FRANCIS SCHAEFFER ANALYZES ART AND CULTURE Part 314 (Letter to Richard Dawkins about Dewayne Bryant quote “Archaeology demonstrates solid connections between the biblical record and ancient history, in contrast to Christopher Hitchens’ assertion that it is an implausible record”) Featured artist is René Magritte

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Richard Dawkins and Ricky Gervais

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Francis Schaeffer below:

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Richard Dawkins vs John Lennox | The God Delusion Debate

Ben Stein vs. Richard Dawkins Interview


XXXX Peter Singer – The Genius of Darwin: The Uncut Interviews – Richard Dawkins

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Science Confirms the Bible with Ken Ham

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Schaeffer with his wife Edith in Switzerland.


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Richard Dawkins and John Lennox

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DawkinsWard

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Francis and Edith Schaeffer seen below:

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Image result for francis schaeffer c. everett koop whatever happened to human race?

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Dawkins, Hitchens, Dennett, Harris 

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Canary Islands 2014: Harold Kroto and Richard Dawkins

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Francis Schaeffer pictured below:

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The Basis of Human Dignity by Francis Schaeffer

Richard Dawkins, founder of the Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science. Credit: Don Arnold Getty Images

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September 30, 2019

Richard Dawkins c/o Richard Dawkins Foundation, 
Washington, DC 20005

Dear Mr. Dawkins,

i have enjoyed reading about a dozen of your books and some of the most intriguing were The God DelusionAn Appetite for Wonder: The Making of a Scientist, and Brief Candle in the Dark: My Life in Science.

I am looking forward to reading Outgrowing God which is your latest book, and I have been reading several reviews of it. The best interviewer is Krishnan Guru-Murthy in my opinion. He did a great job of asking you some very insightful questions, and I thought your answers gave the audience a good feel for what is in the book.

I tweeted this out in response to what Dawkins said in the above interview with Krishnan:

Dawkins says Religion was invented to explain why crops failed, but there is evidence that the Bible is true thedailyhatch.org/2019/09/11/how…

Archaeology and the new Atheism:The Plausibility of the Biblical Record,” Apologetic Press. Dewayne Bryant is the author and in the first portion he notes: 

Archaeology demonstrates solid connections between the biblical record and ancient history, in contrast to Christopher Hitchens’ assertion that it is an implausible record. Consider the following:

The Life of Joseph

In the very section of the Bible that Hitchens questions is found some of the most compelling evidence for the historicity of Scripture. As Egyptologist James K. Hoffmeier demonstrates, the story for Joseph rings true with numerous details (Hoffmeier, 1996, pp. 77-98). The 20-shekel price paid for Joseph (Genesis 37:28) is consistent with the price of a slave c. 1700 B.C. Egyptian mummification took about 70 days once the period for mourning was included, which matches the time given for the mummification of Jacob (Genesis 50:3). Examples of non-Egyptians becoming viziers is known from Egyptian sources. Further, it appears that the story of Joseph was put down in writing during the 18th-19th Dynasties in Egypt, the very period during which Moses lived. This idea is borne out by the fact that the Pentateuch uses the name “Pharaoh” (Hebrew phar’oh, Egyptian per-`3) when referring to the king of Egypt. During this time, the term was a generic one referring to the king, similar to referring to the U.S. President as “the White House,” or to the British monarch as “the Crown.” Prior to this time, the name of the king was used, and afterward sources mention the monarch as “Pharaoh X” or “X, king of Egypt”—as in the case of pharaohs Shishak (1 Kings 11:40; 2 Chronicles 12:2) and Neco (2 Kings 23:29).

The United Monarchy

David’s existence has been questioned frequently. Examples of petty monarchs ruling miniscule kingdoms in the Near East find rare mention in ancient sources, yet generally their historicity is taken at face value with minimal skepticism. Even Gilgamesh, the hero of the Epic of Gilgamesh, is thought to have been a historical figure ruling in Mesopotamia between 2600-2700 B.C. based on a reference in the famous Sumerian king list. Yet, David’s historicity is viewed with extreme suspicion, even though there are references to David found in the Tel Dan Inscription and the Moabite Stone, as well as numerous references in the Hebrew Bible. Indeed, Gilgamesh is thought to have been a real person despite being the semi-divine hero in a mythical composition, which also includes such fantastic details as a beast-man named Enkidu, a divinely sent creature of destruction called the Bull of Heaven, and a plant that can grant the person who eats it eternal life. David is frequently labeled a myth despite the solid evidence in favor of his existence.

The Divided Monarchy

Archaeology has vindicated the Bible’s mention of several figures that were once thought to have been fictional. The existence of Sargon (Isaiah 20:1) was questioned until a relief bearing his image was found in the throne room of his capital city of Dur-Sharrukin (“Fort Sargon”). Belshazzar (Daniel 5:1) was likewise questioned because Babylonian documents listed Nabonidus as the last king of the Babylonian empire. Scholars uncovered ancient evidence showing that Belshazzar co-ruled with his father Nabonidus, ruling from the city while Nabonidus sat for 10 years in self-imposed exile. Additional figures such as Sanballat (the governor of Samaria), Tobiah, Geshem (Nehemiah 2:10), and perhaps even Balaam (Numbers 22-24) have all been located in an extrabiblical source called the Deir ‘Alla Inscription written during this period (Mazar, 1990, p. 330).

The Life of Christ

Archaeology does not always mention any one individual, and in the case of Christ, more substantial evidence comes from history rather than archaeology. One significant find is the 1990 discovery of the ossuary (bone box) of Joseph Caiaphas, high priest at the time of Jesus’ trial and crucifixion (John 11:49-53). Jesus is mentioned by the Roman writers Suetonius and Tacitus, the Roman governor Pliny the Younger, and is indirectly referenced by the Greek satirist Lucian of Samosata. He is also noted in a Jewish composition from the fifth century called the Toledoth Jesu, which gives an alternate explanation for the empty tomb from a hostile source. Jesus is far from the “myth” critics claim Him to be.

The Early Church

Inscriptions have revealed the names of numerous individuals mentioned in the New Testament. Gallio, proconsul of Achaia (Acts 18:12-17), is mentioned in an inscription found at the city of Delphi. Paul’s friend Erastus (Acts 19:22) is likely mentioned in an inscription found at Corinth. Sergius Paulus, mentioned as the first convert on the island of Cyprus, was proconsul (a Roman governor) when the apostle Paul visited the island (Acts 13:7). He is mentioned in an inscription found near Paphos (Reed, 2007, p. 13).

After the evidence is surveyed, it is apparent that much of the criticism of the Bible arises—not from intense scrutiny of the evidence—but from ignorance of it. The overwhelming weight of the archaeological and historical evidence firmly places the Bible in the sphere of reality rather than myth.

REFERENCES

Butt, Kyle and Eric Lyons (2006), Behold! The Lamb of God (Montgomery, AL: Apologetics Press).

Dawkins, Richard (2006), The God Delusion(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin).

Dever, William (2001), “Excavating the Hebrew Bible or Burying It Again?” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 322: 67-77, May.

Dever, William (2005), Did God Have a Wife? (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).

Ehrman, Bart (2005), Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why (New York: HarperSanFrancisco).

Ehrman, Bart (2008), God’s Problem: How the Bible Fails to Answer Our Most Important Question—Why We Suffer (New York: HarperOne).

Ehrman, Bart (2009), Jesus Interrupted: Revealing the Hidden Contradictions in the Bible (and Why We Don’t Know About Them) (New York: HarperOne).

Finkelstein, Israel and Neil Asher Silberman (2001), The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts (New York: Free Press).

Garrett, Duane (2000), Rethinking Genesis: The Sources and Authorship of the First Book of the Pentateuch (Geanies House, Fern: Christian Focus Publications).

Haught, John F. (2008), God and the New Atheism: A Critical Response to Dawkins, Harris, and Hitchens (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox).

Hitchens, Christopher (2007), God is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything(New York: Hachette).

Hoffmeier, James K. (1996), Israel in Egypt: The Evidence for the Authenticity of the Exodus Tradition (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Jackson, Wayne (1991), “Are There Two Creation Accounts in Genesis?” http://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/2194.

Kaiser, Walt C. Jr. (2001), The Old Testament Documents: Are They Reliable and Relevant? (Downers Grove, IL: IVP).

Kitchen, Kenneth A., trans. (2000) “The Battle of Kadesh—The Poem, or Literary Record,” The Context of Scripture, Volume Two: Monumental Inscriptions Form the Biblical World (Leiden: Brill).

Kitchen, Kenneth A. (2003), On the Reliability of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans).

Klinghoffer, David (2007), “Prophets of the New Atheism,” http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/opinion/2003653502_klinghoffer06.html.

Lazare, Daniel (2002), “False Testament: Archaeology Refutes the Bible’s Claim to History,” Harper’s Magazine, 304/1822:39-47, March.

Levin, Yigal (2002), “Let There Be Light,” Harper’s Magazine, 304[1825]:4, June.

Lucian of Samosata (no date), “The Death of Peregrine,” in H.W. Fowler and F.G. Fowler (1905), The Works of Lucian of Samosata (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Mazar, Amihai (1990), Archaeology of the Land of the Bible, 10,000-586 B.C.E.(New York: Doubleday).

Meyers, P.Z. (2006), “The Courtier’s Reply,” http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2006/12/the_courtiers_reply.php.

Miller, Dave (2003), “The Genealogies of Matthew and Luke,” http://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/1834.

Mills, David (2006), Atheist Universe: The Thinking Person’s Answer to Christian Fundamentalism (Berkley, CA: Ulysses Press).

Prophet, Sean (2008), “Pastor Acknowledges Arguments of New Atheism,” http://www.blacksunjournal.com/atheism/1397_pastor-acknowledges-arguments-of-new-atheism_2008.html.

Reed, Jonathan (2007), The HarperCollins Visual Guide to the New Testament: What Archaeology Reveals about the First Christians (New York: HarperOne).

Sherwin-White, Adrian Nicholas (1963), Roman Society and Roman Law in the New Testament(Oxford: Clarendon).

Wolf, Gary (2006), “Church of the Non-Believers,” http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.11/atheism.html

EDITOR’S NOTES: The original article can be found at: http://www.apologeticspress.org/apPubPage.aspx?pub=1&issue=968

As of April 8, 2011, Dewayne Bryant holds two Masters degrees, and is completing Masters study in Ancient Near Eastern Archaeology and Languages at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, while pursuing doctoral studies at Amridge University. He has participated in an archaeological dig at Tell El-Borg in Egypt and holds professional membership in the American Schools of Oriental Research, the Society of Biblical Literature, and the Archaeological Institute of America.

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The answer to find meaning in life is found in putting your faith and trust in Jesus Christ. The Bible is true from cover to cover and can be trusted.

Thank you again for your time and I know how busy you are.

Everette Hatcher, everettehatcher@gmail.comhttp://www.thedailyhatch.org, cell ph 501-920-5733, Box 23416, LittleRock, AR 72221, United States

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Francis Schaeffer in 1984

Christian Manifesto by Francis Schaeffer

Francis Schaeffer in 1982

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Whatever Happened to the Human Race? Episode 1

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Garik Israelian, Stephen Hawking, Alexey Leonov, Brian May, Richard Dawkins and Harry Kroto

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Dark History of Evolution-Henry Morris, Ph.D.

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Featured artist is René Magritte

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to search“Magritte” redirects here. For the asteroid named after the artist, see 7933 Magritte.

René Magritte
Portrait of Magritte in front of his painting The Pilgrim, taken by Lothar Wolleh in 1967
BornRené François Ghislain Magritte
21 November 1898
Lessines, Belgium
Died15 August 1967 (aged 68)
Brussels, Belgium
NationalityBelgian
Known forPainter
Notable workThe Treachery of Images
The Son of Man
The Human Condition
Golconda
The Menaced Assassin
MovementSurrealism

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René François Ghislain Magritte (French: [ʁəne fʁɑ̃swa ɡilɛ̃ maɡʁit]; 21 November 1898 – 15 August 1967) was a Belgian Surrealist artist. He became well known for creating a number of witty and thought-provoking images. Often depicting ordinary objects in an unusual context, his work is known for challenging observers’ preconditioned perceptions of reality. His imagery has influenced pop artminimalist art and conceptual art.

Contents

Early life[edit]

René Magritte was born in Lessines, in the province of Hainaut, Belgium, in 1898. He was the oldest son of Léopold Magritte, a tailor and textile merchant,[1] and Régina (née Bertinchamps), who was a milliner before she got married. Little is known about Magritte’s early life. He began lessons in drawing in 1910.

On 12 March 1912, his mother committed suicide by drowning herself in the River Sambre. This was not her first attempt at taking her own life; she had made many over a number of years, driving her husband Léopold to lock her into her bedroom. One day she escaped, and was missing for days. Her body was later discovered a mile or so down the nearby river.

According to a legend, 13-year-old Magritte was present when her body was retrieved from the water, but recent research has discredited this story, which may have originated with the family nurse.[2] Supposedly, when his mother was found, her dress was covering her face, an image that has been suggested as the source of several of Magritte’s paintings in 1927–1928 of people with cloth obscuring their faces, including Les Amants.[3]

Career[edit]

Magritte’s earliest paintings, which date from about 1915, were Impressionistic in style.[2] During 1916–1918, he studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels,[4] under Constant Montald, but found the instruction uninspiring.[2] He also took classes at the Académie Royale from the painter and poster designer Gisbert Combaz.[5] The paintings he produced during 1918–1924 were influenced by Futurism and by the figurative Cubism of Metzinger.[2]

From December 1920 until September 1921, Magritte served in the Belgian infantry in the Flemish town of Beverlo near Leopoldsburg. In 1922, Magritte married Georgette Berger, whom he had met as a child in 1913.[1] Also during 1922, the poet Marcel Lecomte showed Magritte a reproduction of Giorgio de Chirico‘s “The Song of Love” (painted in 1914). The work brought Magritte to tears; he described this as “one of the most moving moments of my life: my eyes saw thought for the first time.”[6]

In 1922–1923, Magritte worked as a draughtsman in a wallpaper factory, and was a poster and advertisement designer until 1926, when a contract with Galerie Le Centaure in Brussels made it possible for him to paint full-time. In 1926, Magritte produced his first surreal painting, The Lost Jockey (Le jockey perdu), and held his first solo exhibition in Brussels in 1927.[4] Critics heaped abuse on the exhibition.

Depressed by the failure, he moved to Paris where he became friends with André Breton and became involved in the Surrealist group. An illusionistic, dream-like quality is characteristic of Magritte’s version of Surrealism. He became a leading member of the movement, and remained in Paris for three years.[7] In 1929 he exhibited at Goemans Gallery in Paris with Salvador DalíJean Arp, de Chirico, Max ErnstJoan MiróPicabiaPicasso and Yves Tanguy.

On 15 December 1929 he participated in the last publication of La Revolution Surrealiste No. 12, where he published his essay “Les mots et les images”, where words play with images in sync with his work The Treachery of images.[8]

Galerie Le Centaure closed at the end of 1929, ending Magritte’s contract income. Having made little impact in Paris, Magritte returned to Brussels in 1930 and resumed working in advertising.[9] He and his brother, Paul, formed an agency which earned him a living wage. In 1932, Magritte joined the Communist Party, which he would periodically leave and rejoin for several years.[9] In 1936 he had his first solo exhibition in the United States at the Julien Levy Gallery in New York, followed by an exposition at the London Gallery in 1938.

During the early stages of his career, the British surrealist patron Edward James allowed Magritte to stay rent-free in his London home, where Magritte studied architecture and painted. James is featured in two of Magritte’s works painted in 1937, Le Principe du Plaisir (The Pleasure Principle) and La Reproduction Interdite, a painting also known as Not to Be Reproduced.[10]

During the German occupation of Belgium in World War II he remained in Brussels, which led to a break with Breton. He briefly adopted a colorful, painterly style in 1943–44, an interlude known as his “Renoir period”, as a reaction to his feelings of alienation and abandonment that came with living in German-occupied Belgium.

In 1946, renouncing the violence and pessimism of his earlier work, he joined several other Belgian artists in signing the manifesto Surrealism in Full Sunlight.[11] During 1947–48, Magritte’s “Vache period,” he painted in a provocative and crude Fauve style. During this time, Magritte supported himself through the production of fake Picassos, Braques, and de Chiricos—a fraudulent repertoire he was later to expand into the printing of forged banknotes during the lean postwar period. This venture was undertaken alongside his brother Paul and fellow Surrealist and “surrogate son” Marcel Mariën, to whom had fallen the task of selling the forgeries.[12] At the end of 1948, Magritte returned to the style and themes of his pre-war surrealistic art.

In France, Magritte’s work has been showcased in a number of retrospective exhibitions, most recently at the Centre Georges Pompidou (2016–2017). In the United States his work has been featured in three retrospective exhibitions: at the Museum of Modern Art in 1965, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1992, and again at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 2013. An exhibition entitled “The Fifth Season” at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in 2018 focused on the work of his later years.

Politically, Magritte stood to the left, and retained close ties to the Communist Party, even in the post-war years. However, he was critical of the functionalist cultural policy of the Communist left, stating that “Class consciousness is as necessary as bread; but that does not mean that workers must be condemned to bread and water and that wanting chicken and champagne would be harmful. (…) For the Communist painter, the justification of artistic activity is to create pictures that can represent mental luxury.” While remaining committed to the political left, he thus advocated a certain autonomy of art.[13][14] Spiritually, Magritte was an agnostic.[15]

Popular interest in Magritte’s work rose considerably in the 1960s, and his imagery has influenced popminimalist, and conceptual art.[16] In 2005 he was 9th in the Walloon version of De Grootste Belg (The Greatest Belgian); in the Flemish version he was 18th.

Personal life[edit]

Magritte married Georgette Berger in June 1922. Georgette was the daughter of a butcher in Charleroi, and first met Magritte when she was 13 and he was 15. They met again 7 years later in Brussels in 1920[17] and Georgette, who had also studied art, became Magritte’s model, muse, and wife.

In 1936 Magritte’s marriage became troubled when he met a young performance artist, Sheila Legge, and began an affair with her. Magritte arranged for his friend, Paul Colinet, to entertain and distract Georgette, but this led to an affair between Georgette and Colinet. Magritte and his wife did not reconcile until 1940.[18]

Magritte died of pancreatic cancer on 15 August 1967, aged 68, and was interred in Schaerbeek CemeteryEvere, Brussels.

Philosophical and artistic gestures[edit]

The Empire of Light, c. 1950–1954, Museum of Modern ArtIt is a union that suggests the essential mystery of the world. Art for me is not an end in itself, but a means of evoking that mystery.

René Magritte on putting seemingly unrelated objects together in juxtaposition[19]

Magritte’s work frequently displays a collection of ordinary objects in an unusual context, giving new meanings to familiar things. The use of objects as other than what they seem is typified in his painting,[20] The Treachery of Images (La trahison des images), which shows a pipe that looks as though it is a model for a tobacco store advertisement. Magritte painted below the pipe “Ceci n’est pas une pipe” (“This is not a pipe”),[21] which seems a contradiction, but is actually true: the painting is not a pipe, it is an image of a pipe. It does not “satisfy emotionally”—when Magritte was once asked about this image, he replied that of course it was not a pipe, just try to fill it with tobacco.[22]

Ceci n’est pas une pipeMENU0:00A man saying the phrase Ceci n’est pas une pipe
Problems playing this file? See media help.

Magritte used the same approach in a painting of an apple: he painted the fruit and then used an internal caption or framing device to deny that the item was an apple. In these “Ceci n’est pas” works, Magritte points out that no matter how naturalistically we depict an object, we never do catch the item itself.

Among Magritte’s works are a number of surrealist versions of other famous paintings. Elsewhere, Magritte challenges the difficulty of artwork to convey meaning with a recurring motif of an easel, as in his The Human Condition series (1933, 1935) or The Promenades of Euclid (1955), wherein the spires of a castle are “painted” upon the ordinary streets which the canvas overlooks. In a letter to André Breton, he wrote of The Human Condition that it was irrelevant if the scene behind the easel differed from what was depicted upon it, “but the main thing was to eliminate the difference between a view seen from outside and from inside a room.”[23] The windows in some of these pictures are framed with heavy drapes, suggesting a theatrical motif.[24]

Magritte’s style of surrealism is more representational than the “automatic” style of artists such as Joan Miró. Magritte’s use of ordinary objects in unfamiliar spaces is joined to his desire to create poetic imagery. He described the act of painting as “the art of putting colors side by side in such a way that their real aspect is effaced, so that familiar objects—the sky, people, trees, mountains, furniture, the stars, solid structures, graffiti—become united in a single poetically disciplined image. The poetry of this image dispenses with any symbolic significance, old or new.”[25]

René Magritte described his paintings as “visible images which conceal nothing; they evoke mystery and, indeed, when one sees one of my pictures, one asks oneself this simple question, ‘What does that mean?’. It does not mean anything, because mystery means nothing either, it is unknowable.”[26]

Magritte’s constant play with reality and illusion has been attributed to the early death of his mother. Psychoanalysts who have examined bereaved children have hypothesized that Magritte’s back and forth play with reality and illusion reflects his “constant shifting back and forth from what he wishes—’mother is alive’—to what he knows—’mother is dead’.”[27]

Artists influenced by Magritte[edit]

Contemporary artists have been greatly influenced by René Magritte’s stimulating examination of the fickleness of images. Some artists who have been influenced by Magritte’s works include John BaldessariEd RuschaAndy WarholJasper JohnsJan VerdoodtMartin KippenbergerDuane MichalsStorm Thorgerson, and Luis Rey. Some of the artists’ works integrate direct references and others offer contemporary viewpoints on his abstract fixations.[28]

Magritte’s use of simple graphic and everyday imagery has been compared to that of the pop artists. His influence in the development of pop art has been widely recognized,[29] although Magritte himself discounted the connection. He considered the pop artists’ representation of “the world as it is” as “their error,” and contrasted their attention to the transitory with his concern for “the feeling for the real, insofar as it is permanent.”[29] The 2006–2007 LACMA exhibition “Magritte and Contemporary Art: The Treachery of Images” examined the relationship between Magritte and contemporary art.[30]

In popular culture[edit]

500 francs showing portrait of Magritte

The 1960s brought a great increase in public awareness of Magritte’s work.[16] Thanks to his “sound knowledge of how to present objects in a manner both suggestive and questioning”, his works have been frequently adapted or plagiarized in advertisements, posters, book covers and the like.[31] Examples include album covers such as Beck-Ola by The Jeff Beck Group (reproducing Magritte’s The Listening Room), Alan Hull‘s 1973 album Pipedream which used The Philosopher’s LampJackson Browne‘s 1974 album Late for the Sky, with artwork inspired by The Empire of LightOregon‘s album Oregon referring to Carte Blanche, the Firesign Theatre‘s album Just Folks… A Firesign Chat based on The Mysteries of the Horizon, and Styx‘s album The Grand Illusion incorporating an adaptation of the painting The Blank Check. The Nigerian rapper Jesse Jagz’s 2014 album Jagz Nation Vol. 2: Royal Niger Company has cover art inspired by Magritte’s works.[32] In 2015 the band Punch Brothers used The Lovers as the cover of their album The Phosphorescent Blues.

The logo of Apple CorpsThe Beatles‘ company, is inspired by Magritte’s Le Jeu de Mourre, a 1966 painting.

Paul Simon‘s song “Rene and Georgette Magritte with Their Dog after the War,” inspired by a photograph of Magritte by Lothar Wolleh, appears on the 1983 album Hearts and Bones.

John Cale wrote a song titled “Magritte”. The song appears on the 2003 album HoboSapiens.

Tom Stoppard wrote a Surrealist play called After Magritte.

John Berger scripted the book Ways of Seeing using images and ideologies regarding Magritte. Douglas Hofstadter‘s book Gödel, Escher, Bach uses Magritte works for many of its illustrations. The Treachery of Images was used in a major plot in L. J. Smith‘s The Forbidden Game.

Magritte’s imagery has inspired filmmakers ranging from the surrealist Marcel Mariën to mainstream directors such as Jean-Luc GodardAlain Robbe-GrilletBernardo BertolucciNicolas RoegJohn Boorman and Terry Gilliam.[33][34][35]

According to Ellen Burstyn, in the 1998 documentary The Fear of God: 25 Years of “The Exorcist”, the iconic poster shot for the film The Exorcist was inspired by Magritte’s L’Empire des Lumières.

In the 1992 movie Toys, Magritte’s work was influential in the entire movie but specifically in a break-in scene, featuring Robin Williams and Joan Cusack in a music video hoax. Many of Magritte’s works were used directly in that scene.

In the 1999 movie The Thomas Crown Affair starring Pierce BrosnanRene Russo and Denis Leary, the Magritte painting The Son of Man was prominently featured as part of the plot line.

Gary Numan‘s 1979 album The Pleasure Principle was a reference to Magritte’s painting of the same name.

In John Green’s fictional novel (2012) and movie (2014), The Fault In Our Stars, the main character Hazel Grace Lancaster wears a tee shirt with Magritte’s, The Treachery of Images, (This is not a pipe.) Just prior to leaving her mother to visit her favorite author, Hazel explains the drawing to her confused mother and states that the author’s novel has “several Magritte references”, clearly hoping the author will be pleased with the reference.

The official music video of Markus Schulz‘s “Koolhaus” under his Dakota guise was inspired from Magritte’s works.[36]

A street in Brussels has been named Ceci n’est pas une rue (This is not a street).[37]

Magritte Museum[edit]

Main article: Magritte Museum

The Magritte Museum opened to the public on 30 May 2009 in Brussels.[38] Housed in the five-level neo-classical Hotel Altenloh, on the Place Royale, it displays some 200 original Magritte paintings, drawings and sculptures[39] including The ReturnScheherazade and The Empire of Lights.[40] This multidisciplinary permanent installation is the biggest Magritte archive anywhere and most of the work is directly from the collection of the artist’s widow, Georgette Magritte, and from Irene Hamoir Scutenaire, who was his primary collector.[41] Additionally, the museum includes Magritte’s experiments with photography from 1920 on and the short Surrealist films he made from 1956 on.[41]

Another museum is located at 135 Rue Esseghem in Brussels in Magritte’s former home, where he lived with his wife from 1930 to 1954. A painting, Olympia (1948), a nude portrait of Magritte’s wife by Magritte, was stolen from this museum on the morning of 24 September 2009 by two armed men. The stolen work is said to be worth about US$1.1 million.[42][43][44] Olympia was returned to the museum early January 2012. The thieves returned the painting because they were unable to sell it on the black market due to its fame.[45]

Selected list of works[edit]

  • 1920 Landscape
  • 1922 The Station and L’Écuyère
  • 1923 Self-portraitSixth NocturneGeorgette at the Piano and Donna
  • 1925 The Bather and The Window
  • 1926 The Lost JockeyThe Mind of the TravelerSensational NewsThe Difficult CrossingThe Vestal’s AgonyThe Midnight MarriageThe Musings of a Solitary WalkerAfter the Water my ButtsPopular PanoramaLandscape and The Encounter
  • 1927 The Enchanted Pose
  • 1927 Young Girl Eating a BirdThe Oasis (started in 1925), Le Double SecretThe Meaning of NightLet Out of SchoolThe Man from the SeaThe Tiredness of LifeThe Light-breakerA Passion for LightThe Menaced AssassinReckless SleeperLa VoleuseThe Fast HopeL’Atlantide and The Muscles of the Sky
  • 1928 The Lining of Sleep (started in 1927), Intermission (started in 1927), The Adulation of Space (started in 1927), The Flowers of the AbyssDiscoveryThe Lovers I & II,[3] The Voice of SpaceThe False MirrorThe Daring SleeperThe Acrobat’s IdeasThe AutomatonThe Empty MaskReckless SleeperThe Secret Life and Attempting the Impossible
  • 1929 The Treachery of Images (started in 1928), Threatening Weather and On the Threshold of Liberty
  • 1930 Pink Belles, Tattered SkiesThe Eternally ObviousThe LifelineThe Annunciation and Celestial Perfections
  • 1931 The Voice of the AirSummer and The Giantess
  • 1932 The Universe Unmasked
  • 1933 Elective AffinitiesThe Human Condition and The Unexpected Answer
  • 1934 The Rape
  • 1935 The Discovery of FireThe Human ConditionRevolutionPerpetual MotionCollective Invention and The Portrait
  • 1936 Surprise AnswerClairvoyanceThe HealerThe Philosopher’s LampSpiritual ExercisesPortrait of Irène HamoirLa Méditation and Forbidden Literature
  • 1937 The Future of StatuesThe Black FlagNot to be ReproducedPortrait of Edward James and Portrait of Rena SchitzOn the Threshold of Liberty
  • 1938 Time TransfixedThe Domain of Arnheim and Steps of Summer
  • 1939 VictoryThe Palace of Memories
  • 1940 The ReturnThe Wedding Breakfast and Les Grandes Espérances
  • 1941 The Break in the Clouds
  • 1942 Misses de L’Isle AdamL’Ile au TrésonMemoryBlack MagicLes compagnons de la peur and The Misanthropes
  • 1943 The Return of the FlameUniversal Gravitation and Monsieur Ingres’s Good Days
  • 1944 The Good Omens
  • 1945 Treasure IslandLes Rencontres Naturelles and Black Magic
  • 1946 L’Intelligence and Les Mille et une Nuits
  • 1947 La Philosophie dans le boudoirThe CiceroneThe LiberatorThe Fair CaptiveLa Part du Feu and The Red Model
  • 1948 Blood Will TellMemoryThe Mountain DwellerThe Art of LifeThe Pebble,The Lost JockeyGod’s SolonShéhérazadeL’Ellipse and Famine and The Taste of Sorrow
  • 1949 MegalomaniaElementary Cosmogany, and Perspective, the Balcony
  • 1950 Making an EntranceThe Legend of the CenturiesTowards PleasureThe Labors of AlexanderThe Empire of Light IIThe Fair Captive and The Art of ConversationThe Survivor
  • 1951 David’s Madame Récamier (parodying the Portrait of Madame Récamier), Pandora’s BoxThe Song of the VioletThe Spring Tide and The Smile
  • 1952 Personal V

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