral research on the historicity and setting of the Exodus and Conquest. His book, Redating the Exodus (1978), proposed that the end of the Middle Bronze Age provides the best matching evidence for the biblical Conquest and that the dates assigned to this period should be substantially revised.

  • Mansour Boraik

    Mansour Boraik

    Egyptologist, Director General of Antiquities – Luxor

    Boraik, educated at Zagazig University, is the second highest-ranking Egyptologist in Egypt. He oversees the area of Luxor, considered to be the world’s greatest open-air museum. This location was home to the ancient Egyptian capital of Thebes and is filled with some of Egypt’s most important archaeological sites such as the temple complexes of Karnak, Luxor, and the Ramesseum, as well as the Valley of the Kings.

  • Rabbi Manis Friedman

    Rabbi Manis Friedman

    Rabbi, Biblical Scholar, Author

    Friedman is a member the Hassidic branch of Judaism known as Chabad Lubavitch.

    As a teacher, counselor and philosopher, he has lectured around the world and is a professionally ranked member of the National Speakers Association. Founder and Dean of the Bais Chana Institute of Jewish Studies, Friedman’s writings include the book, Doesn’t Anyone Blush Anymore? (1990).

  • Rabbi David Hartman

    Rabbi David Hartman

    Rabbi, Shalom Hartman Institute, Author

    Hartman was the Professor of Jewish Thought at Hebrew University of Jerusalem for more than 20 years and was Founder of the Shalom Hartman Institute. As an award winning author and a philosopher of contemporary Judaism, he sought to revitalize Judaism around the world. His books include A Living Covenant: The Innovative Spirit in Traditional Judaism (1998) and The God Who Hates Lies: Confronting and Rethinking Jewish Tradition (2011).

  • James K Hoffmeier

    James K Hoffmeier

    Egyptologist, Author

    Hoffmeier is Professor of Old Testament and Near Eastern Archaeology at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School (Deerfield, IL). Since 1994 he has been Director of the North Sinai Archaeological Project. Hoffmeier has appeared in many TV programs and authored two books on evidence related to the Exodus: Israel in Egypt (1999) and Ancient Israel in Sinai (2011).

  • Timothy P. Mahoney

    Timothy P. Mahoney

    Filmmaker

    Mahoney wrote, directed and produced “Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus”, his first feature length documentary film, an investigation that lasted twelve years. He has also authored the new book by the same title. After 25 years of experience in media production, Mahoney created Thinking Man Films, a production/distribution company that explores the world we live in and encourages people to question what they have been told about culture, science, history and religion.

  • Michael Medved

    Michael Medved

    Radio talk-show host, Author

    Medved is a nationally syndicated radio talk-show host with over 4.75 million listeners weekly. A veteran film critic, he co-hosted PBS’ Sneak Previews for 12 years. As a Best-Selling author, his books include Hollywood vs. America (1992), and Right Turns (2005).

  • Benjamin Netanyahu

    Benjamin Netanyahu

    Prime Minister of Israel

    Netanyahu was formerly Israel’s ambassador to the UN. He is an author and a student of history like his father, Benzion Netanyahu who was Professor of History at both Cornell and Hebrew Universities. Benjamin Netanyahu’s books include: Israel and its Place Among the Nations(1992) and Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorism (1996).

  • Shimon Peres

    Shimon Peres

    President of Israel

    Peres has been a Member of the Knesset since 1959 and twice served as the Prime Minister. As Defense Minister, he oversaw the Entebbe rescue operation in 1976. Winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1994, he founded The Peres Center for Peace in 1996. Peres is the author of ten books including: The Next Step (1965), David’s Sling (1970) Entebbe Diary (1991), and Battling for Peace: a Memoir (1995).

  • David Rohl

    David Rohl

    Egyptologist, Author

    Rohl is a British Egyptologist and historian who was awarded the prestigious W.F. Masom History Research Scholarship by the University of London, is a past President of the Sussex Egyptology Society (SES), and is the Chairman of the Institute for the Study of Interdisciplinary Sciences (ISIS.) He has put forward several controversial theories concerning the chronology of ancient Egypt and Palestine. Rohl’s books include: A Test of Time (1995), The Lords of Avaris (2007)and Exodus – Myth or History?(2014). He produced the three-part television documentary, Pharaohs and Kings: A Biblical Quest.

  • Bryant Wood

    Bryant Wood

    Archaeologist, Associates for Biblical Research

    Wood is the Director of the Associates for Biblical Research. He received his Ph.D. in Syro-Palestinian Archaeology from the University of Toronto where he specialized in Canaanite pottery of the Late Bronze Age. Wood is best known for his proposal to date the final destruction layer found at Jericho from the Middle Bronze Age, where it is conventionally located, to the Late Bronze Age.

Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus     Trailer Update 121714

CAST of the film PATTERNS OF EVIDENCE: THE EXODUS

Is this a film about science or religion?

Published on Jun 14, 2014

Director Timothy P. Mahoney shares his thoughts about his film, Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus. Is this a scientific or religious film?

_________________________________

I am going to see this film at a local theater on Monday January 19, 2015 and you can too by going to this website at this link and putting in your zip code to find a theater near you. It will only be out on that one day. It stars Charles Alin,Manfred Bietak,John Bimson,Mansour Boraik,Israel Finkelstein,Norma Franklin,Manis Friedman,David Hartman,James Hoffmeier,Tim Mahoney,Michael Medved,,Benjamin Netanyahu,Shimon Peres,Maarten Rave,David Rohl, Kent Weeks,David Wolpe,Bryant Wood, and I have posted several very good reviews of the film on my blog.

Presented in Alphabetical Order

  • Charles Aling

    Charles Aling

    Egyptologist, University of Northwestern

    Aling is a Professor of History at the University of Northwestern, St. Paul Minnesota. After serving as an intelligence officer in the US Army he excavated a royal tomb in the Valley of the Kings. Aling authored the book, Egypt and Bible History (1981), which explores the relationships between the two histories.

  • Manfred Bietak

    Manfred Bietak

    Egytologist, University of Vienna

    Bietak was the Director of the Austrian Archaeological Institute in Cairo, Egypt for 35 years. Considered one of the greatest archaeologists alive today, he is best known for directing the Austrian excavations at the Nile delta site of Tell el-Daba, which has been ongoing for 40 years. This site was the ancient Hyksos capital known as Avaris, as well as the southern sector of Rameses, a city that the Bible mentions as being built by the Israelites in the book of Exodus.

  • John Bimson

    John Bimson

    Tutor in Old Testament, Trinity College, Bristol, PhD Tutor

    Bimson’s special interests include the historical and archaeological background of the Old Testament and he has taken part in excavations in Israel. He did doctoral research on the historicity and setting of the Exodus and Conquest. His book, Redating the Exodus (1978), proposed that the end of the Middle Bronze Age provides the best matching evidence for the biblical Conquest and that the dates assigned to this period should be substantially revised.

  • Mansour Boraik

    Mansour Boraik

    Egyptologist, Director General of Antiquities – Luxor

    Boraik, educated at Zagazig University, is the second highest-ranking Egyptologist in Egypt. He oversees the area of Luxor, considered to be the world’s greatest open-air museum. This location was home to the ancient Egyptian capital of Thebes and is filled with some of Egypt’s most important archaeological sites such as the temple complexes of Karnak, Luxor, and the Ramesseum, as well as the Valley of the Kings.

  • Israel Finkelstein

    Israel Finkelstein

    Archaeologist, Tel Aviv University

    Finkelstein is Co-director of excavations at Megiddo and Professor of Archaeology in the Department of Archaeology and Ancient Near Eastern Civilizations at Tel Aviv University. Along with Neil Asher Silberman, he authored the influential book, The Bible Unearthed(2001), which argued that the early history of Israel did not occur as described in the Bible.

  • Norma Franklin

    Norma Franklin

    Archaeologist, University of Haifa

    Franklin is a professor at the University of Haifa, Zinman Institute of Archaeology and Co-director of the Jezreel Expedition at Tel Jezreel. Franklin was formerly at Tel Aviv University, where she was the coordinator of the Megiddo Expedition.

  • Rabbi Manis Friedman

    Rabbi Manis Friedman

    Rabbi, Biblical Scholar, Author

    Friedman is a member the Hassidic branch of Judaism known as Chabad Lubavitch.

    As a teacher, counselor and philosopher, he has lectured around the world and is a professionally ranked member of the National Speakers Association. Founder and Dean of the Bais Chana Institute of Jewish Studies, Friedman’s writings include the book, Doesn’t Anyone Blush Anymore? (1990).

  • Rabbi David Hartman

    Rabbi David Hartman

    Rabbi, Shalom Hartman Institute, Author

    Hartman was the Professor of Jewish Thought at Hebrew University of Jerusalem for more than 20 years and was Founder of the Shalom Hartman Institute. As an award winning author and a philosopher of contemporary Judaism, he sought to revitalize Judaism around the world. His books include A Living Covenant: The Innovative Spirit in Traditional Judaism (1998) and The God Who Hates Lies: Confronting and Rethinking Jewish Tradition (2011).

  • James K Hoffmeier

    James K Hoffmeier

    Egyptologist, Author

    Hoffmeier is Professor of Old Testament and Near Eastern Archaeology at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School (Deerfield, IL). Since 1994 he has been Director of the North Sinai Archaeological Project. Hoffmeier has appeared in many TV programs and authored two books on evidence related to the Exodus: Israel in Egypt (1999) and Ancient Israel in Sinai (2011).

  • Timothy P. Mahoney

    Timothy P. Mahoney

    Filmmaker

    Mahoney wrote, directed and produced “Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus”, his first feature length documentary film, an investigation that lasted twelve years. He has also authored the new book by the same title. After 25 years of experience in media production, Mahoney created Thinking Man Films, a production/distribution company that explores the world we live in and encourages people to question what they have been told about culture, science, history and religion.

  • Michael Medved

    Michael Medved

    Radio talk-show host, Author

    Medved is a nationally syndicated radio talk-show host with over 4.75 million listeners weekly. A veteran film critic, he co-hosted PBS’ Sneak Previews for 12 years. As a Best-Selling author, his books include Hollywood vs. America (1992), and Right Turns (2005).

  • Benjamin Netanyahu

    Benjamin Netanyahu

    Prime Minister of Israel

    Netanyahu was formerly Israel’s ambassador to the UN. He is an author and a student of history like his father, Benzion Netanyahu who was Professor of History at both Cornell and Hebrew Universities. Benjamin Netanyahu’s books include: Israel and its Place Among the Nations(1992) and Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorism (1996).

  • Shimon Peres

    Shimon Peres

    President of Israel

    Peres has been a Member of the Knesset since 1959 and twice served as the Prime Minister. As Defense Minister, he oversaw the Entebbe rescue operation in 1976. Winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1994, he founded The Peres Center for Peace in 1996. Peres is the author of ten books including: The Next Step (1965), David’s Sling (1970) Entebbe Diary (1991), and Battling for Peace: a Memoir (1995).

  • Maarten Raven

    Maarten Raven

    Egyptologist, Curator – Leiden Museum

    Raven is a professor at Leiden University in the Netherlands and Curator of the Egyptian Department of the National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden since 1979. He has extensive experience digging at Saqqara, Egypt since 1975 and working as Joint director there since 1999. Raven has numerous publications on his fieldwork of Egyptian tomb excavations, as well as on the collections at the Leiden Museum.

  • David Rohl

    David Rohl

    Egyptologist, Author

    Rohl is a British Egyptologist and historian who was awarded the prestigious W.F. Masom History Research Scholarship by the University of London, is a past President of the Sussex Egyptology Society (SES), and is the Chairman of the Institute for the Study of Interdisciplinary Sciences (ISIS.) He has put forward several controversial theories concerning the chronology of ancient Egypt and Palestine. Rohl’s books include: A Test of Time (1995), The Lords of Avaris (2007)and Exodus – Myth or History?(2014). He produced the three-part television documentary, Pharaohs and Kings: A Biblical Quest.

  • Kent Weeks

    Kent Weeks

    Egyptologist, Theban Mapping Project

    Weeks is one of America’s top Egyptologists who devised and launched the Theban Mapping Project, which seeks to document every tomb and temple in the Theban Necropolis (Luxor area). In 1995, Weeks discovered the expansive KV5, the tomb of the sons of Ramesses II in the Valley of the Kings. Since 1988 he has been a Professor of Egyptology at The American University in Cairo.

  • Rabbi David Wolpe

    Rabbi David Wolpe

    Rabbi, Author

    Wolpe is a noted public speaker and Rabbi of Sinai Temple, the largest congregation in Los Angeles. Named the most influential Rabbi in America by Newsweek Magazinein 2012, he has taught and served as Assistant Chancellor at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America in New York. He frequently is featured in documentaries on biblical topics for popular cable channels and as a commentator on network news programs. Wolpe’s most recent book, Why Faith Matters(2009) answers atheism and recounts his battle with lymphoma.

  • Bryant Wood

    Bryant Wood

    Archaeologist, Associates for Biblical Research

    Wood is the Director of the Associates for Biblical Research. He received his Ph.D. in Syro-Palestinian Archaeology from the University of Toronto where he specialized in Canaanite pottery of the Late Bronze Age. Wood is best known for his proposal to date the final destruction layer found at Jericho from the Middle Bronze Age, where it is conventionally located, to the Late Bronze Age.

Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus     Trailer Update 121714

“Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus” A REVIEW AND VIDEO INTERVIEWS PART 6

I am going to see this film at a local theater on Monday January 19, 2015 and you can too by going to this website at this link and putting in your zip code to find a theater near you. It will only be out on that one day. It stars Charles Alin,Manfred Bietak,John Bimson,Mansour Boraik,Israel Finkelstein,Norma Franklin,Manis Friedman,David Hartman,James Hoffmeier,Tim Mahoney,Michael Medved,,Benjamin Netanyahu,Shimon Peres,Maarten Rave,David Rohl, Kent Weeks,David Wolpe,Bryant Wood, and I have posted several very good reviews of the major motion picture on my blog.  Here is a review below:

One Night Movie Event Coming: Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus

Written by Edwin L. Carpenter on 12 January 2015. Posted in Local

PatternsEvidence-ExodusA big event is soon to arrive for Christians and for those simply interested in archaeological examinations and historical events of the past. A one night screening of Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus, a documentary, is being shown nationwide in select theaters Monday, January 19. It will be screened at Celebration Cinema North and River Town Crossings in Grand Rapids at 7 pm. And it will screen as well in Benton Harbor at the Celebration Cinema. It is directed by Timothy P. Mahoney.“Did the Exodus really happen?” asks Mahoney in a short video on the website, FathomEvents.com. “That’s a question that led me on an incredible 12-year investigation.” We are not certain of Mahoney’s conclusions, but we do know that he wanted to examine the “physical evidence from a scientific perspective.” Referring to the audience of this film, he said, “We let them make up their own mind.” The documentary features a panel of experts sharing their point of view.Mahoney added that “new evidence” will be scrutinized, including evidence involving Joseph, the Israelites, the 10 plagues and the Exodus from Egypt. He stated too that certain practices that were not Egyptian were found in their archaeological digs, practices that were Hebrew in nature and in history. One scholar in a trailer about the movie states that when the Biblical account and the archaeological findings are lined up side by side, the two “match up very well.”

From the website, patternsofevidence.com this description of the film is given:

For more than 50 years, the vast majority of the world’s most prominent archaeologists and historians have proclaimed that there is no hard evidence to support the Exodus story found in the Bible. In fact, they say that the archaeological record is completely opposed to the Bible’s account. This view of extreme skepticism has spread from academia to the world. The case against the Exodus appears to be so strong that even some religious leaders are labeling this ancient account as historical fiction.

Filmmaker Tim Mahoney begins with the question, “Is the Bible just a myth, or did the archaeologists get it wrong?” He decides to tackle this issue with a deliberate scientific approach. After examining the details in the biblical text, he journeys across the globe to search for patterns of evidence firsthand. The result is the most in-depth archaeological investigation into the Exodus from Egypt ever captured on film.

A few of the expert panelists include Charles Aling, Egypologist, University of Northwestern, St. Paul, Minnesota, Manfred Bietak, Egyptologist, University of Vienna, John Bimson, Tutor in Old Testament, Trinity College, Bristol, and Israel Finkelstein, Archaeologist, Tel Aviv University.

The film will be preceded by a pre-show starting at 6:30 pm and will be followed by a half hour panel discussion dealing with the important issues brought up in the film. The running time of the film is 115 minutes.

Edwin L. Carpenter
About:
Edwin L. Carpenter is an editor at The Dove Foundation in Grand Rapids, Mich. He received a diploma in ministerial studies in 1988 from Berean College in Springfield, Mo. He also has a bachelors degree in English from Cornerstone College in Grand Rapids, Mich. He was raised in Brighton, Mich., by Christian grandparents and has a twin brother, Edward, who is an ordained minister. He and his wife Jackie have one child, 14-year-old Daniel, who likes baseball and drawing.

Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus     Trailer Update 121714

“Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus” A REVIEW AND VIDEO INTERVIEWS PART 5

Interview with Director Tim Mahoney

Published on Apr 19, 2014

Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus director speaks about the interest this film carries for people of all faiths, Jews, Christians, Muslims humanists, agnostics and atheists.

____________________

I am going to see this film at a local theater on Monday January 19, 2015 and you can too by going to this website at this link and putting in your zip code to find a theater near you. It will only be out on that one day. It stars Charles Alin,Manfred Bietak,John Bimson,Mansour Boraik,Israel Finkelstein,Norma Franklin,Manis Friedman,David Hartman,James Hoffmeier,Tim Mahoney,Michael Medved,,Benjamin Netanyahu,Shimon Peres,Maarten Rave,David Rohl, Kent Weeks,David Wolpe,Bryant Wood, and I have posted several very good reviews of the major motion picture on my blog.  Here is a review below:

Patterns of evidence: Exodus. A review

A new film shows evidence of the Hebrew occupation of ancient Egypt

by

Published: January 15, 2015

patterns-of-evidence-exodus

Because of the wealth of artifacts, plus famous landmarks like the Great Pyramid and the Sphinx, many people are fascinated with Egyptian history. Often, scholars use Egyptian history as a ‘clock’ to calibrate all the surrounding ancient civilizations and this same chronology has been raised as a problem for biblical accuracy—which some say has no solution.

The traditional dates assigned to ancient Egyptian chronology are being used to increase skepticism in the Bible’s account of history. If one speaks with any secular archaeologist today, they will tell you there is no evidence at all of any Hebrew settlement in Egypt, and thus, their Exodus from this country. Like the theory of evolution, traditional conventions are the ruling paradigm and are accepted as fact. These dates and the seeming lack of evidence of the Hebrews in ancient Egypt have created false histories—like seemingly insurmountable reefs upon which the faith of many have been shipwrecked.

Let me say from the outset, as one who has more than a passing interest in the Bible’s history, and in recent times a growing interest in Egyptian chronology, I was skeptical that any documentary or film to do with this subject would be balanced. Most Christian books or videos on the subject usually pay homage to a particular revisionist’s view. It’s understandable though in one sense. The terms ‘Egypt’ and ‘Pharaoh’ are mentioned hundreds of times in the Pentateuch alone although the pharaohs’ names are not specifically mentioned. Coupled with the alleged lack of any Egyptian ‘evidence’ of the Hebrews, it is an issue that has plagued Bible believers for centuries. As such, when one feels they have solved these problems it may be perceived as a major accomplishment and one’s own raison d’etre can often be tied to same. But, sadly, facts are often shoehorned into one’s particular pet revision. I was expecting more of the same with this film. But I am pleased to say my fears were not realized.

The need for revision

Patterns of Evidence does not spend a great deal of time discussing any one particular revision of Egyptian dates, although it does feature David Rohl quite heavily as a consultant. Rohl is an expert on Egyptian history, and although an agnostic, he believes that the Bible’s account of the Hebrews in Egypt is real history. Rohl, in his books, A Test of Time: The Bible From Myth to History and Pharaohs And Kings: A Biblical Quest among others, strongly argues for a reduction in years assigned to Egyptian chronology. I had some concerns at the heavy featuring of Rohl (he was obviously instrumental in the making of this movie), because there are many biblical scholars who strongly disagree with his revisions as they would also affect traditional Ancient Near East dates. However, at the end, the film fairly shows that there are several people who have different ideas and revisions.1 In any case, supporting any one view was not the major focus of the documentary. It majored on whether there is any archaeological evidence for the Hebrews in Egypt during the time of the pharaonic dynasties, and that the need for a revision in time, in general, is a key to determining their presence.

Benjamin-Netanyahu

Israeli Prime Minister, Ben­jamin Netanyahu: “Moses was the great­est rev­o­lu­tion­ary of all time.”

Patterns of Evidence features an impressive lineup of scholars that includes archaeologists (both secular and biblical), historians, theologians—and it also features the President and Prime Ministers of Israel, Shimon Peres and Benjamin Netanyahu (respectively). The scene is set when both a Jewish archaeologist and Rabbi David Wolpe claim that the Exodus did not happen as written. Wolpe is the Rabbi of Sinai Temple in Los Angeles (perhaps the world’s largest Jewish congregation) and has been described by some as one of the most influential Rabbis in America.2 The film posits the question ‘If the two great religions of the world are based upon historical events that did not actually happen, then what are the consequences?’ Are these religions, in effect, lies? We agree that the consequences of rewriting history are grave, because, in the same way, the creation vs evolution debate is not so much about science but more about two competing histories. It’s a premise that the atheists clearly understand only too well, and it helps explain why the Bible’s history is under so much attack today. Rohl remarks that the Greek historian Herodotus is regarded by many as the first true historian. He wrote about his own travels to Egypt, for instance. However, Rohl argues that Moses was the greatest historian and that the Bible is really the world’s first history book spanning some 4,000 years. We’d certainly agree with that!

A personal journey

Timothy-Mahoney

Film­maker Timothy Mahoney search­ing for ev­i­dence in Karnak, Egypt

The documentary records the personal journey by filmmaker Tim Mahoney. His desire is to find out the truth about those Bible stories that he had been brought up with as a child, and he confesses to being a tad skeptical at the outset. This is a trait only too familiar for those who’ve received a public education today and along with it a secular view of history. While in Egypt he encounters field experts who maintain that there has been no archaeological evidence of Hebrew occupation or that the Exodus ever happened. Without providing too much of a spoiler, it is simply not that clear cut. This is because a lot of evidence that could very easily refer to the Hebrews is ignored or just dismissed from a chronological timing point of view. In other words “This mention of a people group could not be referring to the Hebrews because it is 200 years too early.”

This chronological timing error is due to the widely-held view that the Exodus took place during the reign of Ramses II (commonly called Ramses the Great). In Egyptian chronology and the Bible: Do the dates ascribed to the Egyptian dynasties falsify the date of biblical creation? I wrote:

Hollywood and popular culture loves to display Ramses II as the pharaoh of the Exodus in Moses’ time. One main reason is because Exodus 1:11 states that the Israelites built the store cities of Pithom and Raamses (Pi-Ramses). The latter usually gets associated with Ramses II (the Great), and thus, many liberal scholars use this to favour a ‘late Exodus’ date of c. 1267 BC.

And:

… we can determine the probable date of the Exodus from Scripture … A biblical text for the Exodus is 1 Kings 6:1 which says:
“In the four hundred and eightieth year after the people of Israel came out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon’s reign over Israel, in the month of Ziv, which is the second month, he began to build the house of the Lord.”

Most evangelical scholars generally believe the date for the commencement of the building of the Temple (the fourth year of Solomon’s reign) is in May 967 or 966 BC. This would place the Exodus at around 1446 or 1445 BC. To prefer a late Exodus date of 1267 BC, the 480th year referred to in Scripture would have to be allegorized.

Mahoney then visits the site of ancient Avaris in northern Egypt and meets with renowned Austrian archaeologist Manfred Bietak who has been digging in Egypt for over 25 years. Avaris sits directly south and even partly underneath the later city that Ramses II established, and Bietak says this city was occupied by what the Egyptians would call ‘Asiatics’.

Manfred-Bietak

Archaeologist Manfred Bietak at the Avaris site

Bietak (a non-believer) says:

“We uncovered the remains of a huge town of 250 hectares with a population of 25,000–30,000 individuals. These were people who originated from Canaan, Syria–Palestine. Originally they may have come here as subjects of the Egyptian crown or with the blessing of the Egyptian crown. Obviously, this town enjoyed something like a special status, like a free zone, something like that.”

In addition, they have uncovered 12 tombs of leaders (12 tribes) and a lot of other evidence that circumstantially seems to fit very well with the biblical account where the pharaoh of the day allowed the Hebrews to freely settle in Egypt. Their method of burial is also unlike Egyptian practices of the day. Bietak goes on to say that this is evidence of sheepherders having roamed around in the area. But amazingly Bietak then displays his bias when he says he does not think this is a settlement of Hebrews as described in the Bible because it is too early (if Ramses II is the pharaoh of the Exodus). It is an apt example of how presuppositions play a part in interpreting facts even in the area of archaeology.

The wrong pharaoh

It is true that Ramses left no record of a Hebrew people or an Exodus. But if he is the wrong pharaoh then obviously one would not expect to find anything. So, departing from Ramses II and rather than just look for evidence of the Exodus generally, Mahoney tries to look for historical patterns of evidence stretching back before the Exodus, such as the arrival of the Hebrews in Egypt. And he finds plenty.

In addition, the film highlights other circumstantial evidence that might support the biblical account such as the Ipuwer papyrus. This is a document housed in the National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden, Netherlands that possibly refers to some of the plagues of Moses’ time (although written from an Egyptian perspective). Again, this is rejected by the director of said museum because he believes it precedes Ramses II, and thus, is too soon. Also the Brooklyn papyrus mentions the names of some Egyptian slaves that are synonymous with Hebrew names mentioned in the Bible. But most significant is the mention of the nation of Israel from the Merneptah Stele, which was written very shortly after Ramses II’s death during the reign of Ramses’ successor, Merneptah. If Ramses II was the pharaoh of the Exodus then Rohl says this mention of Israel as a nation is too soon for Israel’s establishment—especially given the 40 years of wandering before entering the Promised Land. In addition, there was time needed to conquer cities in that land. However, the information on this stele is not a problem if the Exodus is moved backward in time from Ramses II as many evangelicals believe needs to be done. Most of the aforementioned items though are highly circumstantial and once again there is a lot of debate about their validity from other Bible scholars, including the Merneptah Stele. This is because although it mentions Israel some say it does not qualify them as a complete nation yet. The film highlighted how scholars outright rejected even the remotest possibility that any of these artifacts had to do with the Hebrew people, because it conflicts with established chronology, which are firmly fixed in stone (pun intended).

Where the traditional dates come from

The established Egyptian chronologies rely on one major problematic source; the Egyptian historian Manetho. This was discussed in my Egyptian Chronology article. It would be well worth reading this article to be more acquainted with these problems, as it even shows how supposed Egyptian history (gleaned from artifacts) actually conflicts with itself. But regardless, Manetho’s chronology is still used as the major reference guide for Egyptian history. And like the theory of evolution, nothing is seemingly allowed to challenge it.

For the same reasons that secular scientists will ‘not allow a divine foot in the door’, one cannot help sense the resistance that secular archaeologists have to any information that might support the Bible’s history. After all if the Bible’s history is true, it might mean God really exists and for many that is not an acceptable consideration.

One needs to be careful about jumping on the bandwagon of any chronological revision of Egypt that seemingly solves all the problems. It’s all too easy to be convinced before one hears any contradictory information. The fact that there are a plethora of views among good, Bible-believing scholars, only serves to highlight just how difficult this all is. Obviously, they cannot all be correct. And while not supporting one person’s particular revision, this documentary clearly demonstrates the overdue need for a revision. For the Bible-believing Christian, this documentary is well made, worth seeing and should be an encouragement.

References and notes

  1. For example, see David Rohl’s Revised Egyptian Chronology: A View From Palestine, biblearchaeology.org/post/2007/05/23/David-Rohls-Revised-Egyptian-Chronology-A-View-From-Palestine.aspx, 6 January, 2015. Return to text.
  2. Rabbi David Wolpe, America’s Most Influential Rabbi, 2012 (Newsweek), thelavinagency.com/speaker-rabbi-david-wolpe.html, 2 January, 2015. Return to text.

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Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus     Trailer Update 121714

“Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus” A REVIEW AND VIDEO INTERVIEWS PART 4

Is this a film about science or religion?

Published on Jun 14, 2014

Director Timothy P. Mahoney shares his thoughts about his film, Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus. Is this a scientific or religious film?

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I am going to see this film at a local theater on Monday January 19, 2015 and you can too by going to this website at this link and putting in your zip code to find a theater near you. It will only be out on that one day. It stars Charles Alin,Manfred Bietak,John Bimson,Mansour Boraik,Israel Finkelstein,Norma Franklin,Manis Friedman,David Hartman,James Hoffmeier,Tim Mahoney,Michael Medved,,Benjamin Netanyahu,Shimon Peres,Maarten Rave,David Rohl, Kent Weeks,David Wolpe,Bryant Wood, and I have posted several very good reviews of the film on my blog.  Here is a review below:

PATTERNS OF EVIDENCE

Patterns Leading to Truth and Rational Faith

Content +4
Quality

None Light Moderate Heavy
Language        
Violence        
Sex        
Nudity        

 

Release Date: January 19, 2014

Starring: Narrated by Michael Medved

Genre: Documentary

Audience: Older children to adults

Rating: Not Rated

Runtime: 115 minutes

Distributor: THINKING MAN FILMS

Director: Tim Mahoney

Executive Producer: David Wessner

Producer: Tim Mahoney

Writer: Steve Law, Tim Mahoney

Address Comments To:

Tim Mahoney
THINKING MAN FILMS
6900 WEST LAKE STREET
ST. LOUIS PARK, MN 55426
CONTACT: PWINDAHL@THINKINGMANFILMS.COM

Content:

(CCC, BBB) Extremely Christian, biblical, moral worldview refuting false archeology about the Exodus; no foul language; no violence; no sex; no nudity; and, nothing objectionable.


Summary:

PATTERNS OF EVIDENCE: THE EXODUS is a documentary to find out if the Jews were ever in Egypt, if there ever was a Joseph or a Moses, and if the Jews ever undertook the Exodus. PATTERNS OF EVIDENCE is an extremely important, very educational documentary that refutes theories that the Exodus never happened.


Review:

For hundreds of years, the Bible was the primary history book for Western Civilization. Up to the early 1950s, archeology tried to prove the stories in the Bible. Now, the academic world, especially archeology, has changed sides, even when the evidence clearly supports the biblical account. Today’s archeologists and academics are adamantly opposed to recognize the truth of biblical history. Therefore, PATTERNS OF EVIDENCE: THE EXODUS is extremely important.Director Tim Mahoney goes on a quest in this documentary to find out if the Jews were ever in Egypt, if there ever was a Joseph or a Moses, and if the Jews ever undertook the Exodus. Carefully and methodically, Tim refutes some of modern archeology’s straw man arguments to show that the biblical account has great merit.

For example, most modern archeologists say the Exodus must have taken place under the Pharaoh Ramses, but even so, since it can be shown that there were no plagues, disasters or mass exodus under Ramses, archeologists conclude the Exodus story is a myth. However, Tim shows, with the help of some renowned archeologists, some of whom are agnostics, that there is evidence for Joseph, for the Hebrew people, for the plagues and for the Exodus in an earlier stage of Egyptian history. Thus, below the more modern ruins in Goshen, there are more ancient ruins that clearly show some Semitic or, as the archeologists say, some Canaanite settlers, and these were abandoned suddenly. In fact, there is one home and palace that could easily be identified as Joseph’s, with 12 graves and a pyramid grave with an important ruling Canaanite statue.

Without repeating the information in this documentary movie, it should be noted that the information is so complete and so thorough that several experts changed their position after watching this documentary. That said, this documentary, though beautifully filmed, well photographed and imaginatively illustrated, is not entertainment, but, rather, an educational movie. That doesn’t make it any less important or convincing, but it does make it less entertaining than documentaries designed to be entertaining, such as MARCH OF THE PENGUINS.

It should also be pointed out that many scholars don’t hold to the Ramses theory and do accept the earlier dates for the Hebrew settlement in Egypt, including Professor Thomas Noble from Notre Dame and Professor Bob Brier from Long Island University. Both of these professors are featured in Teaching Company’s Great Courses on the subject of Egypt.


In Brief:

In PATTERNS OF EVIDENCE: THE EXODUS, a feature-length documentary, Director Tim Mahoney goes on a quest to find out if the Jews were ever in Egypt, if there ever was a Joseph or a Moses, and if the Jews ever undertook the Exodus. Carefully, Tim refutes some of modern archeology’s straw man arguments to show that the biblical account has great merit. For example, most modern archeologists say the Exodus must have taken place under the Pharaoh Ramses, but that it’s a false myth because there were no plagues, disasters or mass exodus under Ramses. However, Tim shows, with help of renowned archeologists, that there’s evidence for the Hebrew people, the plagues and the Exodus in an earlier stage of Egyptian history.PATTERNS OF EVIDENCE is beautifully filmed, well photographed and imaginatively illustrated. However, the documentary is not entertainment, but, rather, an educational movie. That doesn’t make it any less important or convincing, but it does make it less entertaining than documentaries designed to be entertaining. PATTERNS OF EVIDENCE is an extremely important documentary that affirms the story of Moses and the Exodus.

Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus     Trailer Update 121714

“Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus” A REVIEW AND VIDEO INTERVIEWS PART 3

Who will like this film?

Published on May 7, 2014

Timothy P Mahoney, Director Interview 050714

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I am going to see this film at a local theater on Monday January 19, 2015 and you can too by going to this website at this link and putting in your zip code to find a theater near you. It will only be out on that one day. It stars Charles Alin,Manfred Bietak,John Bimson,Mansour Boraik,Israel Finkelstein,Norma Franklin,Manis Friedman,David Hartman,James Hoffmeier,Tim Mahoney,Michael Medved,,Benjamin Netanyahu,Shimon Peres,Maarten Rave,David Rohl, Kent Weeks,David Wolpe,Bryant Wood, and I have posted several very good reviews of the film on my blog.  Here is a review below:

 

A review by Ken Ham:

Are you equipped to answer skeptical questions about the biblical Exodus, especially now with the recent Christian Bale film on Moses and the Exodus being on many people’s minds? Most scholars and archaeologists today will tell you that there is no evidence for the Exodus of Moses and the Israelites from Egypt, but is this really so? What if they’ve simply been looking in the wrong place and time? An engaging new documentary, Patterns of Evidence: Exodus, seeks to wrestle with and answer these questions. This gripping film, shot on location in places like Egypt and Israel, is filled with useful apologetics information.

This documentary—which was 12 years in the making!—is being released at the perfect time, just a few weeks after the theatrical release of Bale’s Exodus: Gods and Kings (you can read our review of that movie here). Instead of treating the biblical account of the Exodus as a literary piece of fiction, this new documentary explores Egyptian archaeology to discover evidence for the event. You will see how archaeology even confirms the biblical account of Joseph, the multiplication and enslavement of the Israelite people, the plagues on Egypt, the Exodus out of Egypt, and the conquest of Canaan. Despite the claims of skeptical scholars, the evidence is out there if you look in the right place and time! You can watch the official trailer below.

Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus     Trailer Update 121714

“Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus” A REVIEW AND VIDEO INTERVIEWS PART 2

What separates this film from others?

Published on Jul 20, 2014

Is the story in the Bible True? Or is is false? Director Timothy P. Mahoney discusses his new film, Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus. He relates that the film is structured in a way that lays all of the evidence without a bias one way or another and allows the viewer to decide for themselves.

Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus     Trailer Update 121714

“Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus” A REVIEW AND VIDEO INTERVIEWS PART 1

Rabbi David Wolpe in “Patterns Of Evidence: The Exodus”

Published on Jun 27, 2014

Rabbi David Wolpe is interviewed by radio talk show host and Author, Michael Medved in “Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus”

Patterns of Evidence: The Exodus     Trailer Update 121714